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A GRAMMAR OF 



MODERN 



INDO-EUROPEAN 



First Edition 



Language and Culture 

Writing System and Phonology 

Morphology 

Syntax 




DNGHU Carlos Quiles 



Modesni Sindhueuropai Grbhmntika 

Apo Gorilos Kuriaki 1 eti alios dug tores 



Publisher : Asociacion Cultural Dnghu 

Pub. Date : July 2007 

ISBN : 978-84-611-7639-7 

Leg. Dep. : SE-4405-2007 U.E. 

Pages : 390 



Copyright © 2007-2009 Asociacion Cultural Dnghu 

© 2006-2009 Carlos Quiles Casas. 

Printed in the European Union. 

Published by the Indo-European Language Association. 

Content revised and corrected by Indo-Europeanist M.Phil. Fernando Lopez-Menchero Diez. 

Edition Managed by Imcrea Diseno Editorial ® at <http://iviviv.imcrea.com/> . 



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While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and authors assume no 
responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. 

For corrections, translations and newer versions of this free (e)book, please visit 
<http://dnghu.org/en/Indo-E11ropeangrammar/> 



Table of Contents 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 

PREFACE 9 

Preface To The First Edition 11 

What's New in This Edition 15 

Acknowledgements 17 

Conventions Used in this Book 18 

1. INTRODUCTION 23 

1.1. The Indo-European Language Family 23 

1.2. Traditional Views 25 

1.3. The Theory of the Three Stages 27 

1.4. The Proto-Indo-European Urheimat or 'Homeland' 31 

1.5. Other Linguistic and Archaeological Theories 35 

1.6. Relationship to Other Languages 37 

1.7. Indo-European Dialects of Europe 39 

Schleicher's Fable: From Proto-Indo-European to Modern English 39 

1.7.1. Northern Indo-European dialects 42 

1.7.2. Southern Indo-European Dialects 62 

1.7.3. Other Indo-European Dialects of Europe 70 

1.7.4. Anatolian Languages 7# 

1.8. Modern Indo-European 81 

2. LETTERS AND SOUNDS 85 

2.1 The Alphabets of Modern Indo-European 85 

A. Vowels and Vocalic Allophones 85 

B. Consonants and Consonantal Sounds 86 

2.2. Classification of Sounds 88 

2.3. Sounds of the Letters 89 

2.4. Syllables 92 

2.5. Quantity 93 

2.6. Accent 94 

2.7. Vowel Change 95 

2.8. Consonant Change 96 

2.9. Peculiarities of Orthography 99 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

2.10. Kindred Forms 102 

3. WORDS AND THEIR FORMS 103 

3.1. The Parts of Speech 103 

3.2. Inflection 104 

3.3. Root, Stem and Base 105 

3.4. Gender 106 

3.5. General Rules of Gender 109 

3.6. Vowel Grade 111 

3.7. Word Formation 112 

4. NOUNS 115 

4.1. Declension of Nouns 115 

4.2. First Declension 117 

4.2.1. First Declension 117 

4.2.2. First Declension in Examples 118 

4.2.3. The Plural in the First Declension 119 

4.3. Second Declension 120 

4.3.1. Second Declension 120 

4.3.2. Second Declension in Examples 120 

4.5.3. The Plural in the Second Declension 121 

4.4. Third Declension 122 

4.4.1. Third Declension Paradigm 122 

4.4.2. In i, u 123 

4.4.3. In Diphthong 124 

4.4.4. The Plural in the Third Declension 125 

4.5. Fourth Declension 126 

4.5.1. The Paradigm 126 

4.5.2. In Occlusive, m, 1 127 

4.5.3. Inr,n,s 128 

4.5.4. The Plural in the Fourth Declension 129 

4.6. Variable Nouns 129 



7. Vocalism before the Declension 129 

8. Vocalism in the Plural 131 

9. Accent in Declension 132 

10. Compound Words 133 



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Table of Contents 

5. ADJECTIVES 135 

5.1. Inflection of Adjectives 135 

5.2. The Motion 135 

5.3. Adjective Specialization 136 

5.4. Comparison of Adjectives 137 

5.5. Numerals 138 

5-5-1 ■ Classification of Numerals 138 

5.5.2. Cardinals and Ordinals 138 

5.5.3. Declension of Cardinals and Ordinals 140 

5.5.4. Distributives 142 

5.5.5. Numeral Adverbs 143 

5.5.6. Other Numerals 143 

6. PRONOUNS 145 

6.1. About the Pronouns 145 

6.2. Personal Pronouns 145 

6.3. Reflexive Pronouns 146 

6.4. Possessive Pronouns 147 

6.5. Anaphoric Pronouns 148 

6.6. Demonstrative Pronouns 148 

6.7. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 149 

6.7.1. Introduction 149 

6.7.2. Compounds 151 

6.7.3. Correlatives 151 

6.8. Relative Pronouns 153 

6.9. Identity Pronouns 153 

6.10. Oppositive Pronouns 154 

7. VERBS 155 

7.1. Introduction 155 

7.1.1. Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, Number 155 

7.1.2. Noun and Adjective Forms 157 

7.1.3. Voices 158 

7.1.4. Moods 159 

7.1.5. Tenses of the Finite Verb 160 

7.2. Forms of the Verb 160 

7.2.1. The Verbal Stems 160 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

7.2.2. Verb-Endings 161 

7.2.3. The Thematic Vowel 164 

7.2.4. Verb Creation 165 

7.3. The Conjugations 167 

7.4. The Four Stems 170 

7.5. Mood Stems 186 

7.6. The Voice 188 

7.7. Noun and Adjective Forms 190 

7.8. Conjugated Examples 193 

7.8.1. Thematic Verbs 193 

7.8.2. Athematic Inflection 200 

7.8.3. Other Common PIE Stems 206 

8. PARTICLES 209 

8.1. Particles 209 

8.2. Adverbs 210 

8.3. Derivation of Adverbs 210 

8.4. Prepositions 212 

8.5. Conjunctions 213 

9. PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN SYNTAX 215 

9.1. The Sentence 215 

9.1.1. Kinds of Sentences 216 

9.1.2. Nominal Sentence 216 

9.1.3. Verbal Sentence 218 

9.2. Sentence Modifiers 221 

9.2.1. Intonation Patterns 221 

9.2.2. Sentence Delimiting Particles 222 

9.3. Verbal Modifiers 223 

9.3.1. Declarative Sentences 223 

9.3.2. Interrogative Sentences 224 

9.3.3. Negative Sentences 225 

9.4. Nominal Modifiers 226 

9.4.1. Adjective and Genitive Constructions 226 

9.4.2. Compounds 227 

9.4.3. Determiners in Nominal Phrases 229 

9.4.4. Apposition 232 

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Table of Contents 

9.5. Modified forms of PIE Simple Sentences 233 

9.5.1. Coordination 233 

9.5.2. Complementation 236 

9.5.3. Subordinate Clauses 237 

9.6. Sintactic Categories 242 

9.6.1. Particles as Syntactic Means of Expression 242 

9.6.2. Marked Order in Sentences 245 

9.6.3. Topicalization with Reference to Emphasis 245 

APPENDIX I: INDO-EUROPEAN IN USE 247 

Li. Texts translated Into Modern Indo-European 247 

1. 1.1. Pater Nsere (Lord's Prayer) 247 

L1.2. Slweie Marija (Hail Mary) 248 

L1.3. Kreddhemi (Nicene Creed) 248 

L1.4. Noudos sunus (Parable of the Prodigal Son) 251 

L1.5. Newos Bhoida (New Testament) - Johanes, 1, 1-14 255 

1.2 Komtloqiom (Conversation) 257 

1.3 Late PIE Lexicon 259 

APPENDIX II: PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN PHONOLOGY 303 

11. 1. Dorsals: The Palatovelar Question 303 

11. 2. Phonetic Reconstruction 307 

11.2.1. Proto-Indo-European Sound Laws 307 

11. 2.2. Consonants 314 

11.1.3. Vowels and syllabic consonants 316 

11.3. The Laryngeal Theory 318 

Laryngeals in morphology 325 

Pronunciation 327 

APPENDIX III. PIE REVIVAL FOR A COMMON EUROPE 329 

III.i. Modern Indo-European or the Revived PIE Language 330 

III.2. European Union Inefficiencies 332 

Modern Hebrew and the Land of Israel 334 

IU.3. More than just a Lingua Franca, Europe's National Language 335 

111.4. DNGHU, The Indo-European Language Association 339 

European Union Expenditure 342 

111. 5. Conclusion 343 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

ETYMOLOGICAL NOTES 345 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 435 

GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE 437 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



PREFACE 



This first edition of Dnghu's A Grammar of Modern Indo-European , is a renewed effort to 
systematize the reconstructed phonology and morphology of the Proto-Indo-European language into a 
modern European language, after the free online publication of Europaio: A Brief Grammar of the 
European Language in 2006. 

Modern Indo-European is, unlike Latin, Germanic or Slavic, common to most Europeans, and not 
only to some of them. Unlike Lingua Ignota, Solresol, Volapiik, Esperanto, Quenya, Klingon, Lojban 
and the thousand invented languages which have been created since humans are able to speak, Proto- 
Indo-European is natural, i.e. it evolved from an older language - Middle PIE or IE II, of which we have 
some basic knowledge -, and is believed to have been spoken by prehistoric communities at some time 
roughly between 3000 and 2500 BC, having itself evolved into different dialects by 2500 BC - spoken 
until the split up of proto-languages in 2000 BC -, either from IE Ilia, like Proto-Greek and Proto- 
Indo-Iranian, or from IE Illb, like Europe's Indo-European. 

Proto-Indo-European has been reconstructed in the past two centuries (more or less successfully) by 
hundreds of linguists, having obtained a rough phonological, morphological, and syntactical system, 
equivalent to what Jews had of Old Hebrew before reconstructing a system for its modern use in Israel. 
Instead of some inscriptions and oral transmitted tales for the language to be revived, we have a 
complete reconstructed grammatical system, as well as hundreds of living languages to be used as 
examples to revive a common Modern Indo-European. 

This grammar still focuses on the European Union - and thus the main Proto-Indo-European dialect 
of Europe, Europe's Indo-European -, although it remains clearly usable as a basic approach for the 
other known PIE dialects spoken at the time, like Proto-Anatolian for Turkey, Proto-Greek for Greece 
and Proto-Indo-Iranian for Western and Southern Asia, respectively. In this sense, Proto-European 
might be the best lingua franca for the Americas, while Proto-Aryan is probably the best for Asia. 

The former Dean of the University of Huelva, Classical Languages' philologist and Latin expert, 
considers the Proto-Indo-European language reconstruction an invention; Spanish Indo-Europeanist 
Bernabe has left its work on IE studies to dedicate himself to "something more serious"; Francisco 
Villar, professor of Greek and Latin at the University of Salamanca, deems a complete reconstruction of 
PIE impossible; his opinion is not rare, since he supports the glottalic theory, the Armenian Homeland 
hypothesis, and also the use of Latin instead of English within the EU. The work of Elst, Talageri and 
others defending the 'Indigenous Indo-Aryan' viewpoint by N. Kazanas, and their support of an 
unreconstructible and hypothetical PIE nearest to Vedic Sanskrit opens still more the gap between the 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

mainstream reconstruction and minority views supported by nationalist positions. Also, among 
convinced Indo-Europeanists, there seems to be no possible consensus between the different 'schools' 
as to whether PIE distinguished between 6 and a (as Gk., Lat. or Cel.) or if those vowels were all initial 
a, as in the other attested dialects (Villar), or if the Preterites were only one tense (as Latin 
praeteritum) with different formations, or if there were actually an Aorist and a Perfect. 

Furthermore, Jose Antonio Pascual, a member of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), considers that 
"it is not necessary to be a great sociologist to know that 500 million people won't agree to adopt 
Modern Indo-European in the EU" (Spa. journal El Mundo, 8 th April 2007). Of course not, as they won't 
agree on any possible question - not even on using English, which we use in fact -, and still the 
national and EU's Institutions work, adopting decisions by majorities, not awaiting consensus for any 
question. And it was probably not necessary to be a great sociologist a hundred years ago to see e.g. that 
the revival of Hebrew under a modern language system (an "invention" then) was a Utopia, and that 
Esperanto, the 'easy' and 'neutral' IAL, was going to succeed by their first World Congress in 1905. 

Such learned opinions are only that, opinions, just as if Hebrew and Semitic experts had been 
questioned a hundred years ago about a possible revival of Biblical Hebrew in a hypothetic new Israel. 

Whether MIE's success is more or less probable (and why) is not really important for our current 
work, but a hypothesis which might be dealt with by sociology, anthropology, political science, 
economics and even psychology, not to talk about chance. Whether the different existing social 
movements, such as Pan-Latinism, Pan-Americanism, Pan-Sanskritism, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Iranism, 
Pan-Slavism, Pan-Hispanism, Francophonie, Anglospherism, Atlanticism, and the hundred different 
pan-nationalist positions held by different sectors of societies - as well as the different groups 
supporting anti-globalization, anti-neoliberalism, anti-capitalism, anti-communism, anti- 
occidentalism, etc. - will accept or reject this project remains unclear. 

What we do know now is that the idea of reviving Europe's Indo-European as a modern language for 
Europe and international organizations is not madness, that it is not something new, that it doesn't 
mean a revolution - as the use of Spanglish, Syndarin or Interlingua - nor an involution - as 
regionalism, nationalism, or the come back to French, German or Latin predominance -, but merely 
one of the many different ways in which the European Union linguistic policy could evolve, and maybe 
one way to unite different peoples from different cultures, languages and religions (from the Americas 
to East Asia) for the sake of stable means of communication. Just that tiny possibility is enough for us 
to "lose" some years trying to give our best making the main Proto-Indo-European dialects as usable 
and as known as possible. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Preface 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION 



According to Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan, every language in the world fits into one of four 
categories according to the ways it enters into (what he calls) the global language system. 

• Central : About a hundred languages in the world belong here, widely used and comprising about 
95% of humankind. 

• Supercentral : Each of these serves to connect speakers of central languages. There are only 
twelve supercentral languages, and they are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, 
Hindi, Japanese, Malay, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swahili. 

• Hypercentral : The lone hypercentral language at present is English. It not only connects central 
languages (which is why it is on the previous level) but serves to connect supercentral languages as 
well. Both Spanish and Russian are supercentral languages used by speakers of many languages, 
but when a Spaniard and a Russian want to communicate, they will usually do it in English. 

• Peripheral : All the thousands of other languages on the globe occupy a peripheral position 
because they are hardly or not at all used to connect any other languages. In other words, they are 
mostly not perceived as useful in a multilingual situation and therefore not worth anyone's effort 
to learn. 

De Swaan points out that the admission of new member states to the European Union brings with it 
the addition of more languages, making the polyglot identity of the EU ever more unwieldy and 
expensive. On the other hand, it is clearly politically impossible to settle on a single language for all the 
EU's institutions. It has proved easier for the EU to agree on a common currency than a common 
language. 

Of the EU's current languages, at least 14 are what we might call a 'robust' language, whose speakers 
are hardly likely to surrender its rights. Five of them (English, French, German, Portuguese and 
Spanish) are supercentral languages that are already widely used in international communication, and 
the rest are all central. 

In the ongoing activity of the EU's institutions, there are inevitably shortcuts taken - English, French 
and German are widely used as 'working languages' for informal discussions. But at the formal level all 
the EU's official languages (i.e. the language of each member state) are declared equal. 

Using all these languages is very expensive and highly inefficient. There are now 23 official languages: 
Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, 
Hungarian, Irish Gaelic, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, 
Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish, and three semiofficial (?): Catalan, Basque 

and Galician. This means that all official documents must be translated into all the members' 



11 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

recognized languages, and representatives of each member state have a right to expect a speech in their 
language to be interpreted. And each member state has the right to hear ongoing proceedings 
interpreted into its own language. 

Since each of the twenty one languages needs to be interpreted/translated into all the rest of the 
twenty, 23 x 22 (minus one, because a language doesn't need to be translated into itself) comes to a total 
of 506 combinations (not taking on accound the 'semiofficial' languages). So interpreters/translators 
have to be found for ALL combinations. 

In the old Common Market days the costs of using the official languages Dutch, English, French, and 
German could be borne, and interpreters and translators could be readily found. But as each new 
member is admitted, the costs and practical difficulties are rapidly becoming intolerably burdensome. 

The crucial point here is that each time a new language is added, the total number of combinations isn't additive 
but multiplies: 506 + one language is not 507 but 552, i.e. 24 x 23, since every language has to be 
translated/ interpreted into all the others (except itself). 

It is not hard to see that the celebration of linguistic diversity in the EU only lightly disguises the 
logistical nightmare that is developing. The EU is now preparing for more languages to come: 
Romanian and Bulgarian have been recently added, with the incorporation of these two countries to 
the EU; Albanian, Macedonian, Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian (the three formerly known as 
Serbo-Croatian, but further differentiated after the Yugoslavian wars) if they are admitted to the EU as 
expected; and many other regional languages, following the example of Irish Gaelic, and the three semi- 
official Spanish languages: Alsatian, Breton, Corsican, Welsh, Luxemburgish and Sami are 
likely candidates to follow, as well as Scottish Gaelic, Occitan, Low Saxon, Venetian, 
Piedmontese, Ligurian, Emilian, Sardinian, Neapolitan, Sicilian, Asturian, Aragonese, 
Frisian, Kashubian, Romany, Rusin, and many others, depending on the political pressure their 
speakers and cultural communities can put on EU institutions. It will probably not be long before 
Turkish, and with it Kurdish (and possibly Armenian, Aramaic and Georgian too), or maybe 
Ukrainian, Russian and Belarusian, are other official languages, not to talk about the eternal 
candidates' languages, Norwegian (in at least two of its language systems, Bokmal and Nynorsk), 
Icelandic, Romansh, Monegasque (Monaco) and Emilian-Romagnolo (San Marino), and this 
could bring the number of EU languages over 40. The number of possible combinations are at best 
above 1000, which doesn't seem within the reach of any organization, no matter how well-meaning. 

Many EU administrators feel that to a great extent this diversity can be canceled out by ever- 
increasing reliance on the computer translation that is already in heavy use. It is certainly true that if we 
couldn't count on computers to do a lot of the translation 'heavy lifting', even the most idealistic 
administrator would never even dream of saddling an organization with an enterprise that would 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Preface 

quickly absorb a major part of its finances and energy. But no machine has yet been invented or 
probably ever will be that is able to produce a translation without, at the very least, a final editing by a 
human translator or interpreter. 

The rapidly increasing profusion of languages in the EU is quickly becoming intolerably clumsy and 
prohibitively expensive. And this doesn't even count the additional expense caused by printing in the 
Greek alphabet and soon in the Cyrillic (Bulgarian and Serbian). Everyone agrees that all languages 
must have their 'place in the sun' and their diversity celebrated. But common sense suggests that the EU 
is going to be forced to settle on a very small number of working languages, perhaps only one, and the 
linguistic future of the EU has become the subject of intense debate. 

Only in public numbers, the EU official translation/interpretation costs amount to more than 1.230 
M€, and it comes to more than 13% of today's administrative expenditure of the EU institutions. There 
are also indirect costs of linguistic programmes aimed at promoting the learning of three or more 
languages since the Year of Languages (2001), which also means hundreds of millions of Euros, which 
haven't been counted in the EU's budget as linguistic expenditure, but are usually included in budget 
sections such as Cohesion or Citizenship. It is hard to imagine the huge amount of money (real or 
potential) lost by EU citizens and companies each day because of communication problems, not only 
because they can't speak a third party's language, but because they won't speak it, even if they can. 

Preserving the strict equality is the EU's lifeblood, and it is a very disturbing thought that the strongest 
candidate for a one-language EU is the one with an established dominance in the world, English, 
which is actually only spoken by a minority within Europe. Latin and Artificial languages (as Esperanto, 
Ido or Interlingua) have been proposed as alternatives, but neither the first, because it is only related to 
romance languages, nor the second, because they are (too) artificial (invented by one person or a small 
group at best), solve the linguistic theoretical problems, not to talk about the practical ones. 

The Indo-European language that we present in this work, on the contrary, faces not only the 
addressed theoretical problems - mainly related to cultural heritage and sociopolitical proud - but 
brings also a practical solution for the European Union, without which there can be no real integration. 
European nations are not prepared to give up some of their powers to a greater political entity, unless 
they don't have to give up some fundamental rights. Among them, the linguistic ones have proven 
harder to deal with than it initially expected, as they are raise very strong national or regional feelings. 

Indo-European is already the grandmother of the majority of Europeans. The first language of more 
than 97% of EU citizens is Indo-European, and the rest can generally speak at least one of them as 
second language. Adopting Indo-European as the main official language for the EU will not mean giving 
up linguistic rights, but enhancing them, as every other official language will have then the same status 



13 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

under their common ancestor; it won't mean losing the own culture for the sake of unity, but recovering 
it altogether for the same purpose; and, above all, it will not mean choosing a lingua franca to 
communicate with foreigners within an international organization, but accepting a National Language 
to communicate with other nationals within the same country. 

NOTE. The above information is mainly copied (literally, adjusted or modified) from two of Mr. William Z. 
Shetter Language Miniatures , which can be found in his website: 

■ http://home.bluemarble.net/~langmin/miniatures/Qvalue.htm 

* http://home.bluemarble.net/~langmin/miniatures/eulangs.htm 
o EU official expenditure numbers can be consulted here: 

■ http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/05/io&type=HTML&aged=o&la 
nguage=EN&guiLanguage=en 

* http://europa.eu.int/comm/budget/library/publications/budget_in_jig/dep_eu_budg_20oy_en.pdf 
o Official information about EU languages can be found at: 

■ http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/lang/languages/index_en.html 

* http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/lang/languages/langmin/euromosaic/index_en.html 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Preface 



WHAT'S NEW IN THIS EDITION 



This is A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, First Edition, with Modern Indo-European Language 
Grammatical system in Pre-Version 4, still in /3eta phase - i.e., still adjusting some important 
linguistic questions, and lots of minor mistakes, thanks to the contributions of experts and readers. 

NOTE. A version number (N) is given to full revisions of the grammar, and each minor correction published 
must be given a different number to be later identified, usually ranging from N.01 to N.99. This book includes a 
full correction of version 3, but is still Pre-Version 4, which means the correction was not finished, and it its 
therefore still 3.xx. Full revisions are driven from beginning to end, so there should be a comment marking the 
end of the revised material. Since version 3.8X that note is already in the Etymological Notes section. 

"Europe's Indo-European" version 4 continues "Modern Indo-European" version 3 (first printed 
edition, since June 2007), and this in turn version 2, which began in March 2007, changing most 
features of the old "Europaio"/"Sindhueuropaiom" concept of version 1 (Europaio: A Brief Grammar 
of the European Language, 2005-2006), in some cases coming back to features of Indo-European o.x 
(2004-2005). 

1. The artificial distinction in "Europaiom" and "Sindhueuropaiom" systems (each based on different 
dialectal features) brings more headaches than advantages to our Proto-Indo-European revival project; 
from now on, only a unified "Modern Indo-European" , based on Europe's Indo-European (or Proto- 
European) is promoted. "Sindhueuropaiom" (i.e. Proto-Indo-European) became thus a theoretical 
project for using the phonetical reconstructions of Late PIE. 

2. Unlike the first simplified Europaio grammar, this one goes deep into the roots of the specific Indo- 
European words and forms chosen for the modern language. Instead of just showing the final output, 
expecting readers to accept the supposed research behind the selections, we let them explore the details 
of our choices - and sometimes the specifics of the linguistic reconstruction -, thus sacrificing 
simplicity for the sake of thorough approach to modern IE vocabulary. 

3. The old Latin-only alphabet has been expanded to include Greek and Cyrillic writing systems, as 
well as a stub of possible Armenian, Arabo-Persian and Devanagari (abugida) systems. The objective is 
not to define them completely (as with the Latin alphabet), but merely to show other possible writing 
systems for Modern Indo-European, Modern Anatolian, Modern Aryan, and Modern Hellenic. 

4. The traditional phonetic distinction of palatovelars was reintroduced for a more accurate phonetic 
reconstruction of Late PIE, because of the opposition found (especially among Balto-Slavic experts) 
against our simplified writing system. Whether satemization was a dialectal and phonological trend 



15 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

restricted to some phonetic environments (PIE k- before some sounds, as with Latin c- before -e and - 
i), seemed to us not so important as the fact that more people feel comfortable with an exact - although 
more difficult - phonetic reconstruction. From versions 3.xx onwards, however, a more exact 
reconstruction is looked for, and therefore a proper explanation of velars and vocalism (hence also 
laryngeals) is added at the end of this book - coming back, then, to a simplified writing system. 

4. The historically alternating Oblique cases Dative, Locative, Instrumental and Ablative, were shown 
on a declension-by-declension (and even pronoun-by-pronoun) basis, as Late PIE shows in some 
declensions a simpler, thus more archaic, reconstructible paradigm (as i,u) while others (as the 
thematic e/o) show almost the same Late PIE pattern of four differentiated oblique case-endings. Now, 
the 8 cases traditionally reconstructed are usable - and its differentiation recommended - in MIE. 

The classification of Modern Indo-European nominal declensions has been reorganized to adapt it to a 
more Classic pattern, to help the reader clearly identify their correspondence to the different Greek and 
Latin declension paradigms. 

5. The verbal system has been reduced to the reconstructed essentials of Late Proto-Indo-European 
conjugation and of its early dialects. Whether such a simple and irregular system is usable as is, without 
further systematization, is a matter to be solved by Modern Indo-European speakers. 

The so-called Augment in e-, attested almost only in Greek, Indo-Iranian and Armenian, is sometimes 
left due to Proto-Indo-European tradition, although recent research shows that it was neither 
obligatory, nor general in Late PIE. It is believed today that it was just a prefix with a great success in 
the southern dialects, as per- (<PIE per-) in Latin or ga- (<PIE ko-) in Germanic. 

6. The syntactical framework of Proto-Indo-European has been dealt with extensively by some 
authors, but, as the material hasn't still been summed up and corrected by other authors (who usually 
prefer the phonological or morphological reconstruction), we use literal paragraphs from possibly the 
most thorough work available on PIE syntax, Winfred P. Lehman's Proto-Indo-European Syntax (1974), 
along with some comments and corrections made since its publication by other scholars. 

The timetable of the next grammatical and institutional changes can be followed in the website of the 
Indo-European Language Association. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Preface 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

To Mayte, my best friend, for her support and encouragement before I worked on this project, even 
before she knew what was it all about. For the money and time spent in lunchtimes, books, websites, 
servers and material. For her excitement when talking about the changes that Proto-Indo-European 
revival could bring to the world's future. Thank you. 

To Fernando Lopez-Menchero, Civil Engineer and Classic Languages' Philologist, expert in Indo- 
European linguistics, for his invaluable help, revision and corrections. Without his unending 
contributions and knowledge, this grammar wouldn't have shown a correct Proto-Indo-European 
reconstruction. Sorry for not correcting all mistakes before this first edition. 

To Prof. Dr. Luis Fernando de la Macorra, expert in Interregional Economics, and Prof. Dr. Antonio 
Munoz, Vice-Dean of Academic Affairs in the Faculty of Library Science, for their support in the 
University Competition and afterwards. 

To D.Phil. Neil Vermeulen, and English Philologist Fatima Batalla, for their support to our revival 
project within the Dnghu Association. 

To the University of Extremadura and the Cabinet of Young Initiative, for their prize in the 
Entrepreneurial Competition in Imagination Society (2006) and their continuated encouragement. 

To the Department of Classical Antiquity of the UEx, for their unconditional support to the project. 

To the Regional Government of Extremadura and its public institutions, for their open support to the 
Proto-Indo-European language revival. 

To the Government of Spain and the President's cabinet, for encouraging us in our task. 

To Manuel Romero from Imcrea.com Diseno Editorial, for his help with the design and editorial 
management of this first printed edition. 

To all professors and members of public and private institutions who have shared with us their 
constructive criticisms, about the political and linguistic aspects of PIE's revival. 

To Europa Press, RNE, El Periodico Extremadura, Terra, El Diario de Navarra, and other Media, and 
especially to EFE, Hoy, El Mundo, TVE, TVE2, RTVExtremadura for their extensive articles and reports 
about Modern Indo-European. 

We thank especially all our readers and contributors. Thank you for your emails and comments. 



17 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS BOOK 



1. "Modern Indo-European" or MIE: To avoid some past mistakes, we use the term Europaiom only to 
refer to the European language system, or to the reconstructed Europe's Indo-European (EIE) 
proto-language. The suitable names for the simplified Indo-European language system for Europe are 
thus European language or European, as well as "Europaio". 

2. The roots of the reconstructed Middle PIE language (PIH) are basic morphemes carrying a 
lexical meaning. By addition of suffixes, they form stems, and by addition of desinences, these form 
grammatically inflected words (nouns or verbs). 

NOTE. PIE reconstructed roots are subject to ablaut, and except for a very few cases, such ultimate roots are 
fully characterized by its constituent consonants, while the vowel may alternate . PIH roots as a rule have a single 
syllabic core, and by ablaut may either be monosyllabic or unsyllabic. PIH roots may be of the following form 
(where K is a voiceless stop, G an unaspirated and G h an aspirated stop, R a semivowel (r, I, in, n, u, i) and H a 
laryngeal (or s). After Meillet, impossible PIH combinations are voiceless/aspirated (as in *teub h or *b h eut), as 
well as voiced/ voiceless (as in *ged or *deg). The following table depicts the general opinion: 



stops - K- G- G h - 

[HR]e[RH] K[R]e[RH] G[R]e[RH] G h [R]e[RH] 

-K [HR]e[RH]K - G[R]e[RH]K G h [R]e[RH]K 

-G [HR]e[RH]G K[R]e[RH]G - G h [R]e[RH]G 

-G h [HR]e[RH]G h K[R]e[RH]G h G[R]e[RH]G h G h [R]e[RH]G h * 

*This combination appears e.g. in b h eud h , awake, and b h eid h , obey, believe. 

A root has at least one consonant, for some at least two (e.g. PIH h t ek vs. EIE ek-, "quick", which is the root for 
MIE adj. okus). Depending on the interpretation of laryngeals, some roots seem to have an inherent a or o vowel, 
EIE ar (vs. PIH h 2 ar-),fit, EIE ong w (vs. PIH h 3 eng">) "anoint", EIE ak (vs. PIH h 2 ek) "keen". 

By "root extension", a basic CeC (with C being any consonant) pattern may be extended to CeC-C, and an s- 
mobile may extend it to s-CeC. 

The total number of consonant, sonant and laryngeal elements that appear in an ordinary syllable are three - 
i.e., as the triliteral Semitic pattern. Those which have less than three are called 'Concave' verbs (cf. PIH Hes, 
Hei, g w em); those extended are called 'Convex' verbs (cf. Lat. plango, spargo,frango, etc., which, apart from the 
extension in -g, contain a laryngeal); for more on this, vide infra on MIE Conjugations. 

3. Verbs are usually shown in notes without an appropriate verbal noun ending -m, infinitive ending - 
tu/-ti, to distinguish them clearly from nouns and adjectives. They aren't shown inflected in 1 st P.Sg. 
Present either - as they should -, because of the same reason, and aren't usually accented. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Preface 

NOTE. Ultimate PIH reconstructed verbal roots are written even without an athematic or thematic ending. 
When an older laryngeal appears, as in PIH pelh s -, it sometimes remain, as in EIE pela-, or in case of ultimate 
roots with semivowel endings [i], [u], followed by an older laryngeal, they ma)' be written with ending -j or -w. 

4. Adjectives are usually shown with an accented masculine (or general) ending -6s, although 
sometimes a complete paradigm -6s, -a, -6m, is written. 

5. An acute accent is written over the vowel or semivowel in the stressed syllable, except when stress 
is on the penult (one syllable before the last) and in monosyllabic words. Accented long vowels and 
sonants are represented with special characters. The weak vowel of a possible diphthong is also 
accented; so in eimi, I go, instead of eimi, which would be read usually as *eimi if left unaccented. 

6. For zero-grade or zero-ending, the symbol is sometimes used. 

7. Proto-Indo-European vowel apophony or Ablaut is indeed normal in MIE, but different dialectal 
Ablauts are corrected when loan-translated. Examples of these are komb h astos, from Lat. confessus 
(cf. Lat. fassus sum), from EIE b h a-; EIE d h aklis/disd h aklis, as Lat. facilis/difficilis, from PIE d h e-; 
MIE salio/ensalio/ensalto, as Lat. solid /insilio/insulto, etc. 

NOTE. Such Ablaut is linked to languages with musical accent, as Latin. In Italic, the tone was always on the first 
syllable; Latin reorganized this system, and after Roman grammarians' "penultimate rule", Classic Latin accent 
felt on the penultimate syllable if long, on the antepenultimate if short (hence Lat. pudicus but modicus), thus 
triggering off different inner vocalic timbres or Ablauts. Other Italic dialects, as Oscan or Umbrian, didn't suffered 
such apophony; cf. Osc. anterstatai , Lat. inter stitae; Umb. antakres, Lat. integris; Umb. procanurent, Lat. 
procinuerint, etc. Germanic also knew such tone variations. For more on this topic, see phonotactic development 
in Latin at <http://www.cunyphonologyforum.net/SYLLPAPERS/Senhandoutnew.pdf>. 

8. In Germanic, Celtic and Italic dialects the IE intervocalic -s- becomes voiced, and then it is 
pronounced as the trilled consonant, a phenomenon known as Rhotacism; as with zero-grade krs [krs] 
from EIE stem kers-, run, giving 's-derivatives' O.N. horskr, Gk. -xovpog, and 'r- derivatives' as MIE 
kf sos, wagon, cart, from Celtic (cf. Gaul, karros, O.Ir., M.Welsh carr, into Lat. carrus) and kf so, run, 
cf. Lat. curro. In light of Greek forms as criterion, monastery, etc., the suffix to indicate "place where" 
(and sometimes instrument) had an original IE r, and its reconstruction as PIE s is wrong. 

9. Some loans are left as they are, without necessarily implying that they are original Indo-European 
forms; as Latin mappa, "map", aiqi-, "aequi-", Celtic pen-, "head", Greek sphaira, "sphere", Germanic 
iso-, "ice", and so on. Some forms are already subject to change in MIE for a more 'purist' approach to a 
common EIE, as ati- for Lat. re-, -ti for (Ita. and Arm.) secondary -tio(n), etc. 

10. In Romance languages, Theme is used instead of Stem. Therefore, Theme Vowel and Thematic 
refer to the Stem endings, usually to the e/o endings. In the Indo-European languages, Thematic roots 
are those roots that have a "theme vowel"; a vowel sound that is always present between the root of the 

19 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

word and the attached inflections. Athematic roots lack a theme vowel, and attach their inflections 
directly to the root itself. 

NOTE. The distinction between thematic and athematic roots is especially apparent in the Greek verb; they fall 
into two classes that are marked by quite different personal endings. Thematic verbs are also called -co (-6) verbs 
in Greek; athematic verbs are -^11 {-mi) verbs, after the first person singular present tense ending that each of them 
uses. The entire conjugation seems to differ quite markedly between the two sets of verbs, but the differences are 
realty the result of the thematic vowel reacting with the verb endings. In Greek, athematic verbs are a closed class 
of inherited forms from the parent IE language. Marked contrasts between thematic and athematic forms also 
appear in Lithuanian, Sanskrit, and Old Church Slavonic. In Latin, almost all verbs are thematic; a handful of 
surviving athematic forms exist, but they are considered irregular verbs. 

The thematic and athematic distinction also applies to nouns; many of the old IE languages distinguish between 
"vowel stems" and "consonant stems" in the declension of nouns. In Latin, the first, second, fourth, and fifth 
declensions are vowel stems characterized by a, o, u and e, respectively; the third declension contains both 
consonant stems and i stems, whose declensions came to closely resemble one another in Latin. Greek, Sanskrit, 
and other older IE languages also distinguish between vowel and consonant stems, as did Old English. 

11. PIE d+t, t+t, dh+t -> MIE st; PIE d+d, t+d, dh+d -> MIE sd; PIE d+dh, t+dh, dh+dh -> MIE 

sdh; because of the common intermediate phases found in Proto-Greek, cf. Gk. st, sth (as pistis, oisqa), 
and Europe's Indo-European, cf. Lat. est, "come", and O.H.G. examples. For an earlier stage of this 
phonetic output, compare O.Ind. sehi<*sazdhi, 'sit!', and not *satthi (cf. O.Ind. dehi, Av. dazdi). 

NOTE. It has been proposed an earlier TT— >TsT (where T = dental stop), i.e. that the cluster of two dental stops 
had a dental fricative s inserted between them. It is based on some findings in Hittite, where cluster tst is spelled 
as z (pronounced as ts), as in PIH hied-ti, "he eats" -> ^hxetsti -» Hitt. ezzi. Confirmation from early intermediate 
and common (Late PIE) -st- are found e.g. in O.Ind. mastis, "measure", from *med-tis, or Av. -hasta-, from 
*sed-tos. This evolution was probably overshadowed by other Aryan developments, see Appendix II. 

12. PIE made personal forms of composed verbs separating the root from the so-called 'prepositions', 
which were actually particles which delimited the meaning of the sentence. Thus, a sentence like Lat. 
uos supplico is in PIE as in O.Lat. sub uos placo. The same happened in Homeric Greek, in Hittite, in 
the oldest Vedic and in modern German 'trennbare Verben'. Therefore, when we reconstruct a verb like 
accept, MIE inf. adkeptatus, it doesn't mean it should be used as in Classic Latin (in fact its ablaut has 
been reversed), or indeed as in Modern English, but with its oldest use: keptaio ad, I accept. 

13. Reasons for not including the palatovelars in MIE writing system are 1) that, although possible, 
their existence is not sufficiently proven (see Appendix II.2); 2) that their writing because of tradition 
or 'etymology' is not justified, as this would mean a projective writing (i.e., like writing Lat. casa, but 
Lat. centum, because the k-sound before -e and -i evolves differently in Romance). The pairs g Q and k 
K, have been proposed to write them, for those willing to differentiate their pronunciation. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Preface 



The following abbreviations apply in this book: 



IE 


: Indo-European 


IE II 


Middle PIE or PIH 


PIH 


Proto-Indo-Hittite 


IE III 


Late PIE 


PIE 


Proto-Indo-European 


EIE 


Europe's Indo-European 


MIE 


Modern Indo-European 



PII 


:Proto-Indo-Iranian 


Ind. 


: Proto-Indo-Aryan 


O.Ind. 


: Old Indian 


Skr. 


: Sanskrit 


Hind. 


: Hindustani 


Hi. 


: Hindi 


Ur. 


: Urdu 


Ira. 


: Proto-Iranian 


Av. 


: Avestan 


O.Pers. 


: Old Persian 


Pers. 


: Persian 


Kur. 


: Kurdish 


Oss. 


: Ossetian 


Kam. 


: Kamviri 



PAn 


: Proto -Anatolian 


CA 


Common Anatolian 


Hitt. 


Hittite 


Luw. 


Luwian 


Lye. 


Lycian 


Pal. 


Palaic 


Lyd. 


Lydian 



PGk 


: Proto-Greek 


Gk. 


: (Ancient) Greek 


Phryg. 


: Phrygian 


Thr. 


: Thracian 


Dae. 


: Dacian 


Ven. 


: Venetic 


Lus. 


: Lusitanian 


A.Mac. 


: Ancient Macedonian 


illy. 


: Illyrian 


Alb. 


: Albanian 



Ita. 


: Proto-Italic 


Osc. 


Oscan 


Umb. 


Umbrian 


Lat. 


Latin 


O.Lat. 


Archaic Latin 


V.Lat. 


Vulgar Latin 


L.Lat. 


Late Latin 


Med. Lat. 


Mediaeval Latin 


Mod. Lat. 


Modern Latin 


O.Fr. 


Old French 


Prov 


Provenzal 


Gl.-Pt. 


Galician-Portuguese 


Gal. 


Galician 


Pt. 


Portuguese 


Cat. 


Catalan 


Fr. 


French 


It. 


Italian 


Spa. 


Spanish 


Rom. 


Romanian 



21 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



PGmc. 


: Pre-Proto-Germanic 


Gmc. 


Proto-Germanic 


Goth. 


Gothic 


Frank. 


Frankish 


Sea. 


Scandinavian (North Germanic) 


O.N. 


Old Norse 


O.Ice. 


Old Icelandic 


O.S. 


Old Swedish 


Nor. 


Norwegian 


Swe. 


Swedish 


Da. 


Danish 


Ice. 


Icelandic 


Fae. 


Faeroese 


W.Gmc. 


West Germanic 


O.E. 


Old English (W.Saxon, Mercian) 


O.Fris. 


Old Frisian 


O.H.G. 


Old High German 


M.L.G. 


Middle Low German 


M.H.G. 


Middle High German 


M.Du. 


Middle Dutch 


Eng 


English 


Ger. 


German 


L.Ger. 


Low German 


Fris. 


Frisian 


Du. 


Dutch 


Yidd. 


Yiddish (Judaeo-German) 



BS1. 


: B alto -Slavic 


Bal. 


: Proto-Baltic 


O.Lith. 


: Old Lithuanian 


O.Pruss. 


: Old Prussian 


Lith. 


: Lithuanian 


Ltv. 


: Latvian 


Sla. 


: Proto-Slavic 


O.C.S. 


: Old Church Slavonic 


O.Russ. 


: Old Russian 


O.Pol. 


: Old Polish 


Russ. 


: Russian 


Pol. 


: Polish 


Cz. 


: Czech 


Slo. 


: Slovenian 


Slk. 


: Slovak 


Ukr. 


: Ukrainian 


Bel. 


: Belarusian 


Bui. 


: Bulgarian 


Sr.-Cr. 


: Serbo-Croatian 



Cel. 


: Proto-Celtic 


Gaul. 


Gaulish 


O.Ir. 


Old Irish 


Sco. 


Scottish Gaelic 


Ir. 


Irish Gaelic 


Bret. 


Breton 


Cor. 


Cornish 


O.Welsh 


Old Welsh 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. INTRODUCTION 



l.i. THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE FAMILY 




1.1.1. The Indo-European 
languages are a family of several 
hundred languages and dialects, 
including most of the major 
languages of Europe, as well as 
many in Asia. Contemporary 
languages in this family include 
English, German, French, 
Spanish, Portuguese, Hindustani 
(i.e., Hindi and Urdu among other 

modern dialects), Persian and 

. . , . j. .. . In dark, countries with a majority of Indo-European 

Russian, it is the largest family ot speakers; in Ught co / 01 . ; countries with Indo-European- 
languages in the world today, being speaking minorities. 

spoken by approximately half the world's population as first language. Furthermore, the majority of the 
other half speaks at least one of them as second language. 

1.1.2. Romans didn't perceive similarities between Latin and Celtic dialects, but they found obvious 
correspondences with Greek. After Roman Grammarian Sextus Pompeius Festus: 

Suppum antiqui dicebant, quern, nunc supinum dicimus ex Graeco, videlicet pro adspiratione 
ponentes <s> litteram, ut idem uXaq dicunt, et nos silvas; item eE, sex, et ejttci septem. 

Such findings are not striking, though, as Rome was believed to have been originally funded by Trojan 

hero Aeneas and, consequently, Latin was derived from Old Greek. 

1.1.3. Florentine merchant Filippo Sassetti travelled to the Indian subcontinent, and was among the 
first European observers to study the ancient Indian language, Sanskrit. Writing in 1585, he noted some 
word similarities between Sanskrit and Italian, e.g. deva/dio, "God", sarpa/serpe, "snake", sapta/sette, 
"seven", ashta/otto, "eight", nava/nove, "nine". This observation is today credited to have 
foreshadowed the later discovery of the Indo-European language family. 

1.1.4. The first proposal of the possibility of a common origin for some of these languages came from 
Dutch linguist and scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn in 1647. He discovered the similarities among 
Indo-European languages, and supposed the existence of a primitive common language which he called 
"Scythian". He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, adding later 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages. He excluded languages such as Hebrew from his hypothesis. 
However, the suggestions of van Boxhorn did not become widely known and did not stimulate further 
research. 

1.1.5. On 1686, German linguist Andreas Jager published De Lingua Vetustissima Europae, where he 
identified an remote language, possibly spreading from the Caucasus, from which Latin, Greek, Slavic, 
'Scythian' (i.e., Persian) and Celtic (or 'Celto-Germanic') were derived, namely Scytho-Celtic. 

1.1.6. The hypothesis re-appeared in 1786 when Sir William Jones first lectured on similarities 
between four of the oldest languages known in his time: Latin, Greek, Sanskrit and Persian: 

"The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity , is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the 
Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of 
them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and the forms of grammar, than could 
possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all 
three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no 
longer exists: there is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the 
Gothic and the Celtic, though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the 
Sanskrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same family" 

1.1.7. Danish Scholar Rasmus Rask was the first to point out the connection between Old Norwegian 
and Gothic on the one hand, and Lithuanian, Slavonic, Greek and Latin on the other. Systematic 
comparison of these and other old languages conducted by the young German linguist Franz Bopp 
supported the theory, and his Comparative Grammar, appearing between 1833 and 1852, counts as the 
starting-point of Indo-European studies as an academic discipline. 

1.1.8. The classification of modern Indo-European dialects into 'languages' and 'dialects' is 
controversial, as it depends on many factors, such as the pure linguistic ones - most of the times being 
the least important of them -, and also social, economic, political and historical considerations. 
However, there are certain common ancestors, and some of them are old well-attested languages (or 
language systems), such as Classic Latin for modern Romance languages - French, Spanish, 
Portuguese, Italian, Romanian or Catalan -, Classic Sanskrit for some modern Indo-Aryan languages, 
or Classic Greek for Modern Greek. 

Furthermore, there are some still older IE 'dialects', from which these old formal languages were 
derived and later systematized. They are, following the above examples, Archaic or Old Latin, Archaic 
or Vedic Sanskrit and Archaic or Old Greek, attested in older compositions, inscriptions and inferred 
through the study of oral traditions and texts. 

And there are also some old related dialects, which help us reconstruct proto-languages, such as 
Faliscan for Latino-Faliscan (and with Osco-Umbrian for an older Proto-Italic), the Avestan language 
for a Proto-Indo-Iranian or Mycenaean for an older Proto-Greek. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

NOTE. Although proto -language groupings for early Indo-European languages may vary depending on different 
criteria, they all have the same common origin, the Proto-Indo-European language, which is generally easier to 
reconstruct than its dialectal groupings. For example, if we had only some texts of Old French, Old Spanish and 
Old Portuguese, Mediaeval Italian and Modern Romanian and Catalan, then Vulgar Latin - i.e. the features of the 
common language spoken by all of them, not the older, artificial, literary Classical Latin - could be easily 
reconstructed, but the groupings of the derived dialects not. In fact, the actual groupings of the Romance 
languages are controversial, even knowing well enough Archaic, Classic and Vulgar Latin... 




I*jit«*i LviffMg* F+mifcM 



□Cwcwttn 
Q*J«f 

■ <-Sl>1UWl 

■JunhuUUi: 

I | ~-i -yi\ 
■NtJXne 



Distribution of language families in the 20 th century. 



1.2. TRADITIONAL VIEWS 



1.2.1. In the beginnings of the Indo-European or Indo-Germanic studies using the comparative 
grammar, the Indo-European proto -language was reconstructed as a unitary language. For Rask, Bopp 
and other Indo-European scholars, it was a search for the Indo-European. Such a language was 
supposedly spoken in a certain region between Europe and Asia and at one point in time - between ten 
thousand and four thousand years ago, depending on the individual theories -, and it spread thereafter 
and evolved into different languages which in turn had different dialects. 

1.2.2. The Stammbaumtheorie or Genealogical Tree Theory states that languages split up in other 
languages, each of them in turn split up in others, and so on, like the branches of a tree. For example, a 
well known old theory about Indo-European is that, from the Indo-European language, two main 



25 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 




groups of dialects known as Centum and Satem 
separated - so called because of their pronunciation of 
the gutturals in Latin and Avestan, as in PIE kmtom, 
"hundred". From these groups others split up, as 
Centum Proto-Germanic, Proto-Italic or Proto-Celtic, 
and Satem Proto-Balto-Slavic, Proto-Indo-Iranian, 
which developed into present-day Germanic, Romance 
and Celtic, Baltic, Slavic, Iranian and Indo-Aryan 
languages. 

NOTE. The Centum and Satem isogloss is one of the oldest 

known phonological differences of Indo-European 

languages, and is still used by many to classify them in two 

groups, thus disregarding their relevant morphological and 

syntactical differences. It is based on a simple vocabulary 

comparison; as, from PIE kmtom (possibly earlier 

*dkmt6m, from dekm, "ten"), Satem: O.Ind. satdm, Av. 

satdm, Lith. simtas, O.C.S. sto, or Centum: Gk. Bcardv, Lat. 

centum, Goth, hund, O.Ir. cet, etc. Modern tree diagram of the IE languages 

by Eric Hamp (1990). 
1.2.3. The Wellentheorie or Waves Theory, of J. Schmidt, states that one language is created from 

another by the spread of innovations, the way water waves spread when a stone hits the water surface. 

The lines that define the extension of the innovations are called isoglosses. The convergence of different 

isoglosses over a common territory signals the existence of a new language or dialect. Where isoglosses 

from different languages coincide, transition zones are formed. 

NOTE. These old theories are based on the hypothesis that there was one common and static Proto-Indo- 
European language, and that all features of modern Indo-European languages can be explained in such a unitary 

scheme, by classifying them either as innovations or as 
archaisms of one old, rigid proto-language. The language 
system we propose for the revived Modern Indo- 
European is based mainly on that traditionally 
reconstructed Proto-Indo-European, not because we 
uphold the traditional views, but because we still look for 
the immediate common ancestor of modern Indo- 
European languages, and it is that old, unitary Indo- 
European that scholars had been looking for during the 

"Wave model" of some of the first decades of Indo-European studies. 
interrelationships of the Indo-European 
languages, J.P.Mallory and D.Q. Adams. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 




— 1 ^ l / ijLf m. in k - 



l. Introduction 



1.3. THE THEORY OF THE THREE STAGES 




Expansion of IE 4000BC-1 AD, according to the Kurgan 

hypothesis. 



1.3.1. Even some of the first Indo- 
Europeanists had noted in their works 
the possibility of older origins for the 
reconstructed (Late) Proto-Indo- 
European, although they didn't dare to 
describe those possible older stages of 
the language. 

1.3.2. Today, a widespread Three- 
Stage Theory depicts the Proto-Indo- 
European language evolution into 

three main historic layers or stages: 

1) Indo-European I or IE I, also 
called Early PIE, is the hypothetical ancestor of IE II, and probably the oldest stage of the language 
that comparative linguistics could help reconstruct using internal reconstruction. There is, however, 
no common position as to how it was like or when and where it was spoken. 

2) The second stage (3500-3000 BC) corresponds to a time before the separation of Proto-Anatolian 
from the common linguistic community where it coexisted with Pre-IE III. That stage of the language 
is called Indo-European II or IE II, Middle PIE, or Indo-Hittite. This is identified with the early 
Kurgan cultures in the Kurgan Hypothesis' framework. 

3) The common immediate ancestor of the earliest known IE proto-languages -more or less the 
same static PIE searched for since the start of Indo-European studies - is usually called Late PIE, also 

Indo-European III or IE III, often simply 

Proto-Indo-European. Its prehistoric 

community of speakers is generally 

identified with the Yamna or Pit Grave 

culture (cf. Ukr. RMa, "pit"), in the Pontic 

Steppe, roughly between 3000-2500 BC. 

Pre-Proto-Anatolian speakers are arguably 

identified with the - already independent - 

Maykop cultural community. 

Yamna culture ca. 3000 BC, roughly the 
time when Late PIE and Proto-Anatolian 
were spoken. 




27 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE. The development of this theory of three linguistic stages can be traced back to the very origins of Indo- 
European studies, firstly as a diffused idea of a non-static language, and later widely accepted as a dynamic 
dialectal evolution, already in the 20 th century, after the discovery of the Anatolian scripts. 

1.3.3. Another division has to be made, so that the dialectal evolution and this revival project is 
properly understood. Late PIE had at least two main dialectal branches, the Northern (or IE Illb) and 
the Southern (or IE Ilia) ones. Terms like Northwestern PIE are commonly found in academic writings 
referring to the Northern Dialect, but we will use them here to name only the northern dialects of 
Europe, therefore excluding Tocharian. As far as we know, while speakers of Southern or Graeco-Aryan 
dialects (like Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian) spread in different directions with the first Late PIE 
migrations ca. 2500 BC, speakers of Northern dialects remained still in loose contact in Europe, but for 
peoples like Proto-Tocharians who migrated to Asia. That so-called Europe's Indo-European - the 
ancestor of Celtic, Italic, Germanic, Baltic and Slavic dialects - is believed to have formed the last 
common Indo-European dialect continuum from ca. 2500-2000 BC in Northern Europe. 

NOTE 1. On the so-called "Northwest Indo-European", see N. Oettinger "Grundsatzliche ilberlegungen zum 
Nordwest-Indogermanischen" in Incontri Linguistici 20 1997, and "Zum nordwestindogermanischen Lexikon" in 
FS Meid 70 1999. See also M. E. Huld in Indo-Europeanization of Northern Europe 1996; Adrados, Bernabe, 
Mendoza, Manual de Lingiiistica Indoeuropea, 1998; etc. Europe's Indo-European dialects show some common 
features, like a general reduction of the 8-case noun inflection system, the -r endings of the middle voice, as well 
as the lack (or late development) of satemization. The southern dialects, in turn, show a generalized Augment in 
c-, a general Aorist formation and an 8-case system -apparently also in Proto-Greek. 




Spread of Late PIE dialects and Common Anatolian by ca. 2000 BC. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

NOTE 2. European dialects like Balto-Slavic and, to some extent, Italic, either because of general PIE innovative 
or archaic trends that only they maintained, or because of their original situation within the PIE dialectal 
territories in relation with the origin of the innovations - or just because they remained in contact with Southern 
Indo-European dialects after the first PIE split (e.g. through the Scythian or Iranian expansions) - show features 
usually identified with Indo-Iranian, as an 8-case noun declension and phonetic satemization, while having 
morphological features clearly common to Germanic and Celtic dialects, as the verbal system. 



■ — : — I 




Indo-European dialects ca. 500 BC. 



NOTE 3. The term Indo-European itself now current in English literature, was coined in 1813 by the British 
scholar Sir Thomas Young, although at that time there was no consensus as to the naming of the recently 
discovered language family. Among the names suggested were indo-germanique (C. Malte-Brun, 1810), 
Indoeuropean (Th. Young, 1813), japetisk (Rasmus C. Rask, 1815), indisch-teutsch (F. Schmitthenner, 1826), 
sanskritisch (Wilhelm von Humboldt, 1827), indokeltisch (A. F. Pott, 1840), arioeuropeo (G. I. Ascoli, 1854), 
Aryan (F. M. Miiller, 1861), aryaque (H. Chavee, 1867), etc. 

In English, Indo-German was used by J. C. Prichard in 1826 although he preferred Indo-European. In French, 
use of indo-europeen was established by A. Pictet (1836). In German literature, Indo-Europdisch was used by 
Franz Bopp since 1835, while the term Indo-Germanisch had already been introduced by Julius von Klapproth in 
1823, intending to include the northernmost and the southernmost of the family's branches, as it were as an 
abbreviation of the full listing of involved languages that had been common in earlier literature, opening the doors 
to ensuing fruitless discussions whether it should not be Indo-Celtic, or even Tocharo-Celtic. 



29 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 







Indo-European dialects ca. 500 AD. 




Indo-European dialects ca. 1500 AD. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 




s-,. ll.L?JMtf* p - 







Photo of a Kurgan (Archaeology Magazine). 



HEMP PAL ^ FRANKFORT,' MAFiK; 



1.4. THE PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN URHEIMAT OR 'HOMELAND' 

1.4.1. The search for the Urheimat or 
'Homeland' of the prehistoric Proto-Indo- 
Europeans has developed as an archaeological 
quest along with the linguistic research looking 
for the reconstruction of that proto-language. 

1.4.2. The Kurgan hypothesis was 

introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956 in order 
to combine archaeology with linguistics in 
locating the origins of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. 
She named the set of cultures in question 
"Kurgan" after their distinctive burial mounds and 
traced their diffusion into Europe. 

1.4.3. According to her hypothesis, PIE speakers were probably a nomadic tribe of the Pontic-Caspian 
steppe that expanded in successive stages of the Kurgan culture and three successive "waves" of 
expansion during the 3 rd millennium BC: 

• Kurgan I, Dnieper/Volga region, earlier half of the 4 th millennium BC. Apparently evolving from 
cultures of the Volga basin, subgroups include the Samara and Seroglazovo cultures. 

• Kurgan II— III, latter half of the 4 th millennium BC. Includes the Sredny Stog culture and the 
Maykop culture of the northern Caucasus. Stone circles, early two-wheeled chariots, 
anthropomorphic stone stelae of deities. 

• Kurgan IV or Pit Grave culture, first half of the 3 rd millennium BC, encompassing the entire steppe 
region from the Ural to Romania. 

o Wave 1, predating Kurgan I, expansion from the lower Volga to the Dnieper, leading to 
coexistence of Kurgan I and the Cucuteni culture. Repercussions of the migrations extend as far 
as the Balkans and along the Danube to the Vinca and Lengyel cultures in Hungary. 

o Wave 2, mid 4 th millennium BC, originating in the Maykop culture and resulting in advances of 
"kurganized" hybrid cultures into northern Europe around 3000 BC - Globular Amphora 
culture, Baden culture, and ultimately Corded Ware culture. 

o Wave 3, 3000-2800 BC, expansion of the Pit Grave culture beyond the steppes; appearance of 
characteristic pit graves as far as the areas of modern Romania, Bulgaria and eastern Hungary. 



31 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 






\ 



—■J 



(rhfottur Amphora ^ 

•./^L >--"i r .*^"-«. Kurgan 1- 




n 



** . f 



i V 



I 
L 



I 



** 



\ ^ '-.y^^jf^ in v~^ rear * '"£?r- 



.1 



Baden-E'ero-Troja . 



V X 




^ " 



: - 6 : 


















\ 


\ 


J- "■ 


■» 


■ . 




; j* 





\ 



% 



i 









Hypothetical Homeland or Urheimat of the first PIE speakers, from 4500 BC onwards. The 
Yamna (Pit Grave) culture lasted from ca. 3600 till 2200 BC. In this time the first wagons 
appeared. People were buried with their legs flexed, a position which remained typical for the 
Indo -Europeans for a long time. The burials were covered with a mound, a kurgan. During this 
period, from 3600 till 3000 IE II split up into Pre-IE III and Pre -Proto -Anatolian. From ca.3000 
B.C on, Late PIE dialects began to differentiate and spread by 2500 westward (Europe's Indo- 
European), southward (Proto-Greek) and eastward (Proto-Aryan, Pre -Proto -Tocharian) . 

I. ARCHEOGENETICS AND INDO-EUROPEAN MIGRATIONS 

Cavalli-Sforza and Alberto Piazza argue that Renfrew (v.i.) and Gimbutas reinforce rather than 
contradict each other, stating that "genetically speaking, peoples of the Kurgan steppe descended at 
least in part from people of the Middle Eastern Neolithic who immigrated there from Turkey". 

NOTE. The genetic record cannot yield any direct information as to the language spoken by these groups. The 
current interpretation of genetic data suggests a strong genetic continuity in Europe; specifically, studies of 
mtDNA by Bryan Sykes show that about 80% of the genetic stock of Europeans originated in the Paleolithic. 

Spencer Wells suggests that the origin, distribution and age of the Rial haplotype points to an 
ancient migration, possibly corresponding to the spread by the Kurgan people in their expansion across 
the Eurasian steppe around 3000 BC, stating that "there is nothing to contradict this model, although 
the genetic patterns do not provide clear support either". 

NOTE. Rial is most prevalent in Poland, Russia, and Ukraine, and is also observed in Pakistan, India and 
central Asia. Rial is largely confined east of the Vistula gene barrier and drops considerably to the west. The 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 




spread of Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup 
Rial has been associated with the spread 
of the Indo-European languages too. The 
mutations that characterize haplogroup 
Ria occurred ~ 10,000 years bp. 

Haplogroup Rial, whose lineage is 
thought to have originated in the 
Eurasian Steppes north of the Black 
and Caspian Seas, is therefore 
associated with the Kurgan culture, as 
well as with the postglacial 
Ahrensburg culture which has been suggested to have spread the gene originally. 

The present-day population of Rib haplotype, with extremely high peaks in Western Europe and 
measured up to the eastern confines of Central Asia, are believed to be the descendants of a refugium in 
the Iberian peninsula (Portugal and Spain) at the Last Glacial Maximum, where the haplogroup may 
have achieved genetic homogeneity. As conditions eased with the Allerod Oscillation in about 12,000 
BC, descendants of this group migrated and eventually recolonised all of Western Europe, leading to the 
dominant position of Rib in variant degrees from Iberia to Scandinavia, so evident in haplogroup maps. 

NOTE 1. High concentrations of Mesolithic or late Paleolithic YDNA haplogroups of types Rib (typically well 
above 35%) and I (up to 25%), are thought to derive ultimately of the robust Eurasiatic Cro Magnoid homo 
sapiens of the Aurignacian culture, and the subsequent gracile leptodolichomorphous people of the Gravettian 
culture that entered Europe from the Middle East 20,000 to 25,000 years ago, respectively. 

The 



NOTE 2. The most common 
subclade is Ribib2a, that has a 
maximum in Frisia. It may have 
originated towards the end of the last 
ice age, or perhaps more or less 7000 
BC, possibly in the northern European 
mainland and a close match of the 
present-day distribution of S21 and 
the territorial pattern of the Eastern 
Corded Ware cultures and the Single 
Grave cultures has been observed. 
Dupuy and his colleagues proposed 
the ancestors of Scandinavian men from Haplogroup Hg P*(xRia) or Rib (Y-DNA) to have brought Ahrensburg 
"culture" and stressed genetic similarity with Germany. 



R1b (Y-DNA) Regional Dism'bution % 




33 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



II. KURGAN HYPOTHESIS & PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES 



ARCHAEOLOGY (Kurgan Hypothesis) 


LINGUISTICS (Three-Stage Theory) 


ca. 4500-4000 BC. Sredny Stog, Dnieper-Donets 
andSarama cultures, domestication of the horse. 


Pre-PIE is spoken, probably somewhere in the 
Pontic-Caspian Steppe. 


ca. 4000-3500 BC. The Yamna culture, the kurgan 
builders, emerges in the steppe, and the Maykop 
culture in northern Caucasus. 


Early PIE or IE I, the earliest Proto-Indo- 
European attainable by using the internal 
reconstruction method of comparative grammar. 


ca. 3500-3000 BC. The Yamna culture is at its 
peak, with stone idols, two-wheeled proto -chariots, 
animal husbandry, permanent settlements and 
hillforts, subsisting on agriculture and fishing, along 
rivers. Contact of the Yamna culture with late 
Neolithic Europe cultures results in kurganized 
Globular Amphora and Baden cultures. The Maykop 
culture shows the earliest evidence of the beginning 
Bronze Age, and bronze weapons and artifacts are 
introduced. 


Middle PIE is spoken. Pre-IE III and Pre-Proto- 
Anatolian dialects evolve in different communities 
but presumably still in contact, until the later 
becomes isolated south of the Caucasus and has no 
more contacts with the linguistic innovations of 
common Late PIE. 


ca. 3000-2500 BC. The Yamna culture extends 
over the entire Pontic steppe. The Corded Ware culture 
extends from the Rhine to the Volga, corresponding to 
the latest phase of Indo-European unity. Different 
cultures disintegrate, still in loose contact, enabling 
the spread of technology. 


Late PIE is spoken in different dialects, at least 
a Southern and a Northern one. Dialectal 
communities remain still in contact, enabling the 
spread of phonetic and morphological innovations, 
as well as early loan words. Proto- Anatolian, 
spoken in Asia Minor. 


ca. 2500-2000 BC. The Bronze Age reaches 
Central Europe with the Beaker culture of Northern 
Indo -Europeans. Indo-Iranians settle north of the 
Caspian in the Sintashta-Petrovka and later the 
Andronovo culture. 


The breakup of the southern IE dialects is 
complete. Proto-Greek spoken in the Balkans; 
Proto-Indo-Iranian in Central Asia; Europe's Indo- 
European in Northern Europe; Common Anatolian 
in Anatolia. 


ca. 2000-1500 BC. The chariot is invented, leading 
to the split and rapid spread of Iranians and other 
peoples from the Andronovo culture and the Bactria- 
Margiana Complex over much of Central Asia, 
Northern India, Iran and Eastern Anatolia. Greek 
Darg Ages and flourishing of the Hittite Empire. Pre- 
Celtics Unetice culture has an active metal industry. 


Indo-Iranian splits up in two main dialects, Indo- 
Aryan and Iranian. European proto-dialects 

like Germanic, Celtic, Italic, Baltic and Slavic 
differentiate from each other. A Proto-Greek dialect, 
Mycenaean, is already written in Linear B script. 
Anatolian languages like Hittite and Luwian are 
also written. 


ca. 1500-1000 BC. The Nordic Bronze Age sees the 
rise of the Germanic Urnfield and the Celtic Hallstatt 
cultures in Central Europe, introducing the Iron Age. 
Italic peoples move to the Italian Peninsula. Rigveda is 
composed. The Hittite Kingdoms and the Mycenaean 
civilization decline. 


Germanic, Celtic, Italic, Baltic and Slavic are 
already different proto-languages, developing in 
turn different dialects. Iranian and other related 
southern dialects expand through military 
conquest, and Indo-Aryan spreads in the form of its 
sacred language, Sanskrit. 


ca. 1000-500 BC. Northern Europe enters the Pre- 
Roman Iron Age. Early Indo-European Kingdoms and 
Empires in Eurasia. In Europe, Classical Antiquity 
begins with the flourishing of the Greek peoples. 
Foundation of Rome. 


Celtic dialects spread over Western Europe, 
German dialects to the south of Jutland. Italic 
languages attested in the Italian Peninsula. Greek 
and Old Italic alphabets appear. Late Anatolian 
dialects. Cimmerian, Scythian and Sarmatian in 
Asia, Paleo-Balkan languages in the Balkans. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

1.5. OTHER LINGUISTIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL THEORIES 

1.5.1. A common development of new hypotheses has been to revise the Three-Stage assumption. It is 
actually not something new, but the come back to more traditional views, reinterpreting the new 
findings of the Hittite scripts, trying to insert Anatolian into the old, static PIE concept. 

1.5.2. The most known new alternative theory concerning PIE is the Glottalic theory. It assumes 
that Proto-Indo-European was pronounced more or less like Armenian, i.e. instead of PIE p, b, b h , the 
pronunciation would have been *p', *p, *b, and the same with the other two voiceless-voiced-voiced 
aspirated series of consonants. The IE Urheimat would have been then located in the surroundings of 
Anatolia, especially near Lake Urmia, in northern Iran, hence the archaism of Anatolian dialects and 
the glottalics still found in Armenian. 

NOTE. Those linguistic findings are supported 
by Th. Gamkredlize-V. Ivanov (1990: "The early 
history of Indo-European languages" , Scientific 
American, where early Indo-European 
vocabulary deemed "of southern regions" is 
examined, and similarities with Semitic and 
Kartvelian languages are also brought to light. 

1.5.3. Alternative theories include: 



^ 




I. The European Homeland thesis 



Distribution of haplotypes Rib (light color) for 
Eurasiatic Paleolithic and Ria (dark color) for Yamna 
maintains that the common origin of the IE expansion; black represents other haplogroups. 

languages lies in Europe. These theses are more or less driven by Archeological or Linguistic findings. 

NOTE. It has been traditionally located in 1) Lithuania and the surrounding areas, by R.G. Latham (1851) and 
Th. Poesche (1878: Die Arier. Ein Beitrag zur historischen Anthropologic, Jena); 2) Scandinavia, by K.Penka 
(1883: Origines ariacae, Viena); 3) Central Europe, by G. Kossinna (1902: "Die Indogermanische Frage 
archaologisch beantwortet" , Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, 34, pp. 161-222), P.Giles (1922: The Aryans, New York), 
and by linguist/archaeologist G. Childe (1926: The Aryans. A Study of Indo-European Origins, London). 

a. The Old European or Alteuropaisch Theory compares some old European vocabulary 
(especially river names), which would be older than the spread of Late PIE dialects through Northern 
Europe. It points out the possibility of an older, pre-IE III spread of IE, either of IE II or I or maybe 
some other Pre-IE dialect. It is usually related to the PCT and Renfrew's NDT. 

b. The Paleolithic Continuity Theory posits that the advent of IE languages should be linked to 
the arrival of Homo sapiens in Europe and Asia from Africa in the Upper Paleolithic. The PCT proposes 
a continuated presence of Pre-IE and non-IE peoples and languages in Europe from Paleolithic times 
and allowing for minor invasions and infiltrations of local scope, mainly during the last three millennia. 



35 




Wave -.' I .-..I '. ..Ill I- 

AcvuhkintKHi 
fili?ppffl;ini3 inbrH:il|LHi:, 

. FUlLtf -h-lhlll I 1 . ■ 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE. There are some research papers concerning the PCT available at <http://www.continuitas.com/>. Also, 
the PCT could in turn be connected with Frederik Kortlandt's Indo-Uralic and Altaic studies 
<http://kortlandt.nl/publications/> - although they could also be inserted in Gimbutas' early framework. 

c. This is, in turn, related to the theories of a 
Neolithic revolution causing the peacefully 
spreading of an older pre-IE language into Europe 
from Asia Minor from around 7000 BC, with the 
advance of farming. It proposes that the dispersal 
(discontinuity) of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated 
in Neolithic Anatolia. 

NOTE. Reacting to criticism, Renfrew by 1999 revised 

his proposal to the effect of taking a pronounced Indo- 

Hittite position. Renfrew's revised views place only Pre- 

Proto-Indo-European in 7th millennium BC Anatolia, 

Homeland question (mixing Neolithic and 
proposing as the homeland of Proto-Indo-European Kurgan hypothesis), J. P. Mallory & D.Q. Adams 

proper the Balkans around 5000 BC, explicitly identified as the "Old European culture" proposed by Gimbutas. 

As of 2005, Colin Renfrew seems to support the PCT designs and the usefulness of the Paleolithic assumptions. 
He co-authored a paper concluding: Our finding lends weight to a proposed Paleolithic ancestry for modern 
Europeans The above quotation coming as results of archaeogenetic research on mtaDNA where 150 x greater Nia 
frequency was found. The first European farmers are descended from a European population who were present in 
Europe since the Paleolithic and not coming as a wave of Neolithic migration as proposed in Renfrew's NDT. 

II. Another hypothesis, contrary to the European ones, also mainly driven today by a nationalistic 
view, traces back the origin of PIE to Vedic Sanskrit, postulating that it is very pure, and that the origin 
can thus be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization of ca. 3000 BC. 

NOTE. Such Pan-Sanskritism was common among early Indo-Europeanists, as Schlegel, Young, A. Pictet (1877: 
Les origines indoeuropeens, Paris) or Schmidt (who preferred Babylonia), but are now mainly supported by those 
who consider Sanskrit almost equal to Late Proto-Indo-European. For more on this, see S. Misra (1992: The 
Aryan Problem: A Linguistic Approach, Delhi), Elst's Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate (1999), followed up 
by S.G. Talageri's The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis (2000), both part of "Indigenous Indo-Aryan" viewpoint by 
N. Kazanas, the "Out of India" theory, with a framework dating back to the times of the Indus Valley Civilization. 

III. The Black Sea deluge theory dates the origins of the IE dialects expansion in the genesis of the Sea 
of Azov, ca. 5600 BC, which in turn would be related to the Bible Noah's flood, as it would have 
remained in oral tales until its writing down in the Hebrew Tanakh. This date is generally considered as 
rather early for the PIE spread. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

NOTE. W.Ryan and W.Pitman published evidence that a massive flood through the Bosporus occurred about 
5600 BC, when the rising Mediterranean spilled over a rocky sill at the Bosporus. The event flooded 155,000 km 2 
of land and significantly expanded the Black Sea shoreline to the north and west. This has been connected with 
the fact that some Early Modern scholars based on Genesis 10:5 have assumed that the 'Japhetite' languages 
(instead of the 'Semitic' ones) are rather the direct descendants of the Adamic language, having separated before 
the confusion of tongues, by which also Hebrew was affected. That was claimed by Blessed Anne Catherine 
Emmerich (18 th c), who stated in her private revelations that most direct descendants of the Adamic language 
were Bactrian, Zend and Indian languages, related to her Low German dialect. It is claimed that Emmerich 
identified this way Adamic language as Early PIE. 

1.6. RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER LANGUAGES 

1.6.1. Many higher-level relationships between PIE and other language families have been proposed. 
But these speculative connections are highly controversial. Perhaps the most widely accepted proposal 
is of an Indo-Uralic family, encompassing PIE and Proto-Uralic, a language from which Hunarian, 
Finnish, Estonian, Saami and a number of other languages belong. The evidence usually cited in favor 
of this is the proximity of the proposed Urheimaten of the two proto-languages, the typological 
similarity between the two languages, and a number of apparent shared morphemes. 

NOTE. Other proposals, further back in time (and correspondingly less accepted), model PIE as a branch of 
Indo-Uralic with a Caucasian substratum; link PIE and Uralic with Altaic and certain other families in Asia, such 
as Korean, Japanese, Chukotko-Kamchatkan and Eskimo-Aleut (representative proposals are Nostratic and 
Joseph Greenberg's Eurasiatic); etc. 

1.6.2. Indo-Uralic or Uralo-Indo-European is a hypothetical language family consisting of Indo- 
European and Uralic (i.e. Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic). Most linguists still consider this theory 
speculative and its evidence insufficient to conclusively prove genetic affiliation. 

NOTE. Dutch linguist Frederik Kortlandt supports a model of Indo-Uralic in which the original Indo-Uralic 
speakers lived north of the Caspian Sea, and Proto-Indo-Europeans began as a group that branched off westward 
from there to come into geographic proximity with the Northwest Caucasian languages, absorbing a Northwest 
Caucasian lexical blending before moving farther westward to a region north of the Black Sea where their language 
settled into canonical Proto-Indo-European. 

1.6.3. The most common arguments in favour of a relationship between Early PIE and Uralic are based 
on seemingly common elements of morphology, such as the pronominal roots *m- for first person, *t- 
for second person, *i- for third person; case markings accusative *-m, ablative/partitive *-ta; 
interrogative/relative pronouns *k w - "who?, which?", *j- "who, which" to signal relative clauses; and a 
common SOV word order. Other, less obvious correspondences are suggested, such as the Indo- 
European plural marker -es (or -s in the accusative plural -m-s) and its Uralic counterpart *-t. This 
same word-final assibilation of *-t to *-s may also be present in PIE second-person singular -s in 

37 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

comparison with Uralic second-person singular *-t. Compare, within Indo-European itself, -s second- 
person singular injunctive, -si second-person singular present indicative, -tHa second-person singular 
perfect, -te second-person plural present indicative, tu "you" (singular) nominative, tei "to you" 
(singular) enclitic pronoun. These forms suggest that the underlying second-person marker in Indo- 
European may be *t and that the *u found in forms such as tu was originally an affixal particle. 

NOTE. The problem with lexical evidence is to weed out words due to borrowing, because Uralic languages have 
been in contact with Indo-European languages for millenia, and consequently borrowed many words from them. 



Meaning 


Early PIE 


Proto-Uralic 


"I, me" 


me, "me" (Ace), mene, "my" (Gen.) 


*mun, *mina, "I" 


"you" (sg) 


tu (Nom.), twe (Ace), tewe "your" (Gen.) 


*tun, *tina 


First person singular 


-m 


*-m 


First person plural 


-me 


*-me 


Second person singular 


-s (active), -tHa (perfect) 


*-t 


Second person plural 


-te 


*-te 


Demonstrative 


so, "this, he/she" (animate nom) 


*sa (3 rd person singular) 


Interrogative pronoun (An.) 


k w i-, "who?, what?"; k w o-, "who?, what?" 


*ken, "who?", *ku-, "who?" 


Relative pronoun 


jo- 


*-ja (nomen agentis) 


Accusative 


-m 


*-m 


Ablative/partitive 


-od 


*-ta 


Nominative/ Accusative pi. 


-es (Nom. pi.), -m-s (Ace. pi.) 


*-t 


Oblique plural 


-i (pronominal pi., cf. we-i- "we", to-i- "those") 


*-i 


Dual 


-Hx 


*-k 


Stative 


-s- (aorist); -es-, -t (stative substantive) 


*-ta 


Negative particle 


nei, ne 


*ei- [negative verb] , *ne 


"to give" 


deh 3 - 


HoHe- 


"to moisten", 


wed-, "to wet"', wodr-, "water" 


*weti, "water" 


"water" 


mesg-, "dip under water, dive" 


*muske-, "wash" 


"to assign", 


nem-, "to assign, to allot", li,nomii-, "name" 


*nimi, "name" 


"metal" 


h 2 weseh 2 -, "gold' 


*waske, "some metal" 


"trade" 


mei-, "exchange" 


*miHe-, "give, sell" 


"fish" 


(s)k w alo-, "large fish" 


*kala, "fish" 


"sister-in-law" 


galou-, "husband's sister" 


*kal3, "sister-in-law" 


"much" 


polu-, "much" 


*palJ3, "thick, much" 



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l. Introduction 



1.7. INDO-EUROPEAN DIALECTS OF EUROPE 




Languages of Europe. The black line divides the zones traditionally (or politically) considered inside 
the European subcontinent. Northern dialects are all but Greek and Kurdish (Iranian) ; Armenian is 
usually considered a Graeco-Aryan dialect, while Albanian is usually classified as a Northern one. 
Numbered inside the map, non-Indo-European languages: 1) Uralic languages; 2) Turkic languages; 3) 
Basque; 4) Maltese; 5) Caucasian languages. 

SOnjaCHER^SEABLET^^ 

The so-called Schleicher's fable is a poem composed in PIE, published by August Schleicher in 1868, originally 
named "The Sheep and the Horses". It is written here in the different reconstructible IE dialects for comparison. 

More information and changes at <http://dnghu.org/en/indoeuropean-schleicher-fable/> 

The immediate parent dialect of each proto-language is enclosed in parentheses. 



39 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



Indo-Hittite (IE I), 3500 BC 




Common Anatolian (PAn), 2500 BC Europe's IE (IE Illb), 2500 1 




H 3 owis h!ekwos-k w e. 


Howis ekw5s-k w e. 


Owis ekwos-k w e. 


H 3 owis, k w esjo wlhmehij ne luest, 


Howis, k w esjo wlneh ne est, 


Owis, k w esjo wlna ne est, 


hxekwoms speket, 


ekwoms speket, 


ekwoms speket, 


hxoinom crh 3 um woghom weghontm, 


oikom grrum wogom wegontm, 


oinom g w rum wog^m wegontm, 


h!oinom-k w e megeh 2 m b h orom, 


oikom-k w e megehm borom, 


oinom-k w e megam b^rom, 


hioinom-k w e d h h!g h monm hiohjcu 
b^rontm. 


oikom-k w e dgmonm oku 
berontm. 


oinom-k w e d h g h monm oku 
b h erontm. 


H 3 owis nu hiekwob h jos weuk w et: 


Howis nu ekwobos wuk w et: 


Owis nu ekwob h os weuk w et: 


"Krd h 2 eg h nutoi hmiol, 


"Krd xegnutor moi, 


"Krd ag h nutoi mol, 


hxekwoms h 2 egontm wihxrom 
widntei". 


ekwoms xegontm wirom 
widnte". 


ekwoms agontm wirom 
widntei". 


Hxekwos tu weuk w 6nt: "Klud h i, h 3 owi! 


Ekwos tu weuk w 6nt: "Kludl, howi! 


Ekwos tu weuk w 6nt: "KludM, owi! 


krd h 2 eg h nutoi nsmei widntb h jos: 


krd hegnutor nsme^ widntbos: 


krd ag h nutoi nsmei widntb h jos: 


h 2 ner, potis, h 3 owjom-r wlhmeham 


hner, potis, howjom-r wlnehm 


ner, potis, owjom-r wlnam 


sweb h i g wh ermom westrom k w rneuti". 


swebi cermom westrom k w rnudi". 


seb h i g wh ermom westrom k w rneuti". 


H 3 owjom-k w e wlhneh 2 ne h^sti. 


Howjom-k w e wlneh ne esti. 


Owjom-k w e wlna ne esti. 


Tod kekluwos h 3 owis h 2 egrom b h uget. 


Tod kekluwos howis hegrom buget. 


Tod kekluwos owis agrom b h uget. 



Proto-Indo-Iranian (IE Ilia), 2500 BC Proto-Greek (IE Ilia), 2500 BC Proto-Celtic (EIE), 1000 BC 


Awis akwas-ka. 


Owis ekwoi-k w e. 


Owis ek w oi-k w e. 


Awis, kasja wrna na ast, 


Owis, k w eho wlna ne est, 


Owis, k w esjo wlana ne est, 


akwams spakat, 


ekwos speket, 


ek w os speket, 


aikam grum wag h am wag h antm, 


oiwom k wh rum wok h om wek h ontm, 


oinom barum woxom wexontam, 


aikam-ka mag h am b h aram, 


oiwom-k w e megam p h orom, 


oinom-k w e megam borom, 


aikam-ka g h amanm aku 
b h arantm. 


oiwom-k w e k h t h 6monm oku 
p h erontm. 


oinom-k w e dxoniom aku 
berontam. 


Awis nu akwab h jas awaukat: 


Owis nu ekwop h os eweuk w et: 


Owis nu ek w obos weuk w et: 


"Krd ag h nutai mai, 


"Krd ak h nutoi moi, 


"Krid axnutor mai, 


akwams agantam wlram widntai". 


ekwoms agontm wirom widntei". 


ek w os agontom wirom widanti". 


Akwas tu awawkant: "Krud h i avi! 


Ekwoi tu ewewek w ont: "KlutM, owi! 


Ek w oi tu wewk w 6nt: "Kludi, owi! 


krd ag h nutai nsmai widntb h jas: 


krd agnutoi nsmei widntp'KJs: 


krid axnutor ansmei widantbjos: 


nar, patis, awjam-r wrnam 


aner, potis, owjom-r wlnam 


ner, cpotis, owjom-ar wlanam 


swab h i g h armam wastram krnauti". 


sep h i k wh ermom westrom k w rneuti". 


sebi g w ermom westrom k w arneuti". 


Awjam-ka wfna na asti. 


Owjom-k w e wlna ne esti. 


Owjom-k w e wlana ne esti. 


Tat kakruwas awis agram ab h ugat. 


Tot kekluwos owis agrom ep h uget. 


Tod keklowos owis agrom buget. 



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l. Introduction 



Proto-Italic (EIE), 1000 BC 




Pre-Proto-Germanic (EIE), 1000 BC Common Tocharian (PToch), 1000 BC 


Owis ekwoi-k w e. 


Awiz exwaz-x w e. 


Owi jukweii-ke. 


Owis, k w esjo wlana ne est, 


Awiz, h w es wulno ne est, 


Owi, kuse wlana ne es, 


ekwos speket, 


ehwanz spexet, 


jukwes spakat, 


oinom grawum woxom wexontem, 


ainan karun wagan wegandun, 


enem karam wakm wakantam, 


oinom-k w e megam cporom, 


ainan-x w e mekon baran, 


enem-ke makam parm, 


oinom-k w e xomonem oku cperontem. 


ainan-x w e gumanan axuberandun. 


enem-ke tkamnam aka parantam. 


Owis nu ekwocpos weuk w et: 


Awiz nu exwamaz weux w ed: 


Owi na jukwebos wukat: 


"Kord axnutor mei, 


"Hurt agnudai mei, 


"Kart agnatai me, 


ekwos agontom wirom widentei". 


exwanz akandun weran witandi". 


jukwes akantan wirem witsante". 


Ekwoi tu wewk w 6nt: "Klupi, owi! 


Exwaz wewx w ant: "Hludi, awi! 


Jukwen ta wukant: "Kluti, ow! 


kord axnutor ensmei widentcpos: 


hurt aknudai unsmi witundmaz: 


kart aknete ansme witantbe: 


ner, potis, owjom-or wlanam 


ner, fabiz, awjan-aur wulndn 


nar, pats, owjap-ar wlanam 


secpi gtermom westrom k w orneuti". 


sibi warman westhran h w urneubi". 


sapi sarmam wastram karnuti". 


Owjom-k w e wlana ne esti. 


Awjan-x w e wulno ne isti. 


Owjap-ke wlana na esti. 


Tud kekluwos owis agrom cpugit. 


t>at hexluwaz awiz akran bukeb. 


Ta kaklewe owi akre bekat. 




Proto-Armenian (?), l AD Proto-Slavic (EIE), 500 AD Proto-Baltic (EIE), 500 AD 


Hovih eswuh-k 1 ^. 


Ovis esvii-ce. 


A\ds asvai-ke. 


Hovih, k h ehjo galana ne es(t h ), 


Ovis, ceso vlina ne jazit, 


A\ds, kaso vilno ne ast, 


eswoh sp^k^t 11 ), 


esva speset, 


a^^is spekit, 


enam erkum woja wejona, 


inii zariio vozii vezote, 


ainam garu vazam vezantim, 


enam-k 1 ^ meka bora, 


inii-ce meza borii, 


ainam-ke megam baram, 


enam-k 1 ^ zmona usu berona. 


inii-ce zmonii asu berote. 


ainam-ke zmonam uoku berantim. 


Hovih nu eswoboh egojk h e(t h ): 


Ovis nu esvomu vjucet: 


Avis nu asvamas vjaukit: 


"Sart egnut h e me, 


"Srid aznute me, 


"Sird agnutai mai, 


eswuh akont h a gara gitant h i". 


esvii agotii virii videti". 


asvai agantim \dram vidintei". 


Eswoh t h u egojk h 6: "Ludi, hovi! 


Esva tu \jucot: "Sludi, ove! 


As\ r us tu vjaukant: "Sludi, a\d! 


Sart egnut'toi asmi gitan(t h )bos: 


srid aznute esmi videtmu: 


sird agnutai insmei vidintmas: 


a(n)ir, p h ot h is, owja-ar galanam 


ner, podis, 6vjemi-ri vlino 


ner, pats, avjam-ir \dlnom 


(k)ibi jerma gesthra k h arnojt h i". 


sebi germii vestrii crinjuti". 


sebi garmam vestram kirnjauti". 


Hovja-k h e galana ne est h i. 


6\jemi-ce vlina ne jaziti. 


Avjam-ke vilno ne asti. 


Da k^k^ugah hovih akra ebuke(t h ). 


To sesluvii o^s agrii bugit. 


Ta sesluvas avis agram bugit. 



Translation: « The Sheep and the Horses. • A sheep that had no wool • saw horses, • one pulling a heavy 
wagon, • one carrying a big load, • and one carrying a man quickly. • The sheep said to the horses: • "My heart 
pains me, • seeing a man driving horses". • The horses said: "Listen, sheep, • our hearts pain us when we see 
this: • a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep • into a warm garment for himself. • And the sheep has no 
wool". • Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain. » 



41 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



1.7.1. NORTHERN INDO-EUROPEAN DIALECTS 



I. EUROPE'S INDO-EUROPEAN 



The Northwestern Proto-Indo-European dialect, or Europe's Indo-European, was spoken in the 
European Subcontinent between ca. 2500-2000 BC, until it evolved into Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic, 
Proto-Germanic, and Proto-Balto-Slavic. Its original common location is usually traced back to some 
place to the East of the Rhine, to the North of the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, to the South of 
Scandinavia and to the East of the Eastern European Lowlands or Russian Plain, not beyond Moscow. 

The Corded Ware complex of 

cultures traditionally 

represents for many scholars 

the arrival of the first speakers 

of Northern Dialects in central 

Europe, coming from the 

Yamna culture. The 

archaeological complex dates 

from about 3.000-2.000 BC. 

The Globular Amphorae 

culture may be slightly earlier, 

but the relation between these " D _ _,, " " ~ ~ T ! ~ "~~ , 

Europe 2500-2000 BC. The Proto-Germanic homeland is traced 

two cultures remains unclear. back to Jutland and southern Scandinavia; present-day West 

Germany was the homeland for Proto-Celtic and Proto-Italic 

Evolution of PIH laryngeals in speakers; the Eastern zone corresponds to Balto-Slavic speakers. 

EIE include vowel colourization and compensatory lengthening, many of them common to Late PIE: 

PIH Hi, the neutral laryngeal: hia->a, hie->e, hiO->o; ahi->d, ehi->e, ohi->d. 

PIH H 2 , the a-colouring laryngeal: h 2 a->a, h 2 e->a, h 2 o->a; ah 2 ->d, eh 2 ->d. 

PIH H 3 , the o-colouring laryngeal: h 3 e->-o, h 3 o->o; eh 3 ->d, oh 3 ->d. 

PIE a (PIH interconsonantal -H-) -»• a, as in PIH ph 2 ter -»• EIE pater (cf. Yllpitar) 

PIH rH->r, lH^r, nH— >n, niH^m: also, iH^z, uH^u. 

PIH H before consonants -^ : cf . PIH hidonts, EIE donts (cf. PGk odonts), "tooth"; PIH 

h 2 ster, EIE ster (cf. PGk aster), etc. 

NOTE. There are many variations in the laryngeal theories proposed by scholars, who reconstruct from just one 
(Szemerenyi) to eight (Puhvel) or nine (Adrados); a general reconstruction of three laryngeals is commonly 
accepted for its simplicity and wide acceptance today. For more on this see Appendix II. 3, The Laryngeal Theory. 




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l. Introduction 




A. GERMANIC 

The Germanic languages form one 
of the branches of the Indo-European 
language family. The largest Germanic 
languages are English and German, with 
ca. 340 and some 120 million native 
speakers, respectively. Other significant 
languages include a number Low 
Germanic dialects (like Dutch) and the 
Scandinavian languages. 

Spread of Germanic languages today. Their common ancestor is Proto- 

Germanic, probably still spoken in the mid-i st millennium B.C. in Iron Age Northern Europe, since its 
separation from an earlier Pre-Proto-Germanic, a dialect of Europe's Indo-European branch dated 
ca. 1000 BC. The succession of archaeological horizons suggests that before their language 
differentiated into the individual Germanic branches the Proto-Germanic speakers lived in southern 
Scandinavia and along the coast from the Netherlands in the west to the Vistula in the east around 750 
BC. Early Germanic dialects enter history with the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe 
along the borders of the Roman Empire from the 2 nd century. 

NOTE. A few surviving inscriptions in a runic script 
from Scandinavia dated to ca. 200 are thought to 
represent a later stage of Proto-Norse; according to 
Bernard Comrie, it represents a Late Common 
Germanic which followed the "Proto-Germanic" stage. 

The earliest evidence of the Germanic branch is 
recorded from names in the 1 st century by Tacitus, 
and in a single instance in the 2 nd century BC, on 
the Negau helmet. From roughly the 2 nd century 
AD, some speakers of early Germanic dialects 
developed the Elder Futhark. Early runic Expansion of Germanic tribes 1200 BC - 1 AD. 

inscriptions are also largely limited to personal names, and difficult to interpret. The Gothic language 
was written in the Gothic alphabet developed by Bishop Ulfilas for his translation of the Bible in the 4 th 
century. Later, Christian priests and monks who spoke and read Latin in addition to their native 
Germanic tongue began writing the Germanic languages with slightly modified Latin letters, but in 
Scandinavia, runic alphabets remained in common use throughout the Viking Age. 




43 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE. W. P. Lehmann (1961) considered that Jacob Grimm's "First Germanic Sound Shift", or Grimm's Law 
and Verner's Law, which pertained mainly to consonants and were considered for a good many decades to have 
generated Proto-Germanic, were Pre-Proto-Germanic, and that the "upper boundary" was the fixing of the accent, 
or stress, on the root syllable of a word, typically the first. Proto-Indo-European had featured a moveable pitch 
accent comprising "an alternation of high and low tones" as well as stress of position determined by a set of rules 
based on the lengths of the word's syllables. 

The fixation of the stress led to sound changes in unstressed syllables. For Lehmann, the "lower boundary" was 
the dropping of final -a or -e in unstressed syllables; for example, PIE woid-a >, Goth, wait, "knows" (the > and < 
signs in linguistics indicate a genetic descent). Antonsen (1965) agreed with Lehmann about the upper boundary 
but later found runic evidence that the -a was not dropped: Gmc. ekwakraz ... wraita, "I wakraz ... wrote (this)". 
He says: "We must therefore search for a new lower boundary for Proto-Germanic". 

The so-called Grimm's law is a set of statements describing the inherited Europe's Indo-European 
stops as they developed in Pre-Proto-Germanic. As it is presently formulated, Grimm's Law consists of 
three parts, which must be thought of as three consecutive phases in the sense of a chain shift: 

• PIE voiceless stops change into PGmc. voiceless 
fricatives: p->/, t->0, k->x, k w ^-x w . 

• PIE voiced stops become PGmc. voiceless stops: 
b-p, d^t, g-fc, g^fc". 

• PIE voiced aspirated stops lose their aspiration 
and change into plain voiced stops: b h ->5, d h ->d, 

gh^g g^gu> } g }W . 

Verner's Law addresses a category of exceptions, 
stating that unvoiced fricatives are voiced when 
preceded by an unaccented syllable: PGmc. s^z, f-+v, 
6^d; as, PIE b h rater -> PGmc. broper, "brother", but 
PIE mater -> PGmc. moder "mother". 

NOTE. Sometimes the shift produced allophones Germanic dialects in Europe. The line 
(consonants that were pronounced differently) depending on divides We stern from Northern dialects. 
the context of the original. With regard to original PIE k and k w , Trask (2000) says that the resulting PGmc. x and 
x w were reduced to h and h w in word-initial position. Consonants were lengthened or prolonged under some 
circumstances, appearing in some daughter languages as geminated graphemes. Kraehenmann (2003) states that 
Proto-Germanic already had long consonants, but they contrasted with short ones only word-medially. Moreover, 
they were not very frequent and occurred only intervocally almost exclusively after short vowels. The phonemes b, 
d, g and g w , says Ringe (2006) were stops in some environments and fricatives in others. 

Effects of the aforementioned sound laws include the following examples: 




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l. Introduction 

• p^/: PIE pods, "foot, FGmc.Jots; cf. Goth. Jotus, O.N.Jotr, O.E. fot, O.H.G. fuoz. 

• t^p,d: PIE tritjos, "third", PGmc. pridjaz; cf. Goth, pn'd/a, O.N. pn'de, OE. pridda, O.H.G. drifto. 

• k->x,A: PIE kuntos, "dog", PGmc. xundaz; cf. Goth, hunds, O.N. hundr, O.E. hund, O.H.G. nunf. 

• k w ^-x%/i u ': PIE k w os, "what, who", Gmc. h^oz; cf. Goth, hwas, O.N. Ziuerr, O.S. hwe, O.E. nu>d, 
O.Fris. hwa, O.H.G. hwer. 

• b->p: PIE werbo, "throw", Gmc. werpo; cf. Goth, wairpan, O.S. werpan, O.N. verpa, O.E. 
weorpan, M.L.G., Du. werpen, Ger. werfen. 

• d->£: PIE dekm, "ten", Gmc. tehun; cf. Goth, taihun, O.S. tehan, O.N. ftu, O.Fris. tt'an, O.Du. fen, 
O.H.G. ze/ian. 

• g^fc: PIE goldos, "coZd", Gmc. kaldaz; cf. Goth, fca/ds, O.N. kaldr, O.E. ca/d, O.H.G. fcaZt. 

• g w -^kw: PIE g w iwos, "alive", Gmc. k w i(k)waz; cf. Goth, fc'^'us, O.N. fcuz'fcr, O.E. cu;ic, O.H.G. guec. 

• b h ->b: PIE b h rater, Gmc. broper; cf. Goth, bropar, O.N. bropir, O.E. bropor, O.H.G. bruoder. 

• d h ->d: PIE d h woris, "door", Gmc. duriz; cf. Goth, daur, O.N. dyrr, O.E dura, O.H.G. turi. 

• g h ->g: PIE g h ansis, "goose", Gmc. gansiz; cf. Goth gansus, O.N. gds, O.E. gos, O.H.G. gans. 

• g wh ^>gw/g/w: PIE g wh ormos, "warm", Gmc. warmaz; cf. O.N. varmr, O.E. wearm, O.H.G. warm. 
PIE g wh ondos, "fight, Gmc. gandaz; cf. Goth, gimps, O.N. gandr, O.E. gup, O.H.G. gund. 

Known exception is that the voiceless stops did not become fricatives if they were preceded by PIE s., 
i.e. sp, st, sk, sk w . Similarly, PIE t did not become a fricative if it was preceded by p, k, or k w .This is 
sometimes treated separately under the Germanic spirant law. 

About the PIE vowels: a,o->a; PIE a,6^o. PGmc. had then short i, u, e, a, and long i, u, e, 6, a>? 

NOTE l. A similar mergers happened in the Slavic languages, but in the opposite direction. At the time of the 
merge, the vowels probably were [d] and [r>:] before their timbres differentiated into maybe [a] and [a:]. 

NOTE 2. PGmc. is. and e are also transcribed as e 1 and e 2 ; e 2 is uncertain as a phoneme, and only reconstructed 
from a small number of words; it is posited by the comparative method because whereas all probable instances of 
inherited PIE e (PGmc. *e 3 ) are distributed in Gothic as e and the other Germanic languages as d, all the Germanic 
languages agree on some occasions of e (e.g. PGmc. he 2 r — > Goth. ,O.E., O.N. her, "here"). Krahe treats e 2 
(secondary e) as identical with F. It probably continues PIE ei or ei, and it may have been in the process of 
transition from a diphthong to a long simple vowel in the Proto-Germanic period. Gothic makes no orthographic 
and therefore presumably no phonetic distinction between e 1 and e 2 . The existence of two Proto-Germanic [e:]- 
like phonemes is supported by the existence of two e-like Elder Futhark runes, Ehwaz and Eihwaz. 

Negau helmet. It 
reads (read from 
right to left) 
harikastiteiva\ 

\\ip, translated 
as "Harigast the 
priest. 




A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



B. LATIN 



The Romance languages, a 

major branch of the Indo- 
European language family, 
comprise all languages that 
descended from Latin, the 
language of the Roman Empire. 
Romance languages have some 
800 million native speakers 
worldwide, mainly in the 
Americas, Europe, and Africa, as 
well as in many smaller regions 
scattered through the world. The 




Regions where Romance languages are spoken, either as 
mother tongue or as second language. 



largest languages are Spanish and Portuguese, with about 400 and 200 million mother tongue speakers 
respectively, most of them outside Europe. Within Europe, French (with 80 million) and Italian (70 
million) are the largest ones. All Romance languages descend from Vulgar Latin, the language of 
soldiers, settlers, and slaves of the Roman Empire, which was substantially different from the Classical 
Latin of the Roman literati. Between 200 BC and 100 AD, the expansion of the Empire, coupled with 
administrative and educational policies of Rome, made Vulgar Latin the dominant native language over 
a wide area spanning from the Iberian Peninsula to the Western coast of the Black Sea. During the 
Empire's decadence and after its collapse and fragmentation in the 5 th century, Vulgar Latin evolved 
independently within each local area, and eventually diverged into dozens of distinct languages. The 
oversea empires established by Spain, Portugal and France after the 15 th century then spread Romance 
to the other continents — to such an extent that about two thirds of all Romance speakers are now 

outside Europe. 

Latin is usually classified, along with Faliscan, as an Italic 

dialect. The Italic speakers were not native to Italy, but migrated 

into the Italian Peninsula in the course of the 2 nd millennium BC, 

and were apparently related to the Celtic tribes that roamed over a 

large part of Western Europe at the time. Archaeologically, the 

Apennine culture of inhumations enters the Italian Peninsula from 

ca. 1350 BC, east to west; the Iron Age reaches Italy from ca. 1100 

The Duenos (O.Lat. duenus, Lat. BC > with the Villanovan culture (cremating), intruding north to 

buenus) Inscription in Old Latin, th B f th ft u arrival Italy was populated primarily by non- 

ca. 6 th century BC. J F F F J J 




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l. Introduction 



Indo-European groups (perhaps including the Etruscans). The first settlement on the Palatine hill dates 
to ca. 750 BC, settlements on the Quirinal to 720 BC, both related to the Founding of Rome. As Rome 
extended its political dominion over Italy, Latin became dominant over the other Italic languages, 
which ceased to be spoken perhaps sometime in the 1 st century AD. 

The ancient Venetic language, as revealed by its inscriptions (including complete sentences), was also 
closely related to the Italic languages and is sometimes even classified as Italic. However, since it also 
shares similarities with other Western Indo-European branches (particularly Germanic), some linguists 
prefer to consider it an independent 
Indo-European language. 

Italic is usually divided into: 

• Sabellic, including: 

o Oscan, spoken in south- 
central Italy. 
o Umbrian group: 
■ Umbrian. 

* Volscian. 

* Aequian. 

* Marsian. 

* South Picene. 

• Latino-Faliscan, including: 

o Faliscan, spoken in the area 
around Falerii Veteres, north 
of the city of Rome. 




o Latin, which was spoken in T . T . , _ D _ T . , r . , T . ,. 

r Iron Age Italy, ca 800 BC. In central Italy, Italic 

west-central Italy. The Roman languages. In southern and north-western Italy, other 

Indo-European languages. Venetic, Sicanian and Sicel were 

conquests eventually spread it possibly also languages of the IE family. 

throughout the Roman Empire and beyond. 

NOTE. A specimen of Faliscan appears written round the edge of a picture on a patera: "foied vino pipafo, era 
carefo", which in Old Latin would have been "hodie vinoni bibabo, eras carebo", translated as "today / will drink 
wine; tomorrow I won't have any" (R. S. Conway, Italic Dialects). Among other distinctive features, it shows the 
retention of medial/which in Latin became b, and evolution of PIE g h ^-/(/b-, contrast Lat. ho-). 



The Masiliana tablet abecedarium, ca. 700 BC, read right to left: 
ABGDEVZH0IKLMN[S]OPSQRSTUX<I> 1 P. 

47 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



■> f 



o 



-:; 




r* v ■ 









^ 



Phonetic changes from PIE to Latin include: b h ->//5, d h ->//&, g b ^>h/f, g w ^>w/g, l^^-kw/k, -p^-p/kw 

The Italic languages are first attested in writing from Umbrian 
and Faliscan inscriptions dating to the 7 th century BC. The 
alphabets used are based on the Old Italic alphabet, which is itself 
based on the Greek alphabet. The Italic languages themselves 
show minor influence from the Etruscan and somewhat more 
from the Ancient Greek languages. 

Oscan had much in common with Latin, though there are also 
some differences, and many common word-groups in Latin were 
represented by different forms; as, Lat. uolo, uelle, uolui, and 
other such forms from PIE wel-, will, were represented by words 
derived from g h er-, desire, cf. Osc. herest, "he wants, desires" as 
opposed to Lat. uult (id.). Lat. locus, "place" was absent and 
represented by Osc. slaagid. 

In phonology, Oscan also shows a different evolution, as PIE 
k w -> Osc. p instead of Lat. kw (cf. Osc. pi's, Lat. quis); PIE g w -» 
Osc. b instead of Latin w; PIE medial b h , d h -» Osc. /, in contrast 
to Lat. b or d (cf. Osc. mefiai, Lat. mediae), but v.s. Faliscan; etc. 

Hence the reconstructed changes of PIE into Proto-Italic: 

• Voiced labiovelars unround or lenite: g w ^>g/w, g wh ^g h . 

• Voiced aspirates become first unvoiced, then fricativize 
b h ^p h ^ <hf, d h -t*-.-0; g b ^k h ^x. 

NOTE. About PIE intervocalic g h — ► Ita. x, linguists (see Joseph y Wallace 1991) generally propose that it evolves 
as Faliscan g or k, while in Latin it becomes glottal h, without a change of manner of articulation. Picard (1993) 
rejects that proposal citing abstract phonetic principles, which Chela-Flores (1999) discusses. 

• PIE s -» Ita. before r (cf. Ita. kereOrom, Lat. cerebrum); unchanged elsewhere. 

Up to 8 cases are found; apart from the 6 cases of Classic Latin (i.e. N-V-A-G-D-Ab), there was a 
Locative (cf. Lat. proxumae viciniae, domi, carthagini; Osc. aasai, Lat. "in ara" etc.) and an 
Instrumental (cf. Columna Rostrata Lat. pugnandod, marid, naualid, etc; Osc. cadeis amnud, Lat. 
"inimicitiae causae"; Osc. preiuatud, Lat. "priuato", etc.). 

About forms different from original Genitives and Datives, compare Genitive (Lapis Satricanus:) 
popliosio valesiosio (the type in -i is also very old, Segomaros -1), and Dative (Praeneste Fibula:) 
numasioi, (Lucius Cornelius Scipio Epitaph:) quoiei. 






Forum inscription in Latin, 
written boustrophedon. 



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Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples: 

maximal expansion (ca. 200 BC) and modern 

"Celtic nations" and Celtic-speaking territories 



1. Introduction 

C. CELTIC 

The Celtic languages are the languages 
descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common 
Celtic", a dialect of Proto-Indo-European. 

During the 1 st millennium BC, especially 

between the 5 th and 2 nd centuries BC they 

were spoken across Europe, from the 

southwest of the Iberian Peninsula and the 

North Sea, up the Rhine and down the 

Danube to the Black Sea and the Upper 

Balkan Peninsula, and into Asia Minor 

(Galatia). Today, Celtic languages are now 

limited to a few enclaves in the British Isles and 

on the peninsula of Brittany in France. 



The distinction of Celtic into different sub-families probably occurred about 1000 BC. The early Celts 
are commonly associated with the archaeological Urnfield culture, the La Tene culture, and the 
Hallstatt culture. 

Scholarly handling of the Celtic languages has been rather argumentative owing to lack of primary 
source data. Some scholars distinguish Continental and Insular Celtic, arguing that the differences 
between the Goidelic and Brythonic languages arose after these split off from the Continental Celtic 
languages. Other scholars distinguish P-Celtic from Q-Celtic, putting most of the Continental Celtic 
languages in the former group - except for Celtiberian, which is Q-Celtic. 

NOTE. There are two competing schemata of categorization. One scheme, argued for by Schmidt (1988) among 
others, links Gaulish with Brythonic in a P-Celtic node, leaving Goidelic as Q-Celtic. The difference between P 
and Q languages is the treatment of PIE k w , which became *p in the P-Celtic languages but *Ar in Goidelic. An 
example is the Proto-Celtic verbal root k w rin- "to buy", which became pryn- in Welsh but cren- in Old Irish. 

The other scheme links Goidelic and Brythonic together as an Insular Celtic branch, while Gaulish and 
Celtiberian are referred to as Continental Celtic. According to this theory, the 'P-Celtic' sound change of [k w ] to [p] 
occurred independently or regionally. The proponents of the Insular Celtic hypothesis point to other shared 
innovations among Insular Celtic languages, including inflected prepositions, VSO word order, and the lenition of 
intervocalic [m] to [p], a nasalized voiced bilabial fricative (an extremely rare sound), etc. There is, however, no 
assumption that the Continental Celtic languages descend from a common "Proto-Continental Celtic" ancestor. 
Rather, the Insular/ Continental schemata usually consider Celtiberian the first branch to split from Proto-Celtic, 
and the remaining group would later have split into Gaulish and Insular Celtic. 



49 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



Si 1 Li rl i 


Parlsii 

Iceni 
Aire bates 








_jNl Belgae 

Dumnonir Be|gBe 

, M_ ^fl Treveri Volcae 


Boli 


i^ri^H 


Parlsii 








Veneti Carnutes 

Senones 

Plttones Bituriges 


Sequani 
Aedui 

9 1.4 T*rt* 

Helvetii 


* (hi i b i ■ rf i r 

Nori _ ., . 
ScorafSCl 




Avemi 
Aquitani Volcae 

Tectosages 


[rtsubres 


Boii 

Senones 


Dardani 


Gallaed _ „. 

Galli 




f" 






Cettiberi 
Lusltanl 




P 




'V 1 


Celticl 












ju^^fl[ 


j 















Known PIE evolutions into Proto-Celtic 
include: 

• Consonants: p ->0->h-H0 in initial and 
intervocalic positions. Cel. (ps^-xs, 
(pt^xt 

NOTE. PIE p was lost in Proto-Celtic, 

apparently going through the stages <p (perhaps 

in Lus. porcos, v.i.) and h (perhaps attested by 

the toponym Hercynia if this is of Celtic origin) 

before being lost completely word-initially and 

between vowels. PIE sp- became Old Irish s and 

Brythonic f; while Schriiver (1995) argues there TT „ . . . " .. ~, „„, , . „ ~ r 

J ' j v "^ & Hallstatt core territory (ca. 800 BC) and influence (ca. 

was an intermediate stage s0- (in which (/> 500 BC) and La Tene culture (ca. 450) and influence (ca. 

, . , , , .. ,. 50 BC), with some major Celtic tribes labeled. 

remained an independent phoneme until after 

Proto-Insular Celtic had diverged into Goidelic and Brythonic), McCone (1996) finds it more economical to believe 

that sp- remained unchanged in PC, that is, the change p to 0did not happen when s preceded. 

• Aspirated: d h ->-d, b h ->b, g h ->x, g wh ^g w ; but g w ->5. 

• Vowels: 6 -> a, u (in final syllable); e->i; PIE u-w -> Cel. o-w. 

• Diphthongs: ai-^ai, ei-^ei, oi-^oi; du-^au, eu,6u->ou; 

• Sonorants: l->Za, li (before stops); r -> or, ri (before stops); m ->• Cel. am; n -> Cel. an. 

Italo-Celtic refers to the hypothesis that Italic and Celtic dialects are descended from a common 
ancestor, Proto-Italo-Celtic, at a stage post-dating Proto-Indo-European. Since both Proto-Celtic and 
Proto-Italic date to the early Iron Age (say, the centuries on either side of 1000 BC), a probable time 
frame for the assumed period of language contact would be the late Bronze Age, the early to mid 2 nd 
millennium BC. Such grouping is supported among others by Meillet (1890), and Kortlandt (2007). 

NOTE. One argument for Italo-Celtic was the thematic Genitive in i (dominus, domini). Both in Italic (Popliosio 
Valesiosio, Lapis Satricanus) and in Celtic (Lepontic, Celtiberian -o), however, traces of PIE gentivie -osjo have 
been discovered, so that the spread of the z'-Genitive could have occurred in the two groups independently, or by 
areal diffusion. The community of -Fin Italic and Celtic maybe then attributable to early contact, rather than to an 
original unity. The i-Genitive has been compared to the so-called Cvi formation in Sanskrit, but that too is 
probably a comparatively late development. 

Other arguments include that both Celtic and Italic have collapsed the PIE Aorist and Perfect into a single past 
tense, and the d -subjunctive, because both Italic and Celtic have a subjunctive descended from an earlier optative 
in -a-. Such an optative is not known from other languages, but the suffix occurs in Balto-Slavic and Tocharian 
past tense formations, and possibly in Hittite -ahh-. 



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l. Introduction 



D. SLAVIC 



The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the 
Slavic peoples and a subgroup of the Indo-European language family, have speakers in most of Eastern 
Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. The largest 
languages are Russian and Polish, with 165 and some 47 million speakers, respectively. The oldest 
Slavic literary language was Old Church Slavonic, which later evolved into Church Slavonic. 




Distribution of Slavic languages in Europe now and in the past (in stripes). 

There is much debate whether Pre-Proto-Slavic branched off directly from Europe's Indo-European in 
2000 BC, or whether it passed through a common Proto-Balto-Slavic stage which had necessarily 
split apart before 1000 BC in its two main sub-branches. 



51 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 




The original homeland of the speakers of Proto- 
Slavic remains controversial too. The most ancient 
recognizably Slavic hydronyms (river names) are 
to be found in northern and western Ukraine and 
southern Belarus. It has also been noted that 
Proto-Slavic seemingly lacked a maritime 
vocabulary. 

The Proto-Slavic language seccesion from 
common Proto-Balto-Slavic is estimated on 
archaeological and glottochronological critera to 
have occurred between 1500-1000 BC. Common 

Historical distribution of the Slavic languages. Slavic is usuall y reconstructible to around 600 AD. 
The larqer shaded area is the Praque-Penkov- _ ,, „, , „ „,. . . n . . 

Kolochin complex of cultures of the 6th to 7 th B y the 7 th century, Common Slavic had broken 

centuries, likely corresponding to the spread of apart mto l arge dialectal zones. Linguistic 

Slavic-speaking tribes of the time. The smaller 

shaded area indicates the core area of Slavic differentiation received impetus from the 

river names, dated ca. 500 AD. -,. . , ., 01 , , 

dispersion of the Slavic peoples over a large 

territory - which in Central Europe exceeded the current extent of Slavic-speaking territories. Written 

documents of the 9 th , 10 th & 11 th centuries already show some local linguistic features. 

NOTE. For example the Freising monuments show a language which contains some phonetic and lexical 
elements peculiar to Slovenian dialects (e.g. rhotacism, the word krilatec). 

In the second half of the ninth century, the dialect spoken north of Thessaloniki became the basis for 
the first written Slavic language, created by the brothers Cyril and Methodius who translated portions of 
the Bible and other church books. The language they recorded is known as Old Church Slavonic. Old 
Church Slavonic is not identical to Proto-Slavic, having been recorded at least two centuries after the 
breakup of Proto-Slavic, and it shows features that clearly distinguish it from Proto-Slavic. However, it 
is still reasonably close, and the mutual intelligibility between Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic 
dialects of those days was proved by Cyril's and Methodius' mission to Great Moravia and Pannonia. 
There, their early South Slavic dialect used for the translations was clearly understandable to the local 
population which spoke an early West Slavic dialect. 

As part of the preparation for the mission, the Glagolitic alphabet was created in 862 and the most 
important prayers and liturgical books, including the Aprakos Evangeliar - a Gospel Book lectionary 
containing only feast-day and Sunday readings - , the Psalter, and Acts of the Apostles, were translated. 
The language and the alphabet were taught at the Great Moravian Academy (O.C.S. VeYkomoravske 
uciliste) and were used for government and religious documents and books. In 885, the use of the Old 



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l. Introduction 



Pope in favour of Latin. Students of the two 
brought the Glagolitic alphabet and the Old 
it was taught and Cyrillic alphabet developed 




llllifilV 



US 







I* 



Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by the 
apostles, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, 
Church Slavonic language to the Bulgarian Empire, where 
in the Preslav Literary School. 

Vowel changes from PIE to Proto-Slavic: 

> PIE i, ei -> Sla. u. 

> PIE ai, oi -> reduced *ai (*ai/*ui) -> Sla. i 2 . 
>PIEi^*z'^Sla. b. 

> PIE e -* Sla. e. 

> PIE en, em -* Sla. <?. 

> PIE e -* Sla. Si. 

> PIE ai, oi -> *ai -> Sla. e 2 . 

> PIE a, 6 -► *d -> Sla. a. 

> PIE a, o, intervocalic a -» *a ->• Sla. o. 

> PIE an, on, am, om ->*<m, *am ->• Sla. p. 

> PIE u -+ *u -» Sla. -6. 

> PIE u -> Sla. y. 

> PIE au, ou -» *au -> Sla. u. 

NOTE l. Apart from this simplified equivalences, other 

evolutions appear: „ , . 

A page from the io th -n th century 

o The vowels i 2 , e 2 developed later than i t , e ± . In Late Proto- Codex Zographensis found in the 

Slavic there were no differences in pronunciation between U and Zo 9 ra f Monastery in 1843- It is 

written in Ola Church Slavonic, in 
i 2 as well as between e t and e 2 . They had caused, however, the Glagolitic alphabet designed by 
different changes of preceding velars, see below. brothers St Cyril and St Methodius. 

o Late Proto-Slavic yers b, ?> < earlier i, u developed also from reduced PIE e, o respectively. The reduction was 
probably a morphologic process rather than phonetic. 

o We can observe similar reduction of a into *u (and finally y) in some endings, especially in closed syllables. 

o The development of the Sla. i 2 was also a morphologic phenomenon, originating only in some endings. 

o Another source of the Proto-Slavic y is *6 in Germanic loanwords - the borrowings took place when Proto- 
Slavic no longer had in native words, as PIE 6 had already changed into *d. 

o PIE a disappeared without traces when in a non-initial syllable. 

o PIE eu probably developed into *jau in Early Proto-Slavic (or: during the Balto-Slavic epoch), and 
eventually into Proto-Slavic ju. 



JMi«St»:n>f- k;»*,-l-K-4f tfHUi ,-l-K-t- ^/'"^ 



53 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



o According to some authors, PIE long diphthongs ei, ai, 6i, eu, an, 6u had twofold development in Early 
Proto-Slavic, namely they shortened in endings into simple *ei, *ai, *oi, *eu, *au, *ou but they lost their second 
element elsewhere and changed into *e, *d, *o with further development like above. 

NOTE 2. Other vocalic changes from Proto-Slavic include *jo, *jt>, *jy changed into *je, *jb, *ji; *o, *t>, *y also 
changed into *e, *b, *i after *c, *3, *s which developed as the result of the 3 rd palatalization; *e, *e changed into 
*o, *a after *c, *3, *s, *z in some contexts or words; a similar change of *e into *a after *j seems to have occurred in 
Proto-Slavic but next it can have been modified by analogy. 

On the origin of Proto-Slavic consonants, the following relationships are regularly found: 
• PIE p^ Sla. p. 



• PIE b, b h - Sla. b. 

• PIE t- Sla. t. 

• PIE d, d h - Sla. d. 

• PIE k, k w -► Sla. k; 

o palatalized *k> ->• Sla. s. 

• PIE g, g h , g w , g wh -> Sla. g; 

o palatalized *g>, *g> h ^ Sla. z. 

• PIE s^ Sla. s; 

o before a voiced consonant PIE [z] -» 

Sla. z; 
o PIE s before a vowel when after r, 
u, k, i, probably also after 1 ->• Sla. x. 
PIE word-final m -> Sla. n (<BS1. *n). 
PIE m -» Sla. im, um. 
PIE n -»• Sla. in, un. 
PIE 1 -> Sla. il, ul. 
PIE r ->• Sla. ir, ur. 

o ' 

PIE w^ Sla. u(<BSl. *w). 
PIE j - Sla. j. 




k 




Si 



|tt<UTBlEIJ)irmil!YH^CA ,t*TI 
lltttMKKf IhfMiHJta&tfl , JL'Ifl'i 
lUYKCAUnMGJL'ltlktlUT&iHU 

Ijiirt; unt£yiKmni!tTiT6itvfi:_ 
uiliTBincTtiifliTiuih , n 
mM<i,'Tmrti£4n!E.timhTbt 

M U I - E 1 tt L|l Etl C/KT1 £ f f IJCf/KTUlh 

MK«n^&x<iniiiM'fenHMT&;hi 



HBiriCTttnivtiiii(ti>ln^£tn 
~ KtmnmtUATbTbmiAtvTtwn 

TIIAnC/H&f:HT6lfH'.L , Mb.lTb! 




Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic, 
a language derived from Old Church Slavonic by 
adapting pronunciation and orthography, and 
replacing some old and obscure words and 
expressions by their vernacular counterparts. 



In some words the Proto-Slavic x developed from other PIE phonemes, like kH, ks, sk. 

NOTE. For a detailed study of phonetic changes you can read Frederik Kortlandt's online article From Proto- 
Indo-European to Slavic (1Q83) at <http://www.kortlandt.nl/publications/arto66e.pdf>. 



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l. Introduction 



E. BALTIC 



Kilometers 



Miles 



Baltic 
Sea 



The Baltic languages are a group 
of related languages belonging to the 
Indo-European language family and 
spoken mainly in areas extending 
east and southeast of the Baltic Sea 
in Northern Europe. 

The language group is often divided 
into two sub-groups: Western Baltic , 
containing only extinct languages as 
Prussian or Galindan, and Eastern 
Baltic , containing both extinct and 
the two living languages in the 
group, Lithuanian and Latvian. 
While related, Lithuanian, Latvian, 
and particularly Old Prussian differ 
substantially from each other and are 
not mutually intelligible. 

Baltic and Slavic share so many 
similarities that many linguists, following the lead of such notable Indo-Europeanists as August 
Schleicher and Oswald Szemerenyi, take these to indicate that the two groups separated from a 
common ancestor, the Proto-Balto-Slavic language, dated ca. 2000-1400 BC. 

NOTE 1. Until Meillet's Dialectes indo-europeens of 1908, Balto-Slavic unity was undisputed among linguists - 
as he notes himself at the beginning of the Le Balto-Slave chapter, "L'unite linguistique balto-slave est Yune de 
celles que personne ne conteste". Meillet's critique of Balto-Slavic confined itself to the seven characteristics listed 
by Karl Brugmann in 1903, attempting to show that no single one of these is sufficient to prove genetic unity. 
Szemerenyi in his 1957 re-examination of Meillet's results concludes that the Baits and Slavs did, in fact, share a 
"period of common language and life", and were probably separated due to the incursion of Germanic tribes 
along the Vistula and the Dnepr roughly at the beginning of the Common Era. 

NOTE 2. Another theory was proposed in the 1960s by V. Ivanov and V. Toporov: that the Balto-Slavic proto- 
language split from the start into West Baltic, East Baltic and Proto-Slavic. In their framework, Proto-Slavic is a 
peripheral and innovative Balto-Slavic dialect which suddenly expanded, due to a conjunction of historical 
circumstances. Onomastic evidence shows that Baltic languages were once spoken in much wider territory than 
the one they cover today, and were later replaced by Slavic. 




Baltic Tribes 
c. 1200 CE 



55 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

The most important of these common Balto-Slavic isoglosses are: 

• Winter's law: lengthening of a short vowel before a voiced plosive, usually in a closed syllable. 

• Identical reflexes of PIE syllabic sonorants, usually developing i and u before them. 

NOTE. Kurylowicz thought that *uR reflexes arose after PIE velars, and also notable is also older opinion of 
J.Endzelins and R. Trautmann according to whom *uR reflexes are the result of zero-grade of morphemes that 
had PIE o ->• PBS1. *a in normal-grade. Matasovic (2008) proposes following internal rules after PIE syllabic R ->• 
BS1. *ai?: 1) *a->*i in a final syllable; 2) *d^*u after velars and before nasals; 3) *a->*z otherwise. 

Hirt's law: retraction of PIE accent to the preceding syllable closed by a laryngeal. 

Rise of the Balto-Slavic acute before PIE laryngeals in a closed syllable. 

Replacement of PIE genitive singular of thematic nouns with ablative. 

Formation of past tense in *-e (cf. Lith. preterite dove, "he gave", O.C.S. imperfect foe, "he was") 

Generalization of the PIE neuter *to- stem to the nominative singular of masculine and feminine 

demonstratives instead of PIE so- pronoun, so, sa, tod -» BS1. tos, td, tod. 

• Formation of so-called definite adjectives with a construction of adjective and relative pronoun; 
cf. Lith. gerdsis, "the good", vs. geras, "good"; O.C.S dobrbjb, "the good", vs. dobrb, "good". 

NOTE. 'Ruki' is the term for a sound law which is followed especially in Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian dialects. 
The name of the term comes from the sounds which cause the phonetic change, i.e. PIE s -> s / r, u, K, i (it 
associates with a Slavic word which means 'hands' or 'arms'). A sibilant [s] is retracted to [f] after i,u,r, and after 
velars (i.e. k which may have developed from earlier k, g, g h ). Due to the character of the retraction, it was 
probably an apical sibilant (as in Spanish), rather than the dorsal of English. The first phase (s ->• s) seems to be 
universal, the later retroflexion (in Sanskrit and probably in Proto-Slavic as well) is due to levelling of the sibilant 
system, and so is the third phase - the retraction to velar [x] in Slavic and also in some Middle Indian languages, 
with parallels in e.g. Spanish. This rule was first formulated for the Indo-European by Holger Pedersen. 

Common Balto-Slavic innovations include several other prominent, but non-exclusive isoglosses, such 
as the satemization, Ruki, change of PIE o -> BS1. *a (shared with Germanic, Indo-Iranian and 
Anatolian) and the loss of labialization in PIE labiovelars (shared with Indo-Iranian, Armenian and 
Tocharian). Among Balto-Slavic archaisms notable is the retention of traces of an older PIE accent. 

Baltic and Slavic languages also show a remarkable amount of correspondence in vocabulary; there 
are at least 100 words exclusive to Balto-Slavic, either being a common innovation (i.e. not of PIE 
origin) or sharing the same semantic development from PIE root. For example: 

• BS1. *leipd, "tilia" -> Lith. liepa, O.Prus. llpa, Ltv. liepa; Sla. *lipa. 

• BS1. *rankd, "hand" -» Lith. rankd, O.Prus. rdnkan, Ltv. riioka; Sla. *rgkd (cf. O.C.S. rgka). 

• BS1. *galwa, "head" -» Lith. galvd, O.Prus. galwo, Ltv. galva; Sla. *golvd (cf. O.C.S. glava). 

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l. Introduction 

F. FRAGMENTARY DIALECTS 
MESSAPIAN 

Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of south-eastern Italy, 
once spoken in the regions of Apulia and Calabria. It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the 
region: the Messapians, the Daunii and the Peucetii. The language, a centum dialect, has been 
preserved in about 260 inscriptions dating from the 6 th to the 1 st century BC. 

There is a hypothesis that Messapian was an Illyrian language. The Illyrian languages were spoken 
mainly on the other side of the Adriatic Sea. The link between Messapian and Illyrian is based mostly 
on personal names found on tomb inscriptions and on classical references, since hardly any traces of 
the Illyrian language are left. 

The Messapian language became extinct after the Roman Empire conquered the region and 
assimilated the inhabitants. 

Some phonetic characteristics of the language maybe regarded as quite certain: 

• PIE short o->a, as in the last syllable of the genitive kalatoras. 

• PIE final m->n, as in aran. 

• PIE nj->-nn, as in the Messapian praenomen Dazohonnes vs. the Illyrian praenomen Dazonius; 
the Messapian genitive Dazohonnihi vs. Illyrian genitive Dasonii, etc. 

• PIE tj->tth, as in the Messapian praenomen Dazetthes vs. Illyrian Dazetius; the Messapian 
genitive Dazetthihi vs. the Illyrian genitive Dazetii; from a Dazet- stem common in Illyrian and 
Messapian. 

• PIE si->ss, as in Messapian Vallasso for Vallasio, a derivative from the shorter name Valla. 

• The loss of final -d, as in tepise, and probably of final -t, as in -des, perhaps meaning "set", from 
PIE d h e-, "set, put". 

• The change of voiced aspirates in Proto-Indo-European to plain voiced consonants: PIE d h ->d, 
as in Messapian anda (< PIE en-d h a- < PIE en-, "in", compare Gk. entha); and PIE b h ->5, as in 
Messapian beran (< PIE b h er-, "to bear"). 

• PIE au->d before (at least some) consonants: Basta, from Bausta. 

• The form penkaheh - which Torp very probably identifies with the Oscan stem pompaio - a 
derivative of the Proto-Indo-European numeral penk w e, "five". 

If this last identification be correct it would show, that in Messapian (just as in Venetic and Ligurian) 
the original labiovelars (k w , g w , g wh ) were retained as gutturals and not converted into labials. The 
change of o to a is exceedingly interesting, being associated with the northern branches of Indo- 



57 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

European such as Gothic, Albanian and Lithuanian, and not appearing in any other southern dialect 
hitherto known. The Greek Aphrodite appears in the form Aprodita (Dat. Sg., fern.). 

The use of double consonants which has been already pointed out in the Messapian inscriptions has 
been very acutely connected by Deecke with the tradition that the same practice was introduced at 
Rome by the poet Ennius who came from the Messapian town Rudiae (Festus, p. 293 M). 

VENETIC 

Venetic is an Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the Veneto region of Italy, 
between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps. 

The language is attested by over 300 short inscriptions dating between the 6 th century BC and 1 st 
century. Its speakers are identified with the ancient people called Veneti by the Romans and Enetoi by 
the Greek. It became extinct around the 1 st century when the local inhabitants were assimilated into the 
Roman sphere. 

Venetic was a centum dialect. The inscriptions use a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, similar to 
the Old Italic alphabet. 

The exact relationship of Venetic to other Indo-European languages is still being investigated, but the 
majority of scholars agree that Venetic, aside from Liburnian, was closest to the Italic languages. 
Venetic may also have been related to the Illyrian languages, though the theory that Illyrian and Venetic 
were closely related is debated by current scholarship. 

Interesting parallels with Germanic have also been noted, especially in pronominal forms: 

• Ven. ego, "I", ace. mego, "me"; Goth, ik, ace. mik; but cf. Lat. ego, ace. me. 

• Ven. sselboisselboi, "to oneself; O.H.G. selb selbo; but cf. Lat. sibi ipsi. 

Venetic had about six or even seven noun cases and four conjugations (similar to Latin). About 60 
words are known, but some were borrowed from Latin (liber, tos. < libertus) or Etruscan. Many of them 
show a clear Indo-European origin, such as Ven. vhraterei (< PIE b h raterei), "to the brother". 

In Venetic, PIE stops b h ->/, d h ->/, g h ->/i, in word-initial position (as in Latin and Osco-Umbrian), but 
to b h ->&, d h ->d, gk-M?, in word-internal intervocalic position, as in Latin. For Venetic, at least the 
developments of b h and d h are clearly attested. Faliscan and Osco-Umbrian preserve internal b h ->/, 
d"-/,g"-/i. 

There are also indications of the developments of PIE initial g w ->u;-, PIE k w ->/o; and PIE initial g wh ->/ 
in Venetic, all of which are parallel to Latin, as well as the regressive assimilation of PIE sequence 
p...k w ... -> k w ...k w ... (e.g. penk w e -> *k w enk w e, "five", perk w u-> *k w erk w u, "oak"), a feature also found 
in Italic and Celtic (Lejeune 1974). 

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l. Introduction 

LIGURIAN 

The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient 
people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures. Very little is known about 
this language (mainly place names and personal names remain) which is generally believed to have 
been Indo-European; it appears to have adopted significantly from other Indo-European languages, 
primarily Celtic (Gaulish) and Italic (Latin). 

Strabo states "As for the Alps... Many tribes (ethne) occupy these mountains, all Celtic (Keltika) 
except the Ligurians; but while these Ligurians belong to a different people (hetero-ethneis), still they 
are similar to the Celts in their modes of life (biois)." 

LIBURNIAN 

The Liburnian language is an extinct language which was spoken by the ancient Liburnians, who 
occupied Liburnia in classical times. The Liburnian language is reckoned as an Indo-European 
language, usually classified as a Centum language. It appears to have been on the same Indo-European 
branch as the Venetic language; indeed, the Liburnian tongue may well have been a Venetic dialect. 

No writings in Liburnian are known, though. The grouping of Liburnian with Venetic is based on the 
Liburnian onomastics. In particular, Liburnian anthroponyms show strong Venetic affinities, with 
many common or similar names and a number of common roots, such as Vols-, Volt-, and Host- (<PIE 
g h os-ti-, "stranger, guest, host"). Liburnian and Venetic names also share suffixes in common, such as 
-icus and -ocus. 

NOTE. These features set Liburnian and Venetic apart from the Illyrian onomastic province, though this does 
not preclude the possibility that Venetic-Liburnian and Illyrian may have been closely related, belonging to the 
same Indo-European branch. In fact, a number of linguists argue that this is the case, based on similar phonetic 
features and names in common between Venetic-Liburnian on the one hand and Illyrian on the other. 

The Liburnians were conquered by the Romans in 35 BC, and its language was eventually replaced by 
Latin, undergoing language death probably very early in the Common era. 

LUSITANIAN 

Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was a Paleohispanic Indo-European 
language known by only five inscriptions and numerous toponyms and theonyms. The language was 
spoken before the Roman conquest of Lusitania, in the territory inhabited by Lusitanian tribes, from 
Douro to the Tagus rivers in the wetern area of the Iberian Peninsula, where they were established 
already before the 6 th century BC. 



59 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



Their language is usually 
considered a Pre-Celtic (possibly 
Italo-Celtic) IE dialect, and it is 
sometimes associated with the 
language of the Vettones and with 
the linguistic substratum of the 
Gallaeci and Astures, based on 
archaeological findings and 
descriptions of ancient historians. 

NOTE. The affiliation of the 
Lusitanian language within the Italo- 
Celtic group is still debated. There 
are those who endorse that it is a 
Celtic language, a theory largely 
based upon the historical fact that 
the only Indo-European tribes that 
are known to have existed in 
Portugal at that time were Celtic 
tribes. The apparent Celtic 
character of most of the lexicon — 

anthroponyms and toponyms — may also support a Celtic affiliation. There is a substantial problem in the Celtic 
theory however: the preservation of PIE initial p-, as in Lusitanian pater or por com, meaning "father" and "pig", 
respectively. The Celtic languages had lost that initial p- in their evolution; compare Lat. pater, Gaul, ater, and 
Lat. porcum, O.Ir. ore. However, it does not necessarily preclude the possibility of Lusitanian being Celtic, 
because of the supposed evolution of PIE initial p -> *<f) -> *h -> Cel. 0, so it might have been an early Proto-Celtic 
(or Italo-Celtic) dialect that split off before the loss of p-, or when p- had become *<p - (before shifting to h- and 
then being lost); the letter p of the Latin alphabet could have been used to represent either sound. 

F. Villar and R. Pedrero relate Lusitanian with the 
Italic languages. The theory is based on parallels in the 
names of deities, as Lat. Consus, Lus. Cossue, Lat. Seia, 
Lus. Segia, or Marrucinian Iovia, Lus. Iovea(i), etc. 
and other lexical items, as Umb. gomia, Lus. comaiam, 
with some other grammatical elements. 

Arroyo de la Luz (Cdceres) Inscription: 
ISACCID-RVETI//PVPPID-CARLAE-EN//ETO 
M-INDI-NA. //....CE-IOM-//M- 





8 — := Gauls 




j S = Aqultnnl 


tttk -*0F'h 


■ .in'.iln g o 5 ! 




s > — 

"* is Sorclurtes 
3 S Cerclani 

TurmrsrligiRernni S AUKtUDJ 

o lleirjetes Indigctcs 
1 .act! *a i 


mmmL 


Vaeeaei 

la it t an i 


■iH^ 


^ Cossets, n i 


■■ 


A Celtlb«ti Mercavoiies 


rt ■ 


= liisium Veltnnes 


■ 


- fl Rh 






1 Catpetanl ^^^ 




F 'If till! ? 


3 




1- w 




Celtic i 


^ Funic 




Omtani Contestani + 


Tiinltili 






Battetanl 


Conii - , 

Twilet.iiu 
•,.••. .ir-X-vy. 5 ::':: 


_ ■ 


Bsstuli 


Indo-European 


Language Isolates 


languages and Ethnic 


and Ethnic groups 


groups 

| Pre-Celtic 




~] Iberian 1 AquManian 






~] Tarlessian residual [ i Aqultanian 

residual 




1 Celtic 


\ Turttetanian 


(Tartessian derived) 



Classification of ethnic groups in Hispania ca. 200 BC. 




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l. Introduction 



II. NORTHERN INDO-EUROPEAN IN ASIA: TOCHARIAN 




X 



^*fc.«-. 



*r 



f'^t'^3**?*^ 




Wooden plate with inscriptions in Tocharian. Kucha, China, 

tjth.gth century. 



Tocharian or Tokharian is 

one of the most obscure branches 
of the group of Indo-European 
languages. The name of the 
language is taken from people 
known to the Greek historians 
(Ptolemy VI, 11, 6) as the 
Tocharians (Greek Toxctpoi, 
"Tokharoi"). These are 

sometimes identified with the 
Yuezhi and the Kushans, while 
the term Tokharistan usually 

refers to 1 st millennium Bactria. A 

Turkic text refers to the Turfanian 

language (Tocharian A) as twqry. Interpretation is difficult, but F. W. K. Miiller has associated this with 

the name of the Bactrian Tokharoi. In Tocharian, the language is referred to as arish-kdna and the 

Tocharians as arya. 

Tocharian consisted of two languages; Tocharian A (Turfanian, Arsi, or East Tocharian) and 
Tocharian B (Kuchean or West Tocharian). These languages were spoken roughly from the 6 th to 9 th 
century centuries; before they became extinct, their speakers were absorbed into the expanding Uyghur 
tribes. Both languages were once spoken in the Tarim Basin in Central Asia, now the Xinjiang 
Autonomous Region of China. 

Tocharian is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 8 th century (with a few earlier 
ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely 
dry climate of the Tarim Basin. Samples of the language have been discovered at sites in Kucha and 
Karasahr, including many mural inscriptions. 

Tocharian A and B are not intercomprehensible. Properly speaking, based on the tentative 
interpretation of twqry as related to Tokharoi, only Tocharian A may be referred to as Tocharian, while 
Tocharian B could be called Kuchean (its native name may have been kusinne), but since their 
grammars are usually treated together in scholarly works, the terms A and B have proven useful. The 
common Proto-Tocharian language must precede the attested languages by several centuries, probably 
dating to the 1 st millennium BC. 



6l 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



1.7.2. SOUTHERN INDO-EUROPEAN DIALECTS 



I. GREEK 



Greek (Gk. 'EAAnviKri, 
"Hellenic") is an Indo- 
European branch with a 
documented history of 3,500 
years. Today, Modern Greek is 
spoken by 15 million people in 
Greece, Cyprus, the former 
Yugoslavia, particularly the 
former Yugoslav Republic of 
Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania 
and Turkey. 

The major dialect groups of 
the Ancient Greek period can 
be assumed to have developed 
not later than 1120 BC, at the 
time of the Dorian invasions, 
and their first appearances as 




EPIRUS 
"\ Ambracia 

NORTmmST *&\ 

rMsyrjis >T|.^f IV\j 



V- AtOLIA 



hk'S 




■■'•■■ Smyrna 



'scynthos'--. olympia " : ■""-'- 



Argos 

A OS* A FiiA F*--P 



i • Ephesus 
l»Miletus 



Pyiag^ 



B*« Sparta \ 



DORIC 



CYCLADES . 

3( "**' " 



LYDIAN 



CARIAN 



ca :;) ,-.-'!: 



!r ^) a 



D ^D 




:nE7E L-^""'j 




Ancient Greek dialects by 400 BC after R.D. Woodard (2008). 

precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BC. The ancient Greeks themselves considered there 
to be three major divisions of the Greek people, into Dorians, Aeolians, and Ionians (including 
Athenians), each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of 
Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, and Cyprian, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this 
division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological and linguistic 
investigation. 

Greek has been spoken in the Balkan Peninsula since the 2 nd millennium BC. The earliest evidence of 
this is found in the Linear B tablets dating from 1500 BC. The later Greek alphabet is unrelated to 
Linear B, and was derived from the Phoenician alphabet; with minor modifications, it is still used today. 

Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek branch, spoken on mainland Greece and 
on Crete in the 16 th to 11 th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. It is preserved in inscriptions in 
Linear B, a script invented on Crete before the 14 th century BC. Most instances of these inscriptions are 
on clay tablets found in Knossos and in Pylos. The language is named after Mycenae, the first of the 
palaces to be excavated. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

The tablets remained long undeciphered, and every 
conceivable language was suggested for them, until Michael 
Ventris deciphered the script in 1952 and proved the language 
to be an early form of Greek. The texts on the tablets are 
mostly lists and inventories. No prose narrative survives, much 
less myth or poetry. Still, much may be glimpsed from these 
records about the people who produced them, and about the 
Mycenaean period at the eve of the so-called Greek Dark Ages. 

Unlike later varieties of Greek, Mycenaean Greek probably 
had seven grammatical cases, the nominative, the genitive, the 
accusative, the dative, the instrumental, the locative, and the 
vocative. The instrumental and the locative however gradually 
fell out of use. 






mM 










T WfP > : 



Linear B has roughly 200 signs, 
divided into syllabic signs with 

NOTE. For the Locative in -ei, compare di-da-ka-re, 'didaskalei', e-pi- Phonetic values and logograms 

with semantic values, 
ko-e, 'Epikohef, etc (in Greek there are syntactic compounds like puloi- 

genes, 'born in Pylos'); also, for remains of an Ablative case in -od, compare (months' names) ka-ra-e-ri-jo-me- 

no, wo-de-wi-jo-me-no, etc. 

Proto-Greek, a southern PIE dialect, was spoken in the late 3 rd millennium BC, roughly at the same 
time as Europe's Indo-European, most probably in the Balkans. The unity of Proto-Greek probably 
ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek 
peninsula around the 21st century BC. They were then separated from the Dorian Greeks, who entered 
the peninsula roughly one millennium later, speaking a dialect that in some respects had remained 
more archaic. 

Proto-Greek was affected by a late satemization, evidenced by the (post-Mycenaean) change of 
labiovelars into dentals before e (e.g. k w e -» te "and"). 

The primary sound changes from PIE (and PIH laryngeals) to Proto-Greek include: 

• Aspiration of PIE intervocalic s ->• PGk h. 

NOTE. The loss of PIE prevocalic s- was not completed entirely, famously evidenced by sus "sow", dasus 
"dense"; sun "with", sometimes considered contaminated with PIE kom (cf. Latin cum) to Homeric / Old Attic 
ksun, is possibly a consequence of Gk. psi-substrate (See Villar). 

• De-voicing of voiced aspirates: b h ^p h , d h ^t h , g h ^k h , g» h ->k wh . 

• Dissimilation of aspirates (Grassmann's law), possibly post-Mycenaean. 

• PIE word-initial j- (not Hj-) is strengthened to PGk dj- (later Gk. £-). 



63 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

• Vocalization of laryngeals between vowels and initially before consonants, i.e. h^e, Ji 2 ->a, h 3 -+o. 

NOTE. The evolution of Proto-Greek should be considered with the background of an early Palaeo-Balkan 
sprachbund that makes it difficult to delineate exact boundaries between individual languages. The 
characteristically Greek representation of word-initial laryngeals by prothetic vowels is shared by the Armenian 
language, which also shares other phonological and morphological peculiarities of Greek, vide infra. 

• The sequence CRHC (where C = consonant, R = resonant, H = laryngeal) becomes PIH CRhiC 
-> PGk CReC; PIH CRh 2 C -> PGk CRaC; PIH CRh 3 C -> PGk CR6C. 

• The sequence PIH CRHV (where V = vowel) becomes PGk CaRV. 

NOTE. It has also been proposed that Vk^'^uk 1 "; cf. PIE nok w ts, "night" -> PGk nuk w ts -> Gk. nuks/nuxt-. 

Later sound changes between the earliest Proto-Greek and the attested Mycenaean include: 

o Loss of final stop consonants; final m->n. 

o Syllabic m-»om, and n->an, before resonants; otherwise both were nasalized m/n^a-»a. 

o loss of s in consonant clusters, with supplementary lengthening, e.g. esmi->emi. 

o creation of secondary s from clusters, ntia^nsa. Assibilation ti^si only in southern dialects. 

Other attested changes between PIE and the earliest Greek dialects include: 

• The PIE dative, instrumental and locative cases are syncretized into a single dative case. Some 
innovative desinences appear, as e.g. dative plural -si from locative plural -su. 

• Dialectal nominative plural in -oi, -ai fully replaces Late PIE common -6s, -as. 

• The superlative on -tatos (<PIE -tm-to-s) becomes productive. 

• The peculiar oblique stem gunaik- "women", attested from the Thebes tablets is probably Proto- 
Greek; it appears, at least as gunai- also in Armenian. 

• The pronouns houtos, ekeinos and autos are created. Use of ho, ha, ton as articles is post- 
Mycenaean. 

• An isogloss between Greek and the closely related Phrygian is the absence of r-endings in the 
Middle in Greek, apparently already lost in Proto-Greek. 

• Proto-Greek inherited the augment, an IE prefix e- to verbal forms expressing past tense. This 
feature it shares only with Indo-Iranian and Phrygian (and to some extent, Armenian), lending 
support to a Southern or Graeco-Aryan Dialect. 

• The first person middle verbal desinences -mai, -man replace -ai, -a. The third singular pherei 
is an analogical innovation, replacing the expected PIE b h ereti, i.e. Dor. *phereti, Ion. *pheresi. 

• The future tense is created, including a future passive, as well as an aorist passive. 

• The suffix -ka- is attached to some perfects and aorists. 

• Infinitives in -ehen, -enai and -men are created. 

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l. Introduction 



II. ARMENIAN 



1CK} Kilometers 



100 Miles 

nr 



Azerbaijan 




[a Armenian 
"I^Azeri 



Greek |~" \ R Russian 
Other 



K Kurd 



Sparsely populated or uninhabited areas are shown in white. 



Distribution of Armenian speakers in the 20 th 
Century. 



Armenian is an Indo-European language 
spoken in the Armenian Republic and also used 
by Armenians in the Diaspora. It constitutes an 
independent branch of the Indo-European 
language family. 

Armenian was traditionally regarded as a close 
relative of Phrygian, apparently closely related to 
Greek, sharing major isoglosses with it. The 
Graeco-Armenian hypothesis proposed a close 
relationship to the Greek language, putting both 
in the larger context of Paleo-Balkans languages 
- notably including Phrygian, which is widely 
accepted as an Indo-European language 
particularly close to Greek, and sometimes Ancient 
Macedonian -, consistent with Herodotus' 



recording of the Armenians as descending from colonists of the Phrygians. 

NOTE. That traditional linguistic theory, proposed by Pedersen (1924), establishes a close relationship between 
both original communities, Greek and Armenian, departing from a common subdialect of IE Ilia (Southern 
Dialect of Late PIE). That vision, accepted for a long time, was rejected by Clackson (1994) in The linguistic 
relationship between Armenian and Greek , which, supporting the Graeco-Aryan linguistic hypothesis, dismisses 
that the coincidences between Armenian and Greek represent more than those found in the comparison between 
any other IE language pair. Those findings are supported by Kortlandt in Armeniaca (2003), in which he proposes 
a continuum Daco-Albanian / Graeco -Phrygian / Thraco -Armenian. 

The earliest testimony of the Armenian language dates to the 5 th century AD, the Bible translation of 
Mesrob Mashtots. The earlier history of the language is unclear and the subject of much speculation. It 
is clear that Armenian is an Indo-European language, but its development is opaque. 

NOTE. Proto-Armenian sound-laws are varied and eccentric, such as PIE dw- yielding Arm. A:-, and in many 
cases still uncertain. In fact, that phonetic development is usually seen as dw- to erk-, based on PIE numeral 
dwo-, "two", a reconstruction Kortlandt (ibidem) dismisses, exposing alternative etymologies for the usual 
examples. 

PIE voiceless stops are aspirated in Proto-Armenian, a circumstance that gave rise to the Glottalic 
theory, which postulates that this aspiration may have been sub-phonematic already in PIE. In certain 



65 




»9Hji-i:Hr. i« 

I:i '■ 4HUI h 
il:i .J1IIV 11/ 

IH;llUIIilll J tlt 

Mis-jo n 



., l"JH*li IUv •- 

•iit-ai;i.oiH;i'«L * 

IIUII-M -Wll : , 

* x 

i , l'.4'lll : 



I 'l 



"H'l.-fiilfaM*!; 



I'lrhiiEsiii'i^-r.) 



Armenian manuscript, ca. 
5 th -6 th AD. 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

contexts, these aspirated stops are further reduced to w, h or zero in Armenian - so e.g. PIE *p'ots, into 
Arm. otn, Gk. pons, "foot"; PIE *t'reis, Arm. erek', Gk. frez's, "three". 

The reconstruction of Proto-Armenian being very uncertain, there 
is no general consensus on the date range when it might have been 
alive. If Herodotus is correct in deriving Armenians from Phrygian 
stock, the Armenian-Phrygian split would probably date to between 
roughly the 12 th and 7 th centuries BC, but the individual sound-laws 
leading to Proto-Armenian may have occurred at any time 
preceding the 5 th century AD. The various layers of Persian and 
Greek loanwords were likely acquired over the course of centuries, 
during Urartian (pre-6 th century BC) Achaemenid (6 th to 4 th c. BC; 
Old Persian), Hellenistic (4 th to 2 nd c. BC Koine Greek) and Parthian 
(2 nd c. BC to 3 rd c. AD; Middle Persian) times. 

Grammatically, early forms of Armenian had much in common 
with classical Greek and Latin, but the modern language (like 
Modern Greek) has undergone many transformations. Interestingly enough, it shares with Italic 
dialects the secondary IE suffix -tio(n), extended from -ti, cf. Arm p]ni_h (t'youn). 

III. INDO-IRANIAN 

The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European 
family of languages. It consists of four language groups: the Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, and 
possibly Dardic, usually classified within the Indie subgroup. The term Aryan languages is also 
traditionally used to refer to the Indo-Iranian languages. 

The contemporary Indo-Iranian languages form the largest sub-branch of Indo-European, with more 
than one billion speakers in total, stretching from Europe (Romani) and the Caucasus (Ossetian) to East 
India (Bengali and Assamese). A 2005 estimate counts a total of 308 varieties, the largest in terms of 
native speakers being Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu, ca. 540 million), Bengali (ca. 200 million), Punjabi 
(ca. 100 million), Marathi and Persian (ca. 70 million each), Gujarati (ca. 45 million), Pashto (40 
million), Oriya (ca. 30 million), Kurdish and Sindhi (ca. 20 million each). 

Proto-Indo-Iranians are commonly identified with the bearers of the Andronovo culture and their 
homeland with an area of the Eurasian steppe that borders the Ural River on the west, the Tian Shan on 
the east - where the Indo-Iranians took over the area occupied by the earlier Afanasevo culture -, and 
Transoxiana and the Hindu Kush on the south. Historical linguists broadly estimate that a continuum 
of Indo-Iranian languages probably began to diverge by 2000 BC, preceding both the Vedic and Iranian 



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l. Introduction 

cultures. A Two-wave model of Indo-Iranian expansion have been proposed (see Burrow 1973 and 
Parpola 1999), strongly associated with the chariot. 

Aryans spread into the Caucasus, the 

Iranian plateau, and South Asia, as well 

as into Mesopotamia and Syria, 

introducing the horse and chariot 

culture to this part of the world. 

Sumerian texts from EDIIIb Ngirsu 

(2500-2350 BC) already mention the 

'chariot' (gigir) and Ur III texts (2150- 

2000 BC) mention the horse (anshe-zi- 

zi). They left linguistic remains in a 

Hittite horse-training manual written 

by one "Kikkuli the Mitannian". Other 

evidence is found in references to the 

Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion names of Mitanni rulers and the gods 

into the Andronovo culture during the 2 nd millennium BC, , .... 

showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. The the y swore b y in treaties; these remains 

location of the earliest chariots is shown in purple . are found in the archives of the 

Mitanni's neighbors, and the time period for this is about 1500 BC. 

The standard model for the entry of the Indo-European languages into South Asia is that the First 
Wave went over the Hindu Kush, either into the headwaters of the Indus and later the Ganges. The 
earliest stratum of Vedic Sanskrit, preserved only in the Rigveda, is assigned to roughly 1500 BC. From 
the Indus, the Indo-Aryan languages spread from ca. 1500 BC to ca. 500 BC, over the northern and 
central parts of the subcontinent, sparing the extreme south. The Indo-Aryans in these areas 
established several powerful kingdoms and principalities in the region, from eastern Afghanistan to the 
doorstep of Bengal. 

The Second Wave is interpreted as the Iranian wave. The Iranians would take over all of Central 
Asia, Iran, and for a considerable period, dominate the European steppe (the modern Ukraine) and 
intrude north into Russia and west into central and eastern Europe well into historic times and as late 
as the Common Era. The first Iranians to reach the Black Sea may have been the Cimmerians in the 8th 
century BC, although their linguistic affiliation is uncertain. They were followed by the Scythians, who 
are considered a western branch of the Central Asian Sakas, and the Sarmatian tribes. 

The Medes, Parthians and Persians begin to appear on the Persian plateau from ca. 800 BC, and the 
Achaemenids replaced Elamite rule from 559 BC. Around the first millennium of the Common Era, the 



67 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Iranian Pashtuns and Baloch began to settle on the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau, on the 
mountainous frontier of northwestern Pakistan in what is now the North-West Frontier Province and 
Balochistan, displacing the earlier Indo-Aryans from the area. 

The main changes separating Proto-Indo-Iranian from Late PIE include: 

• Early "satemization" trend: 

o Loss of PIE labio-velars into PII plain velars: k w ->/c , g w -K7, g wb ^g h ■ 

o Palatalization of PII velars in certain phonetic environments: k-^k, g^g, g h ^>g h - 

• Collapse of PIE ablauting vowels into a single PII vowel: e,o->a; e,6->d. 
o A common exception is the Brugmann's law. 

• Grassmann's law, Bartholomae's law, and the Ruki sound law were also complete in PII. 

NOTE. For a detailed description of those Indo-Iranian sound laws and the "satemization" process, see 
Appendix II. For Ruki sound law, v.s. Baltic in §1.7.1. 

• Sonorants are generally stable in PII, but for PIE 1 -»• PII r, just like l->r. 

Among the sound changes from Proto-Indo-Iranian to Indo-Aryan is the loss of the voiced sibilant *z; 
among those to Iranian is the de-aspiration of the PIE voiced aspirates. 



A. IRANIAN 





%,, Persian 






-V--"' 



The Iranian languages 

are a branch of the Indo- 
Iranian subfamily, with an 
estimated 150-200 million 
native speakers today, the 
largest being Persian (ca. 60 
million), Kurdish (ca. 25 
million), Pashto (ca. 25 
million) and Balochi (ca. 7 
million). 

Proto-Iranian dates to some 
time after Proto-Indo-Iranian 
breakup, or the early second millennium BC, as the Old Iranian languages began to break off and evolve 
separately as the various Iranian tribes migrated and settled in vast areas of southeastern Europe, the 
Iranian plateau, and Central Asia. The oldest Iranian language known, Avestan, is mainly attested 
through the Avesta, a collection of sacred texts connected to the Zoroastrian religion. 




h . ; 



,y t 




Current distribution of Iranian dialects. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

Linguistically, the Old Iranian languages are divided into two major families, the Eastern and Western 
group, and several subclasses. The so-called Eastern group includes Scythian, even though the Scyths 
lived in a region extending further west than the Western group. The northwestern branch included 
Median, and Parthian, while the southwestern branch included Old Persian. 



B. INDO -ARYAN 

The Indo-Aryan or Indie languages 

are a branch of the Indo-Iranian 
subfamily with a total number of native 
speakers of more than 900 million. The 
largest in terms of native speakers 
being Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu, 
about 540 million), Bangali (about 200 
million), Punjabi (about 100 million), 
Marathi (about 90 million), Gujarati 
(about 45 million), Nepali (about 40 
million), Oriya (about 30 million), 
Sindhi (about 20 million) and 
Assamese (about 14 million). 

The earliest evidence of the group is 
from Vedic Sanskrit, the language used 
in the ancient preserved texts of the 
Indian subcontinent, the foundational 
canon of Hinduism known as the 
Vedas. The Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni is of similar age as the Rigveda, but the only evidence is a 
number of loanwords. 

In the 4 th c. BC, the Sanskrit language was codified and standardised by the grammarian Panini, called 
"Classical Sanskrit" by convention. Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) 
continued to evolve and, in medieval times, diversified into various Middle Indie dialects. 

C. NURISTANI 

The recent view is to classify Nuristani as an independent branch of the Indo-Iranian language family, 
instead of the the Indie or Iranian group. In any event, it would seem they arrived in their present 
homeland at a very early date, and never entered the western Punjab of Pakistan. 



Khowar ^-~ 

' """i^lllw"' Shina '' ' "-' % 
Pashai-^^ J0jlM!$%?M 








/Cffl!$k BsC Kashmiri 
Kohistanr ^ <i ^f?yi*8x 

A ^SSwSiL Dogri 






'■_' 


—'" J 'J, wLahnda £- — t ffeffiL. 


Nepali 


Asamiya 




^^S^^^fruji 






'. \— 1 Raiasthani >*''"' v 
/U&j W . ( - Hindi 
^v/Stadhi V\ 


Bihari 




£> i ^yj 


X^jGujarati ^j H 


^ Oriya 


f 


*1 «£■••¥ 

Bengali W \ 'J.(f 


Khandeshi -^V Marathi /~~\ V- <r~ 






V 


V / ' - / 






y / 






kk/ 


Konkani- — \ 






i ■ 








i 




Sinhala/ 






% 



69 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



1.7.3. OTHER INDO-EUROPEAN DIALECTS OF EUROPE 



I. ALBANIAN 



Albanian an Indo-European language 
spoken by over 8 million people primarily in 
Albania, Kosovo, and the Former Yugoslav 
Republic of Macedonia, but also by smaller 
numbers of ethnic Albanians in other parts of 
the Balkans, along the eastern coast of Italy 
and in Sicily, as well other emigrant groups. 

The Albanian language has no living close 
relatives among the modern languages. There 
is no scholarly consensus over its origin and 
dialectal classification, although some 
scholars derive it from the Illyrian language, 
and others claim that it derives from Thracian. 




Albanian dialects Gheg, Tosk. Communities of 
Arbereshe- and Arvanitika-speakers 



While it is considered established that the Albanians originated in the Balkans, the exact location from 
which they spread out is hard to pinpoint. Despite varied claims, the Albanians probably came from 
farther north and inland than would suggest the present borders of Albania, with a homeland 
concentrated in the mountains. 

NOTE. Given the overwhelming amount of shepherding and mountaineering vocabulary as well as the extensive 
influence of Latin, it is more likely the Albanians come from north of the Jirecek line, on the Latin -speaking side, 
perhaps in part from the late Roman province of Dardania from the western Balkans. However, archaeology has 
more convincingly pointed to the early Byzantine province of Praevitana (modern northern Albania) which shows 
an area where a primarily shepherding, transhumance population of Illyrians retained their culture. 

The period in which Proto -Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out over six 
centuries, 1 st c. AD to 6 th or 7 th c. AD. This is born out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest 
number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less 
important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a 
notably smaller amount of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most 
vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto -Albanian into Albanian; 
later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other 
formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well 
as a large scale palatalization. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

A brief period followed, between 7 th c. AD and 9 th c. AD, that was marked by heavy borrowings from 
Southern Slavic, some of which predate the o^a shift common to the modern forms of this language 
group. Starting in the latter 9 th c. AD, a period followed of protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, 
or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided - from Albanian into 
Romanian. Such a borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority 
was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers, i.e. Dardania, where 
Vlachs are recorded in the 10 th c. AD. This fact places the Albanians at a rather early date in the Western 
or Central Balkans, most likely in the region of Kosovo and Northern Albania. 

References to the existence of Albanian as a distinct language survive from the 1300s, but without 
recording any specific words. The oldest surviving documents written in Albanian are the Formula e 
Pagezim.it (Baptismal formula), Un'te paghesont' pr'emenit t'Atite t'Birite t'Spirit Senit, "I baptize thee 
in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit", recorded by Pal Engjelli, Bishop of Durres 
in 1462 in the Gheg dialect, and some New Testament verses from that period. 

II. PALEO-BALKAN LANGUAGES 



A. PHRYGIAN 

The Phrygian language was the Indo-European 
language spoken by the Phrygians, a people that settled in 
Asia Minor during the Bronze Age. It survived probably 
into the sixth century AD, when it was replaced by Greek 

Ancient historians and myths sometimes did associate 
Phrygian with Thracian and maybe even Armenian, on 
grounds of classical sources. Herodotus recorded the 
Macedonian account that Phrygians migrated into Asia 
Minor from Thrace (7.73). Later in the text (7.73), 
Herodotus states that the Armenians were colonists of the 
Phrygians, still considered the same in the time of Xerxes I. 
The earliest mention of Phrygian in Greek sources, in the 
Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, depicts it as different from Trojan: in the hymn, Aphrodite, disguising 
herself as a mortal to seduce the Trojan prince Anchises, tells him: 

"Otreus of famous name is my father, if so be you have heard of him, and he reigns over all Phrygia 
rich in fortresses. But I know your speech well beside my own, for a Trojan nurse brought me up at 
home". Of Trojan, unfortunately, nothing is known. 




Pfayjfoii Kingdom 



□ Ptwygia, 
traditional feg 



Traditional Phrygian region and 
expanded Kingdom. 



71 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 




Phrygian is attested by two corpora, one, Paleo-Phrygian, from 
around 800 BC and later, and another after a period of several 
centuries, Neo-Phrygian, from around the beginning of the Common 
Era. The Paleo-Phrygian corpus is further divided geographically 
into inscriptions of Midas-city, Gordion, Central, Bithynia, Pteria, 
Tyana, Daskyleion, Bayindir, and "various" (documents divers). The 
Mysian inscriptions show a language classified as a separate 
Phrygian dialect, written in an alphabet with an additional letter, the 
"Mysian s". We can reconstruct some words with the help of some 
inscriptions written with a script similar to the Greek one. 

Ancient historians and myths sometimes did associate Phrygian 
with Thracian and maybe even Armenian, on grounds of classical 
sources. Herodotus recorded the Macedonian account that 
Phrygians migrated into Asia Minor from Thrace (7.73). Later in the 
text (7.73), Herodotus states that the Armenians were colonists of 
the Phrygians, still considered the same in the time of Xerxes I. The 
earliest mention of Phrygian in Greek sources, in the Homeric Hymn 
to Aphrodite, depicts it as different from Trojan: in the hymn, Aphrodite, disguising herself as a mortal 
to seduce the Trojan prince Anchises, tells him 

"Otreus of famous name is my father, if so be you have heard of him, and he reigns over all Phrygia 
rich in fortresses. But I know your speech well beside my own, for a Trojan nurse brought me up at 
home". Of Trojan, unfortunately, nothing is known. 

Its structure, what can be recovered from it, was typically Indo-European, with nouns declined for 
case (at least four), gender (three) and number (singular and plural), while the verbs are conjugated for 
tense, voice, mood, person and number. 

Phrygian seems to exhibit an augment, like Greek and Armenian, as in Phryg. eberet, probably 
corresponding to PIE e-b h er-e-t (cf. Gk. epheret). 

A sizable body of Phrygian words are theoretically known; however, the meaning and etymologies and 
even correct forms of many Phrygian words (mostly extracted from inscriptions) are still being debated. 

A famous Phrygian word is bekos, meaning "bread". According to Herodotus (Histories 2.9) Pharaoh 
Psammetichus I wanted to establish the original language. For this purpose, he ordered two children to 
be reared by a shepherd, forbidding him to let them hear a single word, and charging him to report the 
children's first utterance. After two years, the shepherd reported that on entering their chamber, the 



Phrygian inscription in 
Midas City. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

children came up to him, extending their hands, calling bekos. Upon enquiry, the pharaoh discovered 
that this was the Phrygian word for "wheat bread", after which the Egyptians conceded that the 
Phrygian nation was older than theirs. The word bekos is also attested several times in Palaeo-Phrygian 
inscriptions on funerary stelae. It was suggested that it is cognate to Eng. bake, from PIE b h eh 3 g-; cf. 
Gk. phogo, "to roast, Lat. focus, "fireplace", Arm. bosor, "red", and bots "flame", Ir. goba "smith, etc. 

Phryg. bedu (<PIE wed-) according to Clement of Alexandria's Stromata, quoting one Neanthus of 
Cyzicus means "water". The Macedonians are said to have worshiped a god called Bedu, which they 
interpreted as "air". The god appears also in Orphic ritual. 

Other Phrygian words include: 

• Phryg. anar, "husband", "man", from PIE (a)ner, "man"; cf. Gk. aner, "man, husband". 

• Phryg. belte, "swamp", from PIE root b h el-, "to gleam"; cf. Gk. baltos, "swamp". 

• Phryg. brater, "brother", from PIE b h rater; cf. Gk. phrater. 

• Phryg. ad-daket, "does, causes", from PIE stem d h e-k-; cf. Gk. etheka. 

• Phryg. germe, "warm", from PIE g wh ermos; cf. Gk. thermos. 

• Phryg. gdan, "earth", from PIE d h g h 6m; cf. Gk. khthon. 



B. ILLYRIAN 

The Illyrian languages are a group of 
Indo-European languages that were spoken in 
the western part of the Balkans in former 
times by ethnic groups identified as Illyrians: 
Delmatae, Pannoni, Illyrioi, Autariates, 
Taulanti. 

The main source of authoritative 
information about the Illyrian language 
consists of a handful of Illyrian words cited in 
classical sources, and numerous examples of 

Roman provinces in the Balkans, 2^ century AD: A. m ian a nthroponyms, ethnonyms, toponyms 

Spalatum (Split); l. Raetia; 2. Noncum; 3. Pannoma; 

4. Illyricum; 5. Dacia; 6. Moesia; 7. Tracia. and hydronyms. Some sound-changes and 

other language features are deduced from what remains of the Illyrian languages, but because no 
writings in Illyrian are known, there is not sufficient evidence to clarify its place within the Indo- 
European language family aside from its probable Centum nature. 




73 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



NOTE. A grouping of Illyrian with the Messapian language has been proposed for about a century, but remains 
an unproven hypothesis. The theory is based on classical sources, archaeology, as well as onomastic 
considerations. Messapian material culture bears a number of similarities to Illyrian material culture. Some 
Messapian anthroponyms have close Illyrian equivalents. A relation to the Venetic language and Liburnian 
language, once spoken in northeastern Italy and Liburnia respectively, is also proposed. 

A grouping of Illyrian with the Thracian and Dacian language in a "Thraco-Illyrian" group or branch, an idea 
popular in the first half of the 20 th century, is now generally rejected due to a lack of sustaining evidence, and due 
to what may be evidence to the contrary. Also, the hypothesis that the modern Albanian language is a surviving 
Illyrian language remains very controversial among linguists. 

B. THRACIAN 

Excluding Dacian, whose status as a Thracian language is disputed, Thracian was spoken in in what 
is now southern Bulgaria, parts of Serbia, the Republic of Macedonia, Northern Greece - especially 
prior to Ancient Macedonian expansion -, throughout Thrace (including European Turkey) and in parts 
of Bithynia (North-Western Asiatic Turkey). Most of the Thracians were eventually Hellenized (in the 
province of Thrace) or Romanized (in Moesia, Dacia, etc.), with the last remnants surviving in remote 
areas until the 5 th century. 

As an extinct language with only a few short inscriptions attributed to it (v.L), there is little known 
about the Thracian language, but a number of features are agreed upon. A number of probable Thracian 
words are found in inscriptions - most of them written with Greek script - on buildings, coins, and 
other artifacts. Some Greek lexical elements may derive from Thracian, such as balios, "dappled" (< PIE 
b h el-, "to shine", Pokorny also cites Illyrian as possible source), bounos, "hill, mound", etc. 

C. DACIAN 

The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. It is 
often considered to have been a northern variant of the Thracian language or closely related to it. 

There are almost no written documents in Dacian. Dacian used to be one of the major languages of 
South-Eastern Europe, stretching from what is now Eastern Hungary to the Black Sea shore. Based on 
archaeological findings, the origins of the Dacian culture are believed to be in Moldavia, being identified 
as an evolution of the Iron Age Basarabi culture. 

It is unclear exactly when the Dacian language became extinct, or even whether it has a living 
descendant. The initial Roman conquest of part of Dacia did not put an end to the language, as Free 
Dacian tribes such as the Carpi may have continued to speak Dacian in Moldavia and adjacent regions 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 



as late as the 6 th or 7 th century AD, still capable of leaving some influences in the forming Slavic 
languages. 



According to one hypothesis, 
a branch of Dacian continued 
as the Albanian language 
(Hasdeu, 1901). A refined 
version of that hypothesis 
considers Albanian to be a 
Daco-Moesian Dialect that 
split off from Dacian before 
300 BC and that Dacian itself 
became extinct. 



NOTE. The arguments for this 
early split before 300 BC include: 

o Inherited Albanian words (e.g. 



LEGEND 

The formation territory of the 
Romanian people: J Q\v u 
Modem -* ~ 
Migrat 




Theoretical scenario: the Albanians as a migrant Dacian people 

PIE mater -» Alb. moter) shows the transformation Late PIE a -> Alb. o, but all the Latin loans in Albanian 
having an a (<PIE a) shows Lat. a -> Alb. a. Therefore, the transformation happened and ended before the 
Roman arrival in the Balkans. 

o Romanian substratum words shared with Albanian show a Rom. a that corresponds to Alb. o when the source 
for both sounds is an original common a (cf. mazare/modhull<*madzula, "pea"; rata/rose<*ratja: "duck"]; 
therefore, when these words had the same common form in Pre-Romanian and Proto-Albanian the 
transformation PIE a -> Alb. o had not started yet. 

The correlation between these two facts indicates that the split between Pre-Romanian (the Dacians that were 
later Romanized) and Proto-Albanian happened before the Roman arrival in the Balkans. 



E. PAIONIAN 

The Paionian language is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paionians, whose kingdom 
once stretched north of Macedon into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace. 

Classical sources usually considered the Paionians distinct from Thracians or Illyrians, comprising 
their own ethnicity and language. Athenaeus seemingly connected the Paionian tongue to the Mysian 
language, itself barely attested. If correct, this could mean that Paionian was an Anatolian language. On 
the other hand, the Paionians were sometimes regarded as descendants of Phrygians, which may put 
Paionian on the same linguistic branch as the Phrygian language. 



75 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Modern linguists are uncertain on the classification of Paionian, due to the extreme scarcity of 
materials we have on this language. However, it seems that Paionian was an independent IE dialect. It 
shows a/o distinction and does not appear to have undergone Satemization. The Indo-European voiced 
aspirates became plain voiced consonants, i.e. b h ->£>, d h ->d, g h ->c/, g wh ^g w ; as in Illyrian, Thracian, 
Macedonian and Phrygian (but unlike Greek). 

F. ANCIENT MACEDONIAN 

The Ancient Macedonian language was the tongue of the Ancient Macedonians. It was spoken in 
Macedon during the 1 st millennium BC. Marginalized from the 5 th century BC, it was gradually replaced 
by the common Greek dialect of the Hellenistic Era. It was probably spoken predominantly in the 
inland regions away from the coast. It is as yet undetermined whether the language was a dialect of 
Greek, a sibling language to Greek, or an Indo-European language which is a close cousin to Greek and 
also related to Thracian and Phrygian languages. 

Knowledge of the language is very limited because there are no surviving texts that are indisputably 
written in the language, though a body of authentic Macedonian words has been assembled from 
ancient sources, mainly from coin inscriptions, and from the 5 th century lexicon of Hesychius of 
Alexandria, amounting to about 150 words and 200 proper names. Most of these are confidently 
identifiable as Greek, but some of them are not easily reconciled with standard Greek phonology. The 
6,000 surving Macedonian inscriptions are in the Greek Attic dialect. 

The Pella curse tablet, a text written in a distinct Doric Greek idiom, found in Pella in 1986, dated to 
between mid to early 4 th century BC, has been forwarded as an argument that the Ancient Macedonian 
language was a dialect of North-Western Greek. Before the discovery it was proposed that the 
Macedonian dialect was an early form of Greek, spoken alongside Doric proper at that time. 



K I* K \ L\ OH Y * a b*H T h V f <rr £ *> N M ^M-W W H r A r Ka joUA A A*!" V H M V. A t urTwO 






The Pella katadesmos, is a katadesmos (a curse, or magic spell) inscribed on a lead scroll, probably 
dating to between 380 and 350 BC. It was found in Pella in 1986 

NOTE. Olivier Masson thinks that "in contrast with earlier views which made of it an Aeolic dialect (O.Hoffmann 
compared Thessalian) we must by now think of a link with North-West Greek (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, 
Epirote). This view is supported by the recent disco very at Pella of a curse tablet which may well be the first 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

'Macedonian' text attested (...); the text includes an adverb "opoka" which is not Thessalian." Also, James L. 
O'Neil states that the "curse tablet from Pella shows word forms which are clearly Doric, but a different form of 
Doric from any of the west Greek dialects of areas adjoining Macedon. Three other, very brief, fourth century 
inscriptions are also indubitably Doric. These show that a Doric dialect was spoken in Macedon, as we would 
expect from the West Greek forms of Greek names found in Macedon. And yet later Macedonian inscriptions are 
in Koine avoiding both Doric forms and the Macedonian voicing of consonants. The native Macedonian dialect 
had become unsuitable for written documents." 

From the few words that survive, a notable sound-law may be ascertained, that PIE voiced aspirates 
d h , b h , g h , appear as 5 (=d[ h J), P (=b[ h J), y (=g , / 7i J), in contrast to Greek dialects, which unvoiced them to 
6 (=**), q>(=p*), X (=**)• 

NOTE. Since these languages are all known via the Greek alphabet, which has no signs for voiced aspirates, it is 
unclear whether de-aspiration had really taken place, or whether the supposed voiced stops P, 8, y were just 
picked as the closest matches to express voiced aspirates b h , d h , g h . 

• PIH d h enh 2 -, "to leave", -* A.Mac. 5avoc, (d[ h ]anos), "death"; cf. Attic Gavaxo? (Mnatos). PIH 
h 2 aid h - -» A.Mac.*d5pcua (ad[ h ]raia), 'bright weather', Attic aiGpia (ait h ria). 

• PIE b h asko- -> A.Mac. Paaiaoi (b[ h ]dskioi), "fasces". Compare also for A.Mac. dPpouxe? 
(ab[ h ]routes) or dPpouFec, (abpjrouwes), Attic ocppuc, (op h rus), "eyebrows"; for Mac. BepeviKn 
(Bpjerenike), Attic OepeviKn (P h erenike), "bearing victory". 

o According to Herodotus (ca. 440 BC), the Macedonians claimed that the Phryges were called 
Brygoi (<PIE b h rugo-) before they migrated from Thrace to Anatolia ca. 1200 BC. 

o In Aristophanes' The Birds, the form KePAri^upic; (keblepyris), "red-cap bird", shows a voiced 
stop instead of a standard Greek unvoiced aspirate, i.e. Macedonian KeP(a)Xri {keb[ h ]ale) vs. 
Greek KecpaAri (kep h ale), "head". 

• If A.Mac, yoxav (gotdn), "pig", is related to PIE g w ou-, "cow", this would indicate that the 
labiovelars were either intact (hence *g w otdri), or merged with the velars, unlike the usual Gk. Pouc, 
(bous). 

NOTE. Such deviations, however, are not unknown within Greek dialects; compare Dor. yXen- (glep-) for 
common Gk. PXeji- (blep-), as well as Dor. y^&xcov (glachon) and Ion. y^X^v (glechori) for Gk. pXfjxcov (blechdn). 

• Examples suggest that voiced velar stops were devoiced, especially word-initially: PIE genu- -» 
A.Mac. KcivaSoi (kdnadoi), "jaws"; PIE gomb h - -» A.Mac. kouPouc, (kombous), "molars". 

o Compared to Greek words, there is A.Mac. dpKov (arkon) vs. Attic dpyoc, (argos); the 
Macedonian toponym Akesamenai, from the Pierian name Akesamenos - if Akesa- is cognate 
to Greek agassomai, agamai, "to astonish"; cf. also the Thracian name Agassamenos. 



77 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



1.7.4. ANATOLIAN LANGUAGES 



The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct 
Indo-European languages, which were spoken in 
Anatolia for millennia, the best attested of them 
being the Hittite language. 

The Anatolian branch is generally considered the 
earliest to split off the Proto-Indo-European 
language, from a stage referred to either as Middle 
PIE or "Indo-Hittite" (PIH), typically a date ca. 3500 
BC is assumed. Within a Kurgan framework, there 
are two possibilities of how early Anatolian speakers 
could have reached Anatolia: from the north via the 
Caucasus, and from the west, via the Balkans. 




The approximate extent of the Hittite Old 
Kingdom under Hantili I (ca. 1590 BC) in 



NOTE. The term Indo-Hittite is somewhat imprecise, as 
the prefix Indo- does not refer to the Indo-Aryan branch in 
particular, but is iconic for Indo-European (as in Indo- 

Uralic), and the -Hittite part refers to the Anatolian <st. Maximal extent of the Hittite Empire 

ca. 1300 BC is shown in dark color, the 
language family as a whole. Egyptian sphere of influence in light color. 

Attested dialects of the Anatolian branch are: 

• Hittite (nesili), attested from ca. 1800 BC to 1100 BC, official language of the Hittite Empire. 

• Luwian (luwili), close relative of Hittite spoken in Arzawa, to the southwest of the core Hittite 
area. 

• Palaic, spoken in north-central Anatolia, extinct around the 13 th century BC, known only 
fragmentarily from quoted prayers in Hittite texts. 

• Lycian, spoken in Lycia in the Iron Age, most likely a descendant of Luwian, extinct in ca. the 1 st 
century BC. A fragmentary language, it is also a likely candidate for the language spoken by Trojans. 

• Lydian, spoken in Lydia, extinct in ca. the 1 st century BC, fragmentary. 

• Carian, spoken in Caria, fragmentarily attested from graffiti by Carian mercenaries in Egypt from 
ca. the 7 th century BC, extinct ca. in the 3 rd century BC. 

• Pisidian and Sidetic (Pamphylian), fragmentary. 

• Milyan, known from a single inscription. 

There were likely other languages of the Anatolian branch that have left no written records, such as 
the languages of Mysia, Cappadocia and Paphlagonia. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 



- 












Anatolia was heavily Hellenized following the conquests of 
Alexander the Great, and it is generally thought that by the 1 st 
century BC the native languages of the area were extinct. 

Hittite proper is known from cuneiform tablets and inscriptions 
erected by the Hittite kings and written in an adapted form of Old 
Assyrian cuneiform orthography. Owing to the predominantly 
syllabic nature of the script, it is difficult to ascertain the precise 
phonetic qualities of a portion of the Hittite sound inventory. 

NOTE. The script known as "Hieroglyphic Hittite" has now been shown 
to have been used for writing the closely related Luwian language, rather 
than Hittite proper. The later languages Lycian and Lydian are also 
attested in Hittite territory. 

The Hittite language has traditionally been stratified - partly on 
linguistic and partly on paleographic grounds - into Old Hittite, 



Hittite pictographic writing 

Middle Hittite and New or Neo-Hittite, corresponding to the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms of the 
Hittite Empire, ca. 1750-1500 BC, 1500-1430 BC and 1430-1180 BC, respectively. 

Luwian was spoken by population groups in Arzawa, to the west or southwest of the core Hittite area. 
In the oldest texts, eg. the Hittite Code, the Luwian-speaking areas including Arzawa and Kizzuwatna 
were called Luwia. From this homeland, Luwian 




M e e r 



speakers gradually spread through Anatolia and 
became a contributing factor to the downfall, 
after circa 1180 BC, of the Hittite Empire, where 
it was already widely spoken. Luwian was also 
the language spoken in the Neo-Hittite states of 
Syria, such as Milid and Carchemish, as well as 
in the central Anatolian kingdom of Tabal that 
flourished around 900 BC. Luwian has been 
preserved in two forms, named after the writing 
systems used: Cuneiform Luwian and 
Hieroglyphic Luwian. Luwian use according to inscriptions found 

For the most part, the immediate ancestor of the known Anatolian languages, Common Anatolian 
(the Late Proto-Anatolian spoken ca. 2500) has been reconstructed on the basis of Hittite. However, the 
usage of Hittite cuneiform writing system limits the enterprise of understanding and reconstructing 



79 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Anatolian phonology, partly due to the deficiency of the adopted Akkadian cuneiform syllabary to 
represent Hittite sounds, and partly due to the Hittite scribal practices. 

NOTE. This especially pertains to what appears to be confusion of voiceless and voiced dental stops, where signs 
-dV- and -tV- are employed interchangeably different attestations of the same word. Furthermore, in the syllables 
of the structure VC only the signs with voiceless stops as usually used. Distribution of spellings with single and 
geminated consonants in the oldest extant monuments indicates that the reflexes of PIE voiceless stops were 
spelled as double consonants and the reflexes of PIE voiced stops as single consonants. This regularity is the most 
consistent in in the case of dental stops in older texts; later monuments often show irregular variation of this rule. 

Known changes from Middle PIE into Common Anatolian include: 

• Voiced aspirates merged with voiced stops: d h ->d, b h ->&, g h ->c/. 

• Voiceless stops become voiced after accented long-vowel or diphthong: PIH wek- -> CA weg-(ct 
Hitt. wek-, "ask for"); PIH t^ehiti, "putting" -> CA dsedi (cf. Luw. taac- "votive offfering"). 

• Conditioned allophone PIH tj -» CA tsj, as Hittite still shows. 

• PIH hi is lost in CA, but for ehi->a>, appearing as Hitt., Pal. e, Luw., Lye, Lyd. a; word-initial 
h 2 ->x, non-initial h 2 ->ft; h 3 ->ft. 

NOTE 1. Melchert proposes that CA x (voiceless fricative) is "lenited" to h (voiced fricative) under the same 
conditions as voiceless stops. Also, word-initial h 3 is assumed by some scholars to have been lost already in CA. 

NOTE 2. There is an important assimilation of laryngeals within CA: a sequence —VRHV- becomes -VRRV-; cf. 
PIH sperhiV- -► Hitt. isparr-, "kickflat"; PIH sun-h 3 -V- -> Hitt. sunna-, "fill", Pal. sunnuttil-, "outpouring"; etc. 

• PIH sonorants are generally stable in CA. Only word-initial r has been eliminated. Word-initial 
je- shows a trend to become CA e-, but the trend is not complete in CA, as Hittite shows. 

• Diphthong evolved as PIH ei -> CA long e; PIH eu -» CA u. PIH oi, ai, ou, au, remain in CA. 

NOTE. Common Anatolian preserves PIE vowel system basically intact. Some cite the merger of PIH o and a as 
a Common Anatolian innovation, but according to Melchert that merger was secondary shared innovation in 
Hittite, Palaic and Luwian, but not in Lycian. Also, the lengthening of accented short vowels in open syllables 
cannot be of Common Anatolian, and neither can lengthening in accented closed syllables. 

• The CA nominal system shows an archaic productive declension in -i, -u. There are only two 
grammatical genders, animate and inanimate. 

• Hittite verbs are inflected according to two general verbal classes, the mi- and the /u'-conjugation. 

NOTE. Rose (2006) lists 132 /iz-verbs and interprets the hi/mi oppositions as vestiges of a system of 
grammatical voice, i.e. "centripetal voice" vs. "centrifugal voice". Additionally, the Hittite verbal system displays 
two voices (active and mediopassive), two moods (indicative and imperative), and two tenses (present and 
preterite), two infinitive forms, one verbal substantive, a supine, and a participle. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 



1.8. MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



1.8.1. Modern Indo-European (MIE) is therefore a set of grammatical rules - including its writing 
system, noun declension, verbal conjugation and syntax -, designed to systematize the reconstructed 
PIE language, especially its Europe's Indo-European dialect, already described above as the IE 
dialect continuum spoken in Europe until ca. 2000 BC, to adapt it to modern communication needs. 
Because that language was spoken by a prehistoric society, no genuine sample texts are available, and 
thus comparative linguistics - in spite of its 200 years' history - is not in the position to reconstruct 
exactly their formal language (the one used by learned people at the time), but only approximately how 
the spoken, vulgar language was like, i.e. the language that later evolved into the different attested Indo- 
European dialects and languages. 

NOTE. Reconstructed languages like Modern Hebrew, Modern Cornish, Modern Coptic or Modern Indo- 
European may be revived in their communities without being as easy, as logical, as neutral or as philosophical as 
the million artificial languages that exist today, and whose main aim is to be supposedly 'better', or 'easier', or 
'more neutral' than other artificial or natural languages they want to substitute. Whatever the sociological, 
psychological, political or practical reasons behind the success of such 'difficult' and 'non-neutral' languages 
instead of 'universal' ones, what is certain is that if somebody learns Hebrew, Cornish, Coptic or Indo-European 
(or Latin, German, Swahili, Chinese, etc.) whatever the changes in the morphology, syntax or vocabulary that 
could follow (because of, say, 'better' or 'purer' or 'easier' language systems recommended by their language 
regulators), the language learnt will still be the same, and the effort made won't be lost in an)' possible case. 

1.8.2. We deemed it worth it to use the Proto-Indo-European reconstruction for the revival of a 
complete modern language system, because of the obvious need of a common language within the EU, 
to substitute the current deficient linguistic policy. This language system, called European or European 
language (Europaiom), is mainly based on the features of the European or Northwestern dialects, 
whose speakers - as we have already seen - remained in loose contact for some centuries after the first 
Late PIE migrations, and have influenced each other in the last millenia within Europe. 

NOTE. As Indo-Europeanist Lopez-Menchero puts it, "there are 'three (Late) Proto-Indo-European languages' 
which might be distinguished today: 

1) The actual Proto-Indo-European language, spoken by a prehistoric people, the PIE speakers of the Bronze 
Age, some millennia ago; 

2) The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, which is that being reconstructed by IE scholars using the 
linguistic, archaeological and historical data available, and which is imperfect by nature, based on more or less 
certain hypothesis and schools of thought; and 

3) The Modern Indo-European language system which, being based on the later, and trying to come near to the 
former, is neither one nor the other, but a modern language systematized to be used in the modern world". 



81 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE 2. In that sense, some critics have considered the so-called "Indo-European language revival" to be 
different from (and thus not comparable to) other language revivals, like - as they put it - Hebrew or Cornish, 
because of the 'obvious differences that will exist between that ancient Proto-Indo-European language and the 
Modern Indo-European or European language'. It is important to note that, even though there is a general belief 
that Modern Hebrew and Ancient Hebrew are the same languages, among Israeli scholars there have been 
continuated calls for the "Modern Hebrew" language to be called "Israeli Hebrew" or just (preferably) "Israeli", 
due to the strong divergences that exist - and further develop with its use - between the modern language spoken 
in Israel and its theoretical basis, Ancient Hebrew. On that interesting question, Prof. Ghil'ad Zuckermann 
aconsiders that "Israelis are brainwashed to believe they speak the same language as the prophet Isaiah, a purely 
Semitic language, but this is false. It's time we acknowledge that Israeli is very different from the Hebrew of the 
past". He points out to the abiding influence of modern Indo-European dialects - especially Yiddish, Russian and 
Polish -, in vocabulary, syntax and phonetics, as imported by Israel's founders. The same could certainly be said 
of Cornish and other language revivals, and even of some death languages with a continuated use, like the Modern 
Latin language used by the Catholic Church, which is not comparable to the Classical Latin used by Cicero, not to 
talk about the real, Vulgar Latin used by Romans. See <http://www.zuckermann.org/>. 

1.8.5. Words to complete the MIE vocabulary (in case that no common PIE form is found) are to be 
taken from present-day IE languages. Loan words - from Greek and Latin, like philosophy, hypothesis, 
aqueduct, etc. -, as well as modern Indo-European borrowings - from English, like software, from 
French, like ambassador, from Spanish, like armadillo, from German, like Kindergarten, from Italian, 
like casino, from Russian, like icon, from Hindi, like pajamas, etc. -, should be used in a pure IE form 
when possible. They are all Indo-European dialectal words, whose original meaning is easily 
understood if translated; as, e.g. Greek loan photo could be used as MIE *photos ['p h 6-tos] or ['fo-tos], 
a loan word, or as bhduotos ['b h awo-tos], a loan translation of Gk. "bright; it is derived from genitive 
bhauotos (EIE bhauesos), in compound word bhauotogrbhid, from verb bha, to shine, which 
gives Gk. phosphorus and phot. The second, translated word, should be preferred. 2 See §2.9.4, point 4. 

1.8.6. The use of modern PIE dialects is probably the best option as an International Auxiliary 
Language too, because French, German, Spanish, and other natural and artificial languages proposed to 
substitute English dominance, are only supported by their cultural or social communities, whereas IE 
native speakers make up the majority of the world's population, being thus the most 'democratic' choice 
for a language spoken within international organizations and between the different existing nations. 

NOTE 1. Because Europe's Indo-European had other sister dialects spoken at the same time, Hellenic (Modern 
Proto-Greek) and Aryan (Modern Indo-Iranian) languages can also be revived in the regions where they are 
currently spoken in the form of modern dialects, as they are not different from MIE than Swedish from Danish, or 
Spanish from Portuguese. They might also serve as linguae francae for closely related languages or neighbouring 
regions, i.e. Aryan for Asia, Hellenic for Albanian- and Armenian -speaking territories. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



l. Introduction 

NOTE 2. Anatolianism (Turkish Anadoluculuk) asserts that Turks descend from the indigenous population of 
ancient Anatolia, based on historical and genetic views. Supported by Turkish intellectuals in the 20 th century, it 
became essential to the process of nation-building in Turkey, but was substituted by the Pan-Turkic nationalism 
Mustafa Kemal Atatiirk discouraged before his death. If accepted again, Turks could embrace their historical 
culture by adopting Anatolian (CA), "cousin dialect" of EIE, PGk. and PII, as a modern second language for a 
modern Turkey, which shares close historical and cultural ties with the European Union and Asia. 

NOTE 3. Even though it is clear that our proposal is different from the Hebrew language revival, we think that: 

a) Where Jews had only some formal writings, with limited vocabulary, of a language already dead five centuries 
before the)' were expelled from Israel in 70 AD, Proto-Indo-European has a continuated history of use and 
hundreds of living dialects and other very old dead dialects attested, so that its modern use can be considered 'less 
artificial'. Thus, even if we had tablets dating from 2000 BC in some dialectal predominant formal EIE language 
(say, from Pre-Proto-Germanic), the current EIE reconstruction should probably still be used as the main source 
for Indo-European revival in the European Union. 

b) The common culture and religion was probably the basis for the Hebrew language revival in Israel. Proto- 
Indo-European, whilst the mother tongue of some prehistoric tribe with an own culture and religion, spread into 
different peoples, with different cultures and religions. There was never a concept of "Indo-European community" 
after the migrations. But today Indo-European languages are spoken by the majority of the population - in the 
world and especially within Europe -, and it is therefore possible to use it as a natural and culturally (also 
"religiously") neutral language, what maybe a significant advantage of IE over any other natural language. 

1.7.7. The noun Europaios comes from adjective europaios, from special genitive Europai of Old 
Greek Eupcbjrn (Europe), Eupcbjia (Europa), both forms alternating already in the oldest Greek, and 
both coming from the same PIE feminine ending a (see § 4.7.8). The Greek ending -ai-o- (see § 4.7.8 
for more on this special genitive in -ai) turns into Latin -ae-u-, and so Europaeus. The forms Europa 
and europaios are, then, the 'correct' ones in MIE, as they are the original Classical forms of a Greek 
loan word widely used today in modern Indo-European languages - other dialectal variants, as 
europais, europaikos, europaiskos, etc. could be also used. 

NOTE 1. For Homer, Europe was a mythological queen of Crete - abducted by Zeus in bull form when still a 
Phoenician princess -, and not a geographical designation. Later Europa stood for mainland Greece, and by 500 
BC its meaning had been extended to lands to the north. The name Europe is possibly derived from the Greek 
words eupuc, (eurus, "broad', from PIH hiurhu-) and coip (ops, "face", from PIH h 3 ek w -), thus maybe 
reconstructible as MIE *Uroqa - broad having been an epithet of Earth in PIE religion. Others suggest it is based 
on a Semitic word cognate with Akkadian erebu, "sunset" (cf. Arabic maghreb, Hebrew ma'ariv), as from the 
Middle Eastern vantage point, the sun does set over Europe. Likewise, Asia is sometimes thought to have derived 
from a Semitic word such as the Akkadian asu, meaning "sunrise", and is the land to the east from a Middle 
Eastern perspective, thus maybe MIE *Erdba. In Greek mythology 'EpePoc. (Erebos, "deep blackness/darkness or 
shadow") was the son of Chaos, the personification of darkness and shadow, which filled in all the corners and 
crannies of the world. The word is probably from PIH hireg w os (cf. O.N. rcekkr, Goth, riqis, Skr. rajani, Toch. 
orkam), although possibly also a loan from Semitic, cf. Hebrew erebh and Akkadian erebu, etc. 

83 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE 2. 'Europe' is a common evolution of Latin a-endings in French; as in 'Amerique' for America, 'Belgique' 
for Belgica, 'Italie' for Italia, etc. Eng. Europe is thus a French loan word, as may be seen from the other 
continents' names: Asia (not *Asy), Africa (not ^Afrik), Australia (not *Australy), and America (not *Amerik). 

NOTE 3. Only Modern Greek maintains the form Eupcbjir) (Europi) for the subcontinent, but still with adjective 
eupcoTiaiKO (europaiko), with the same old irregular a-declension and IE ethnic ending -iko-. In Latin there were 
two forms: Europa, Europaeus, and lesser used Europe, Europensis. The later is usually seen in scientific terms. 

NOTE 4. For adj. "European", compare derivatives from O.Gk. europai-6s (< IE eurdp-ai-6s), also in Lat. 
europae-us -> M.Lat. europe-us, in turn giving It., Spa. europeo, Pt, Cat. europeu; from Late Latin base europe- 
(< IE eurdp-ai-) are extended *europe-is, as Du. europees; from extended *europe-anos are Rom. europene, or 
Fr. europeen (into Eng. european); extended *europe-iskos gives common Germanic and Slavic forms (cf. Ger. 
Europaisch, Fris. europeesk, Sea. europeisk, Pi. europejski, common Sla. evropsk-, etc.); other extended forms are 
Ir. Eorpai-gh, Lith. europo-s, Ltv. eiropa-s, etc. For European as a noun , compare, from *europe-anos, Du., Fris. 
europeaan, from *europe-eros, Ger. Europaer, from ethnic *-ikos, cf. Sla. evropejk-, Mod.Gk. europai-ko, etc. 

The regular genitive of the word Europa in Modern Indo-European is Europas, following the first 
declension. The name of the European language system is Europaiom, inanimate, because in the 
oldest IE dialects attested, those which had an independent name for languages used the neuter, cf. Gk. 
n.pl. 'EXXnvtKct ( h ellenikd), Skr. n.sg. -h'-^H, (sa.rnskrta.rn), also in Tacitus Lat. uocabulum latinum. 

NOTE. In other IE languages, however, the language name is an adjective which defines the noun "language" , 
and therefore its gender follows the general rule of concordance; cf. Lat. f. latina lingua, or the Slavic examples3; 
hence MIE europaia dnghus or proper europaia diighwa, European language. 

1.7.8. The term Indo-European comes from Greek 1v86q ( h Indos), Indus river, from Old Persian 
Hindus - listed as a conquered territory by Darius I in the Persepolis terrace inscription. 

NOTE 1. The Persian term (with an aspirated initial [s]) is cognate to Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the Indus 
river, but also meaning river generically in Indo-Aryan (cf. O.Ind. Saptasindhu, "[region of the] seven rivers"). 
The Persians, using the word Hindu for Sindhu, referred to the people who lived near the Sindhu River as Hindus, 
and their religion later became known as Hinduism. The words for their language and region, Hindi or 
Hindustani and Hindustan, come from the words Hindu and Hindustan, "India" or "Indian region" (referring to 
the Indian subcontinent as a whole, see sta) and the adjectival suffix -F, meaning therefore originally "Indian". 

NOTE 2. Because the term Indo-European (or Indogermanisch in German) is common today to refer to the 
reconstructed language, we decided to use that traditional name to describe the Proto-European language we want 
to revive, as a way to familiarize the reader with the European or Europaio language system as a natural, dead 
language, to distinguish it clearly from other language inventions. However, when speaking in European language, 
Sindhueuropaiom (" Indo-European"), Pfmo-Sindhueurdpaiom 82 ("Proto-Indo-European"), or Europas 
Sindhueuropaiom ("Europe's Indo-European") should to the theoretical linguistic concepts that refer to the 
ancient reconstructed dialects, while Europaiom ("European") is clearly the best name for the modern language, 
just like Israeli is probably the most suited name to refer to Modern Hebrew. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



2. LETTERS AND SOUNDS 



2.1 THE ALPHABETS OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



2.1.1. Indo-European doesn't have an old writing system to be revived with. In the regions where the 
Europeans dwelled at least four thousand years ago, caves and stones probably still keep their ancient 
pictographic writings, which used logograms (graphemes) to represent a morpheme or a whole word, as 
did Egyptian hieroglyphic logographs or Old Chinese characters. 

2.1.2. Indo-European dialects have adopted different alphabets during the last millennia, and all of 
them should be usable today - although the main alphabet for today's European Union is clearly the 
Latin one. This is a summary table of Proto-Indo-European phonemes and their regular corresponding 
letters in MIE alphabets: Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Perso-Arabic and (alphasyllabary) Devanagari. 



A. VOWELS AND VOCALIC ALLOPHONES 



Phoneme 


Greek 


Latin 


Persian 


Armenian 


Cyrillic 


Devan. 


[a] 


Aa 


Aa 




Uui 


Aa 


3T 


[e] 


E£ 


Ee 




bh 


Ee 


1 


[o] 


Oo 


Oo 




fin 


Oo 


3TT 


[a:] 


Aa 


Aa 


\ 


Uui 


Aa 


3TT 


[e:] 


h n 


Ee 




tt 


Ee 


* 


[o:] 


Q w 


Oo 




fin 


06 


3fT 



[i] 


1 i 


1 i 




th 


l/l M 


¥ 


[i:] 


Tt 


Tt 


L$ 


*!> 


171 v\ 


% 


[u] 


Yu 


U u 




hi 


Yy 


3 


[u:] 


YD 


u 


J 


hi 


Yy 


3? 



[r] 


Pp 


Rr 


J 


fin 


Pp 


*l0*9 


[J] 


AA 


LI 


J 


U 


fin 


5S(5|) 


[m] 


M \\ 


M m 


? 


IT if 


M M 


3T 


[n] 


N v 


N n 


u 


t,U 


H H 


UT 



NOTE. The underdot diacritic (dot below) might be used to mark the sonorants, asRr, U, Nn, Mm, v.i. 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



B. CONSONANTS AND CONSONANTAL SOUNDS 



Phoneme 


Greek 


Latin 


Persian 


Armenian 


Cyrillic 


fleuan. 


[P] 


nTT 


Pp 


i_i 


11 iq 


n n 


U 


[b] 


Mtt [JTT 


Bb 


i_i 


Pp 


B6 


HT 


[b h ] 


B(3 


Bhbh 


JLL-i 


Phph 


Bb 6b 


3T 


[t] 


Tt 


Tt 


Ci/L 


S in 


Tt 


^T 


[d] 


NT VT 


Dd 


J 


In 


flA 


21 


[d h ] 


A5 


Dhdh 


J 


Trhqh 


flbflb 


?J 


M 


Kk 


Kk 


._£ 


xjll 


Kk 


ep 


[g] 


tyyy 


Gg 


l£ 


q-q 


l"r 


TT 


[g h ] 


rv 


Ghgh 


xjA 


q-hqh 


Tb rb 


ET 


[k»] 


K k (Qp) 


Qq 


t$ 


£p 


K'k' 


HP 


[g w ] 


l~K YK 


Cc 


t 


Iq 


Tr' 


TT 


[gwh] 


TXYX 


Chch 


't 


HJinh 


IV rb' 


HT 



[fl 


1 1 


Jj.li 


LS/1 


3],I-h 


M v\ (J j), l/l M 


zr 


[uj 


Y u (F F) 


Ww, U u 


j 


hi 


y y 


cT 


[r] 


Pp 


Rr 


j 


rtn 


Pp 


T 


[1] 


AA 


LI 


J 


U 


fin 


^r 


[m] 


M [i 


M m 


? 


IT if 


M M 


3T 


[n] 


N v 


N n 


a 


Lh 


H H 


£T 


[s] 


lag 


Ss 


cy 


Uu 


Cc 


ST 



2.1.2. The Latin Alphabet used for Modern Indo-European is similar to the English, which is in turn 
borrowed from the Late Latin abecedarium. We also consider some digraphs part of the alphabet, as 
they represent original Proto-Indo-European sounds, in contrast to those digraphs used mainly for 
transcriptions of loan words. 

NOTE 1. The Latin alphabet was borrowed in very early times from a Greek alphabet and did not at first contain 
the letter G. The letters Y and Z were introduced still later, about 50 BC 

NOTE 2. The names of the consonants in Indo-European are as follows - B, be (pronounced bay); Bh, bhe 
(b h ay); C, ce (g w ay); Ch, che (g wh ay); D, de (day); Dh, dhe (d h ay); F, ef; G, ge (gay); Gh, ghe (g h ay); H, ha; 
K, ka; L, el; M, em; N, en; P, pe; Q, qu; R, er; S, es; T, te; V, ve; W, wa; X, xa (cha); Z, zet. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



2. Letters and Sounds 



2.1.3. The Latin character C originally meant [g], a value always retained in the abbreviations C. (for 
Gaius) and Cn. (for Gnaeus). That was probably due to Etruscan influence, which copied it from Greek 
r, Gamma, just as later Cyrillic r, Ge. 

NOTE 1. In early Latin C came also to be used for [k], and K disappeared except before in a few words, as Kal. 
(Kalendae), Karthago. Thus there was no distinction in writing between the sounds [g] and [k]. This defect was 
later remedied by forming (from C, the original [g]-letter) a new character G. Y and Z were introduced from the 
Greek about 50 B.C., and occur mainly in loan words in Modern Indo-European. 

NOTE 2. In Modern Indo-European, C is used (taking its oldest value) to represent the Indo-European 
labiovelar [g w ] in PIE words, while keeping its different European values - [k], [ts], [ce], [tch], etc. - when writing 
proper names in the different modern IE languages. 

2.1.4. The Latin [u] sound developed into Romance [v]; therefore V no longer adequately represented 
[u] and the Latin alphabet had to develop an alternative letter. Modern Indo-European uses V mainly 
for loan words, representing [v], while W is left for the consonantal sound [u]. 

NOTE. V originally denoted the vowel sound [u] (00), and F stood for the sound of consonant [u] (from Gk. p, 
digamma). When F acquired the value of our [f], V came to be used for consonant [u] as well as for the vowel [u]. 

2.1.5. The consonant cluster [ks] was in Ancient Greece written as Chi 'X' (Western Greek) or Xi 'H' 
(Eastern Greek). In the end, Chi was standardized as [k h ] ([x] in modern Greek), while Xi represented 
[ks]. In MIE, the X stands for [x], as in the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets, and not as in English. 

NOTE. The Etruscans took over X from Old Western Greek, therefore it stood for [ks] in Etruscan and then in 
Latin, and also in most languages which today use an alphabet derived from the Roman, including English. 









Kiipn^MHMecKini a,](|>aMiT 

(Cmlfe-I 



,-.l/r £ 



I 




:."■"-*' 



iii-*wi .fit* 

«5f 



I I . V M. 



(71^«( 



,■ ft-m , 



M 



(hnlJCiijniiiiLi^friyriil^ Kmiii*!*, MaLiynl*iii, 

■in-l I.W4J TinJ, Ttfagu On>-L frn#ilL Burrow ; 






S 



Writing systems of the world today. 

87 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



2.2. Classification of Sounds 



2.2.1. The Vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and a, e, i, 6, u. The other letters are Consonants. The proper Indo- 
European Diphthongs are ei, oi, ai, ei, 6i, ai, and eu, ou, au, eu, 6u, au. In these diphthongs both 
vowel sounds are heard, one following the other in the same syllable. 

2.2.2. Consonants are either voiced (sonant) or voiceless (surd). Voiced consonants are pronounced 
with vocal cords vibration, as opposed to voiceless consonants, where the vocal cords are relaxed. 

a. The voiced consonants are b, bh, d, dh, g, gh, c, ch, 1, r, m, n, z, and j, w. 

b. The voiceless consonants are p, t, k, q, f, h, s, x. 

c. The digraphs bh, dh, gh and ch represent the proper Indo-European voiced aspirates, whereas ph, 
th, and kh are voiceless aspirates, mostly confined to foreign words, usually from Greek. They are 
equivalent to p+h, t+h, k+h, i.e. to the corresponding mutes with a following breath, as in English loop- 
hole, hot-house, block-house. 

d. The consonants r, 1, m, n, and the semivowels j and w, can function both as consonants and 
vowels, i.e. they can serve as syllabic border or center. There is a clear difference between the vocalic 
allophones of the semivowels and the sonants, though: the first, i and u, are very stable as syllabic 
center, while r, 1, m, n aren't, as they cannot be pronounced more opened. Hence the big differences in 
their evolution, depending on the individual dialects. 

2.2.3. The Mutes are also classified as follows: 



Labials p, b, bh 

Dentals t, d, dh 

Velars k, g, gh; q, c, ch 

2.2.4. The Liquids are 1, r. These sounds are voiced. The group rh represents the aspirated [r], mainly 
in words of Greek origin. Other groups include rr, the alveolar trill, and its aspirated counterpart rrh. 
There is also lj, the palatal lateral approximant. 

2.2.5. The Nasals are m,n. These are voiced. The pair nj represents the palatal nasal (similar to the [n] 
sound in English onion or canyon). 

2.2.6. The Fricatives are s, h. These are voiceless, but for the s before voiced consonants, where it is 
usually voiced. It is also possible to write - mainly for loan words - voiceless and voiced pairs: 
labiodentals, f and v; dentals, th and dh; post-alveolar sh and zh. And also the alveolar voiced z, and 
the dorsal voiceless x. 

2.2.7. The Semivowels are found written as i, j and u, w. These are voiced. 

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NOTE. The semivowels are usually written with i and u when using the Latin alphabet. Only Proto-Indo- 
European roots and their derivatives have j and w; as in wlqos, wolf, werdhom, verb, jugom, yoke, or trejes, 
three. When there is a consonantal sound before a sonant, it is always written j or w; as in newn ['ne-un], nine. 
For more on this, see § 2.9.4. 

2.2.8. There are also some other frequent compounds, such as ks, ts, dz, tsh, dzh, ... 



Phonet. System 


Labials 


Coronals 


*Palatovelars 


Velars 


Labiovelars 


*Laryngeals 


Voiceless 


P 


t 


*kJ 


k 


k w 




Voiced 


b 


d 


V 


g 


gW 




Aspirated 


h b 


d h 


V 


g h 


owh 




Nasals 


111 


n 










Fricatives 




s , z 








*h h */i 2 , *h 3 


Liquids 




r,l 










Approximant 


u 




i 









NOTE 1. [z] was already heard in Late Proto-Indo-European, as a different pronunciation (allophone) of [s] 
before voiced consonants, and because of that it is an alternative writing in MIE, as in PIE nizdos (for ni-sd-os), 
nest, which comes from PIE roots ni, down, and zero-grade -sd- of sed, sit. 

NOTE 2. The existence of a distinctive row of PIE 'satemizable' velars, the so-called palatovelars, has been the 
subject of much debate over the last century of IE studies. Today the question is, however, usually deemed solved, 
with a majority of modern scholars supporting only two types of velars in Late PIE - generally Velars and 
Labiovelars, although other solutions have been proposed. The support of neogrammarians to the 'palatals' in 
Late PIE, as well as its acceptance in Brugmann's Grundrifi and Pokorny's Worterbuch, has extended the 
distinction to many (mainly etymological) works, which don't deal with the phonological reconstruction problem 
directly. Palatovelars might be found in PII, though, and can be written as K k, G g, Gh gh. See Appendix II. 2. 

The symbols h 1; h 2 , h 3 , with cover symbol H (traditionally 3 U a 2 , 8 3 and intervocalic a) stand for the three 
supposed "laryngeal" phonemes of PIH, which had evolved differently already in Late PIE and in Anatolian. There 
is no consensus as to what these phonemes were, but it is widely accepted that PIH h 2 was probably uvular or 
pharyngeal, and that h 3 was labialized. Commonly cited possibilities are 9, C, C w and x, x~ n > xW ; there is some 
evidence that hi may have been two consonants, •) and h, that fell together. See Appendix II. 3. 

2.3. SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS 

2.3.1 The following pronunciation scheme is substantially that used by the common Europe's Indo- 
European speakers in roughly 2500 BC, when the laryngeal phonemes had already disappeared, having 
coloured following vowels, and lengthened preceding ones. 



89 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE. MIE cannot permit dialectal phonetic differences, whether vocalic or consonantal - like Grimm's Law 
effects in PGmc. consonants, already seen -, because systematization in the pronunciation is especially needed 
when targeting a comprehensible common language. The situation for sister dialects Hellenic, Aryan and 
Anatolian is different, though. 

2.3.2. Vowels: 



[a:] as in father 


[a] as in idea 


[e:] as in they 


[e] as in met 


[i:] as in meet 


[i] as in chip 


[0:] as in note 


[0] as in pot 


[u:] as in rude 


[u] as in put 



NOTE 1. Following the mainstream laryngeals' theory, Proto-Indo-Hittite knew only two vowels, e and o, while 
the other commonly reconstructed vowels were earlier combinations with laryngeals. Thus, short vowels PIE a < 
/i 2 e; c < (hje; o < h 3 e, (hjo; long vowels d < eh 2 ; e < eh t ; 6 < eh 3 , oh. The output of h 2 o was either a or o, after 
the different schools. Short and long vowels T and u are just variants of the semivowels *j and *w. 

NOTE 2. The sonants may have been lengthened too (usually because of compensatory lengthenings), especially 
in the conjugation of verbs, giving thus [r:], [1:], [m:], [n:], written as r, 1, rri, n. The semivowels can also have a 
prolonged pronunciation, giving allophones ij and uw. For more details on this see § 2.7.2. 

NOTE 3. It is recommended to mark long vowels with a macron, , and stressed vowels with a tilde, '. and 
reduplicated stems without an original vowel are represented with an apostrophe, ' (as in PGk. q'qlos, see qel-). 

2.3.3. Falling Diphthongs and equivalents in English: 



ei as in vein 


eu e (met) + u (put) 


6i as in oil 


6u as ow in know 


ai as in Cairo 


an as ou in out 



NOTE. Strictly speaking, je, jo, ja, as well as we, wo, wa (the so-called rising diphthongs) aren't actually 
diphthongs, because j- and iv- are in fact consonantal sounds. Nevertheless, we consider them diphthongs for 
syntax analysis; as in Eu-ro-pa-io-, where the adjectival ending -io [io] is considered a diphthong. 

2.3.4. Triphthongs: 

There are no real triphthongs, as a consequence of what was said in the preceding note. The 
formations usually called triphthongs are jei, joi, jai; jeu, jou, jau; or wei, woi, wai; weu, wou and 
wau; and none can be named strictly triphthong, as there is a consonantal sound [i] or [u] followed by a 
diphthong. The rest of possible formations are made up of a diphthong and a vowel. 

NOTE. Triphthong can be employed for syntax analysis, too. But a semivowel surrounded by vowels is not one. 
Thus, in Europaiom, [eu-ro:-'pa-iom], European (neuter noun), there aren't any triphthongs. 



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There are several ways to 
generate breathy -voiced sounds , 
among them: 

1. To hold the vocal cords 
apart, so that they are lax as 
they are for [h], but to increase 
the volume of airflow so that 
they vibrate loosely. 

2. To bring the vocal cords 
closer together along their entire 
length than in voiceless [h], but 
not as close as in modally voiced 
sounds such as vowels. This 
results in an airflow 
intermediate between [h] and 
vowels, and is the case with 
English intervocalic [h] . 

3. To constrict the glottis, but 
separate the arytenoid 
cartilages that control one end. 
This results in the vocal cords 
being drawn together for 
voicing in the back, but 
separated to allow the passage 
of large volumes of air in the 
front. This is the situation with 
Hindustani. 



2.3.4. Consonants: 

1. b, d, h, 1, m, n, are pronounced as in English. 

2. n can also be pronounced as guttural [n] when it is followed by 
another guttural, as English sing or bank. 

3. p, k, t are plain as in Romance, Slavic or Greek languages, not 
aspirated as in English; t is never pronounced as sh, as in English 
oration or creation. 

4. g always as in get. It had two dialectal pronunciations, simple 
velar and palatovelar. Compare the initial consonants in garlic and 
gear, whispering the two words, and it will be observed that before e 
and 1 the g is sounded farther forward in the mouth (more 'palatal') 
than before a or o. 

5. c is pronounced similar to [g] but with rounded lips. Compare the 
initial consonant in good with those of the preceding example to feel 
the different articulation. The voiceless q has a similar pronunciation 
to that of c, but related to [k]; as c in cool. 

6. j as the sound of y in yes, w as w in will. 

7. Proto-Indo-European r was probably slightly trilled with the tip 
of the tongue (as generally in Romance or Slavic languages), but 
other usual pronunciations of modern Indo-European languages have 
to be admitted in the revived language, as French or High German r. 

8. s is voiceless as in sin, but there are situations in which it is 
voiced, depending on the surrounding phonemes. Like the 
aforementioned [r], modern speakers will probably pronounce [s] 
differently, but this should not usually lead to misunderstandings, as 
there are no proper IE roots with original z or sh, although the 
former appears in some phonetic environments, v.s. 

9. bh, dh, gh, ch are uncertain in sound, but the recommended 
pronunciation is that of the Hindustani's "voiced aspirated stops" bh, 
dh, gh, as they are examples of living voiced aspirates in an Indo- 
European language (see note). Hindustani is in fact derived from 
Sanskrit, one of the earliest attested dialects of Late PIE. 



91 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

10. x represents [x], whether with strong, 'ach-lauf, such as kh in Russian Khrushenko, or ch in Greek 
Christos, or soft, with 'ich-lauf, such as ch in German Kirche or Lichtenstein; but never like ks, gz, or z, 
as in English. 

11. z, v, f, sh, are pronounced as in English. 

12. zh is pronounced as in English leisure. 

13. tsh corresponds to English ch in chain, and tzh to j in jump 

14. The aspirates ph, kh, th are pronounced very nearly like English (aspirated) p, k, t. 

15. There is also another value for th, which corresponds to English th in thing, and for dh, which 
sounds as th in this. 

16. rh, rr and rrh have no similar sounds in English, although there are examples of common loan 
words, such as Spanish guerrilla, or Greek rhotacism or Tyrrhenos. 

17. The pronunciation of nj is similar to English onion or canyon; and that of lj to English million. 

18. Doubled letters, like 11, mm, tt, etc., should be so pronounced that both members of the 
combination are distinctly articulated. 

2.4. SYLLABLES 

2.4.1. In many modern languages, there are as many syllables in a word as there are separate vowels 
and diphthongs. This is not exactly so in Modern Indo-European. It follows, indeed, this rule too: 

Eu-ro-pa-ios, wer-dhomt, ne-was 6 , ju-gom^. 

NOTE. The semivowels [u] and [i] are in general written i and u, as we already said, when they are used in the 
formation of new words, i.e., when they are not derived from PIE roots. That is why the adjective European is 
written Europaios, not Eurdpajos , and so its derived nominalized inanimate form, n. Eurdpaiom, the 
European (language), or Italia, Italy and not Italja . In Proto-Indo-European stems and in words derived from 
them they are written with j and w; as, trejes^s, three, newos 6 , new, dnghuwes ['dn-g h u-ues], languages, etc. 

2.4.2. Indo-European has also consonant-only syllables. It is possible to hear a similar sound in 
spoken English or German, as in Brighton ['brai-tn] or Haben ['ha-bn], where the final n could be 
considered vocalic. In this kind of syllables, it is the vocalic sonant (i.e. [r], [1], [m] or [n]) the one which 
functions as syllabic centre, instead of a vowel proper: 

bhrgh 128 [b h rg h ], bury; wlqos 23 ['ul-k w os], wolf; dekm 155 ['de-km], ten; nomn 1 ' ['no(:)-mn], name. 

NOTE 1. Words derived from these vocalic consonants differ greatly in modern Indo-European languages. For 
example, dnghwa ['dn-g h ua:], language, evolved as PGmc. tungo, and later English tongue or German Zunge, 



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2. Letters and Sounds 

while in archaic Latin it was pronounced dingwa, and then the initial d became I in Classic Latin, written lingua, 
which is in turn the origin of Modern English words "linguistic" and "language". 

NOTE 2. We maintain the old, difficult and somehow unstable vocalic sounds in search for unity. As such a 
phonetic system is not easy for speakers of modern Indo-European languages, the proposed alternative 
pronunciation is to add, if needed, an auxiliary schwa [ s ] before or after the sonant. The schwa we are referring to 
is an unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound. There are usually two different possible pronunciations, 
depending on the position of the schwa; as in wlqos, which can be pronounced ['u a l-k w os], the way it probably 
evolved into PGmc. wulx w az, and ['ul 3 ~k w os], which gave Common Greek wluk w os. Other possible examples are 
dekm ['de-k>m] (cf. Lat. decern, Gmc. texam), and 11611111 ['no(:)-m 9 n] (cf. Lat. nomen, Gmc. namon). 

2.4.3. In the division of words into syllables, these rules apply: 

1. A single consonant is joined to the following vowel or diphthong; as ne-wos 6 , me-dhjos 7 , etc. 

2. Combinations of two or more consonants (other than the vocalic ones) are regularly separated, and 
the first consonant of the combination is joined to the preceding vowel; as ok-to, eight, pen-qe, five, 
etc. but a.-gvos 8 , field, s-qa-los" 3 , squalus. 

3. In compounds, the parts are usually separated; as Gmc. loan-translation aqa-lendhom 
(aqia 10 +lendhom u ), island ("water thing -viand"), as Gmc. aujo landom (cf. O.E. igland, ealand), or 
Celtic ambh-agtos (ambhi^+ag 1 ^), ambassador ("about+lead"), as Lat. ambactus, "servant. 

2.5. QUANTITY 

2.5.1. Syllables are distinguished according to the length of time required for their pronunciation. Two 
degrees of Quantity are recognized, long and short. 
NOTE. In syllables, quantity is measured from the beginning of the vowel or diphthong to the end of the syllable. 

2.5.3. A syllable is long usually, 

a. if it contains a long vowel; as, ma-ter 1 ^ mother, dn-ghus 3 , tongue, 

b. if it contains a diphthong; as, Eu-ro-pa, Europe, leuk-tom^ light, 

c. if it contains any two non-syllabic consonants (except a mute with I or r). 

2.5.4. A syllable is short usually, 

a. if it contains a short vowel followed by a vowel or by a single consonant; as, ciwos 16 [g w i(:)- 
'uos], alive, or leuso 17 , loosen, 

b. if it contains a vocalic sonant; as, rtkos 18 ['rt-kos], bear, nomn 1 ' ['no:-mn], dekm ['de-kmj. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

2.5.5. Sometimes a syllable varies in quantity, viz. when its vowel is short and is followed by a mute 
with 1 or r, i.e. by pi, kl, tl; pr, kr, tr, etc.; as, agri 8 . Such syllables are called common. In prose they 
are regularly short, but in verse they might be treated as long at the option of the poet. 

NOTE. Such distinctions of long and short are not arbitrary and artificial, but are purely natural. Thus, a syllable 
containing a short vowel followed by two consonants, as ng, is long, because such a syllable requires more time for 
its pronunciation; while a syllable containing a short vowel followed by one consonant is short, because it takes 
less time to pronounce it. 

2.6. ACCENT 

2.6.1. There are stressed as well as unstressed words. The last could indicate words that are always 
enclitic, i.e., they are always bound to the accent of the preceding word, as -qe 2 °, and, -r 21 [r],/or; while 
another can be proclitics, like prepositions. The accent position can thus help to distinguish words. 

2.6.2. In Modern Indo-European, each non-clitic word has one and only one accent. The possibility of 
secondary accents depends on the pronunciation. 

Verbs in Main Sentences, as well as Vocatives, appear to have had also different, not fixed accents. 

NOTE 1. The attested stress of Indo-European dialects shows a great diversity: Germanic and Old Irish stressed 
the first syllable, Slavic and Greek had a 'semifree' accent, Latin and Armenian (as Albanian) stressed usually the 
penultimate, etc. 

NOTE 2. Baltic and Slavic dialects still show a Musical accent, while Greek and Sanskrit vocabulary seems to 
show remains of an old Musical accent. In Proto-Indo-European (as in Latin) there are clear traces of syncopes 
and timbre variations of short vowels near the accentuated ones, what suggests that Indo-European maybe 
changed a Musical accent for an Intensive one. 

2.6.4. The Stress is free, but that does not mean anarchy. On the contrary, it means that each word has 
an accent, and one has to know - usually by way of practice - where it goes. 

NOTE. Unlike Latin (which followed the 'penultimate rule'), or French, in which the last syllable is usually 
accentuated, or Polish, Finnish, etc. Indo-European stress is (at least partly) unpredictable. Rather, it is lexical: it 
comes as part of the word and must be memorized, although orthography can make stress unambiguous for a 
reader, and some stress patterns are ruled out. Otherwise homophonous words may differ only by the position of 
the stress, and therefore it is possible to use stress as a grammatical device. 

2.6.5. Usually, adjectives are accentuated on the ending; as in europaios, European, angliskos 22 , 
English, etc., while nouns aren't; as, Europaios (maybe 'purer PIE' Europaios, with root accent), 
European, Angliskos, English(man). There are some other rules to be followed in the declension of 
nouns and in the conjugation of verbs, which will be later studied. 



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2.7. VOWEL CHANGE 



2.7.1. Syllable creation is the most common of the various phonetic changes that modern Indo- 
European languages have undergone all along these millennia of continuated change. Anaptyxis is a 
type of phonetic epenthesis, involving insertion of a vowel to ease pronunciation. Examples in English 
are ath-e-lete, mischiev-i-ous, or wint-e-ry. It usually happens by adding first a supporting vowel or 
transition sound (glide or Gleitlaut). After this, in a second stage, the added vowel acquires a fix tone, 
becoming a full vowel. 

2.7.2. The sonants form unstable syllables, and thus vowel epenthesis is very common. For example, 
dn-ghwa becomes tun-go- in Germanic and din-gwa in Archaic Latin, while wl-qos 23 was 
pronounced wul-k w az (later wulfaz) in Pre-Proto-Germanic and wlu-k w os (later lukos) in Proto-Greek. 

The semivowels [i], [u] are more stable than sonants when they are syllable centres, i.e. [i] or [u]. But 
they have also some alternating pronunciations. When they are pronounced lento, they give the 
allophones [ii] and [uu], always written ij and uw. Alternating forms like medhijos (which gives Lat. 
medius), and medhjos (which gives O.Ind. mddhjas or Gk. ueoooq), probably coexisted already in 
Late Proto-Indo-European. 

NOTE. With the creation of zero-grade stems, vocalization appears, as the original radical vowels disappear and 
new ones are added. That happens, for example, in root bhr 2 *- [b h r], carry, (cognate with English bear), which 
can be reconstructed from IE languages as bher-, bhor- or bhr-. The same can be said of the semivowels [i] and 
[u] when they are syllable edges, being syllable centres [u] and [i] in zero-grades. 

2.7.3. Laryngeals were probably aspirated phonemes (reconstructed as three to nine different sounds) 
that appear in most current reconstructions of Middle PIE. The effects of some laryngeals are directly 
attested in the Anatolian languages. In the other Indo-European dialects known - all derived from Late 
PIE - their old presence is to be seen mostly through the effects they had on neighboring sounds, and 
on patterns of alternation that they participated in. 

NOTE. Because such phonemes weren't heard in Europe's Indo-European and the other Late PIE dialects, and 
because their original phonetic values remain controversial, we don't deem it useful to write them in a Modern 
Indo-European language system, but for the explanation of some alternating PIE roots or stems. 

2.7.4. Another vocalizations appear in PIE dialects in some phonetic environments, as two occlusives 
in zero-grade, impossible to pronounce without adding a vowel; as e.g. skp, which evolved as Lat. scabo 
or Got. skaban. Although the dialectal solutions to such consonantal groups aren't unitary, we can find 
some general PIE timbres. As a, i with a following dental (especially in Gk. and BS1.) or u, also 
considered general, but probably influenced by the context, possibly when in contact with a labial, 



95 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

guttural or labiovelar, as in Greek reduplicate q'qlos 25 ['k w -k w los], circle, wheel, from qel-, move 
around, which was usually pronounced quqlos; etc. 

2.7.5. Vocalic prothesis (from Gk. jipo-Geoic,, pre-putting), is the appending of a vowel in front of a 
word, usually to facilitate the pronunciation. Prothesis differ, not only among PIE dialectal branches, 
but also frequently within the same language or linguistic group. Especially before [r], and before [1], 
[m], [n] and [u], more or less systematically, a vowel is added to ease the pronunciation; as, rtkos 18 , 
bear, which gives Lat. ursus (cognate with Eng. ursine), Gk. apKioc, (as in Eng. Arctic) or Welsh arth 
(as in Eng. Arthur). The timbre of the added vowel is related neither to a linguistic group or individual 
language, nor to a particular phonetic or morphological environment. 

NOTE 1. It is therefore not a good practice in Modern Indo-European to add such vowels in front of words, but, 
as seen in §2.4.2., an additional auxiliary schwa [ s ] could be a useful way to facilitate pronunciation. 

NOTE 2. The different dialectal evolution such old difficult -to-pronounce words can be explained without a need 
for more phonemes, just accepting that phonetic changes are not always due to an exact pattern or 'sound law'. 

2.7.6. Syllable losses are often observed in IE languages. Syncope refers to the loss of an inner vowel, 
like brief vowels in Gothic; as, gasts from PGmc. gastiz, IE ghostis 26 . Also after [u], long vowel, 
diphthong or sonant in Latin; as, prudens for prowidens, corolla for coronala, or ullus for oinolos. 

Haplology, which consists of the loss of a whole syllable when two consecutive (identical or similar) 
syllables occur, as Lat. fastidium instead of fastitidium, or Mycenaean aporeu instead of apiporeu. 

2.8. CONSONANT CHANGE 

2.8.1. The so called s-Mobile {mobile pronounced as in Italian; the word is a Latin neuter adjective) 
refers to the phenomenon of alternating word pairs, with and without s before initial consonants, in 
stems with similar or identical meaning. This "moveable" prefix s- is always followed by another 
consonant. Typical combinations are with voiceless stops (s)p-, (s)t-, (s)k-, with liquids and nasals, 
(s)l-, (s)m-, (s)n-; and rarely (s)w-. 

For example, Proto-Indo-European stem (s)tauros 2 7, perhaps originally meaning bison, gave PGmc. 
stiuraz (cf. Goth, stiur, O.E. steor, Ger. Stier, Eng. steer), Av. staora, but Gmc. piuraz (cf. O.N. pjorr), 
Lat. taurus, Osc. turuf, Gk. tauros, O.C.S. turb, Lith. tauras, Gaul, tarbos. Both variants existed side by 
side in Late PIE, but whereas some dialects have preserved the form with the s mobile, others all have 
words for bull which reflect the root without the sibilant. 

Such pairs with and without s are found even within the same language, as Gk. (s)tegos, "roof, 
(s)mikros, "little", O.Ind. (s)tr, "star", and so on. 

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2. Letters and Sounds 



IE stem 


Meaning 


Example with -s 


without -s 


(s)kap- 


tool 


Gk. skeparnion 


Lat. capus 


(s)kel- 


crooked 


Ger. Schielen 


Gk. kolon 


(s)kep- 


cut, scrape 


Eng. scab 


Lat. capulare 


(s)ker- 


cut 


Eng. shear, sheer 


Lat. curtus 


(s)ker- 


bend 


Eng. shrink 


Lat. curvus 


(s)kleu- 


close 


Ger. schliefien 


Lat. claudere 


(s)qalo- 


big fish 


Lat. squalus 


Eng. whale 


(s)tewd- 


thrust 


Goth, stautan 


Lat. tundo 


(s)mer- 


remember 


Skr. smarati 


Eng. mourn 


(s)ne- 


spin 


Ir. sndthad 


Eng. needle 


(s)melo- 


small animal 


Eng. small 


Gae. mz'aZ 


(s)neu- 


tendon, sinew 


Gk. neuron 


Skr. snavan 


(s)peik- 


magpie 


Ger. Specht 


Lat. pica 


(s)pek- 


spy, stare 


O.H.G. spehon 


Alb. pashe 


(s)plei- 


split 


Eng. split, splinter 


Eng. flint 


(s)perg- 


sparrow 


O.Eng. spearwa 


Lat. parra 


(s)tea- 


stand 


Lat. sto, Eng. stand 


Ir.ta 


(s)ten- 


thunder 


O.H.G. donar 


O.Sla. stenjo 


(s)twer- 


whirl 


Eng. storm 


Lat. turba 



NOTE 1. For (s)ten-, compare O.Ind. stdnati, Gk. steno, O.Eng. stenan, Lith. stenil, O.Sla. stenjo, and without s- 
in O.Ind. tdnyati, Gk. Eol. tennei, Lat. tonare, O.H.G. donar, Cel. Tanaros (name of a river). For (s)pek-, cf. 
O.Ind. spasati, Av. spasta, Gk. skopos (<spokos), Lat. spektus, O.H.G. spehon, without s- in O.Ind. pasyati, Alb. 
pashe. For (s)ker-, cf. O.Ind. ai>a-, apa-skara-, Gk. skeraphos, O.Ir. scar(a)im, O.N. skera, Lith. skiriil, Illyr. 
Scardus, Alb. hurdhe (<*skrd-), without s- in O.Ind. krnati, Av. kdrdntaiti, Gk. keiro, Arm. kcorem, Alb. kjeth, 
Lat. caro, O.Ir. cert, O.N. horund, Lith. kkarna, O.Sla. koriicu, Hitt. kartai-, and so on. 

NOTE 2. Some scholars believe it was a prefix in PIE (which would have had a causative value), while others 
maintain that it is probably caused by assimilations of similar stems - some of them beginning with an s-, and 
some of them without it. It is possible, however, that the original stem actually had an initial s, and that it was lost 
by analogy in some situations, because of phonetic changes, probably due to some word compounds where the last 
-s of the first word assimilated to the first s- of the second one. That helps to explain why both stems (with and 
without s) are recorded in some languages, and why no regular evolution pattern may be ascertained: so for 
example in wlqoms spekiont, they saw wolves, becoming ivlqoms 'pekiont. See Adrados (1995). 



97 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

2.8.2. Before a voiced or aspirated voiced consonant, s was articulated as voiced, by way of 
assimilation; as, nizdos 28 ['niz-dos], nest, or mizdhos [miz-'d h os], meed, salary. When s forms a 
group with sonants there is usually assimilation, but such a trend is sometimes reversed by adding a 
consonant; as Lat. cerebrum (<Ita. kereOrom), from kersrom 29 . 

2.8.3. The s between vowels was very unstable in PIE, evolving differently in individual dialects; as, 
snusos 30 , daughter-in-law (cf. Lat. nurus, O.H.G. snur). The most common examples of these 
phonetic changes appear in PIE s stems, when followed by a vowel in declension; as nebhos 31 , cloud, 
which gives O.C.S. nebesa, Gk. necpekn, or genos 32 , race, stock, kind, which gives Lat. genus, generis. 

2.8.4. A sequence of two dentals - as tt, dt, tdh, ddh, etc. - was eliminated in all Indo-European 
dialects, but the process of this suppression differed among branches, some earlier dialects (as Vedic) 
showing little change, some others an st or sdh, and others ss. This trend began probably in Late PIE, 
and thus all EIE speakers knew such evolutions, which we sum up into a common intermediate stage st, 
sdh, etc., which was followed in some early IE dialects, and probably known to the rest of them. 

NOTE. For more on this, see Conventions Used in this Book. For changes in Aryan, see Appendix II. 

Examples in MIE are e.g. forms derived from PIE root weid 33 , know, see, (cf. Lat. videre, Gmc. witan, 
Eng. wite); as, p.p. w(e)istos, known, seen, from w(e)id-to-, (cf. O.Ind. vitta-, but Gmc. wissaz, Lat. 
visus, Gk. d-(f)iOTOc,, Av. vista-, O.Pruss. waist, O.Sla. vestb, O.Ir. rofess, etc.), which gives e.g. Latin ad 
wistom, advice (Lat. ad visum), or wistion, vision (Lat. visio), in turn giving qelewistion 3 4, 
television; Greek wistor, wise, learned man, from Gk. Taxcop ( h istof) or fiaxcop (wistor), which gives 
wistoria, history, from Gk. iaxopia (Hstoria); imperative weisdhi!, see!, as O.Lith. weizdi (< weid- 
dhi, cf. O.C.S. infinitive vizdo), Sla. eghweisti, certainly, as O.C.S. izvesth, etc. 

2.8.5. The manner of articulation of an occlusive or sibilant usually depends on whether the next 
phoneme is voiced or voiceless. So e.g. voiced ag 35 , carry, gives voiceless agtos ['akt-os] (not reflected 
in MIE writings), cf. Gk. cucxoc, (aktos) or Lat. actus. The same happens with voiced aspirates, as in 
legh 36 , lie (cognate to Eng. log), giving Gk. AeKxpov (lektron), Lat. lectus, O.H.G. Lehter; also, compare 
how voiceless p- becomes -b, when pods 3 ?, foot, is in zero-grade -bd-, as in Gk. emP8a (epibda). 

Examples of changes that might affect MIE orthography include sibilants from known s-roots, as 
nizdos for nisdos, kerzrom for kersrom, already seen; common variants, as eghs, eks, of, out, 
from; and doubious cognates, as necros, black, and noqts, night, maybe from a common PIE suffixed 
nog w -t or nog wh -t. 

2.8.6. Some difficult consonantal compounds may be so pronounced in Modern Indo-European as to 
avoid them, imitating its modern use; as, klus(sk)6 [lu-s(k)o:], listen (cf. Gmc. hluza, O.Ind. srosati, 
O.Ir. cluas, Arm. lur, Toch. A klyos, Lith. kldusit, O.Bui, slusati, etc.), from kleu- 38 , hear; 

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2. Letters and Sounds 

psughologiass [su:-g h o-lo-'gi-a], psychology (as Gk. inuxoXoyia, from Gk. ipuxn, MIE psii-ghd, for 
some IE *bhs-u-gh-), smweitikos 40 [s-ui:-di-'kos], sovietic (O.Rus. ctB-feTt, suvetu, for some *ksu-, 
loan-translation of Gk. auuPouAiov, sumboulion), gnation 41 [na:-'tio:n], nation (as Lat. natio), 
prksko 42 [prs-'ko:/pors-'ko:/pos-'ko:], ask, demand, inquire (cf. Skr. prcchati, Av. pardsaiti, Pers. 
pursedan, Lat. poscere, O.H. G.forskon, Lith. persil, O.Ir. arcu, Toch. park), etc. 

NOTE. Verbs like *klusina, a loan translation of English 'listen' (from IE klu-s-, listen, from kleu-, hear), 
should be avoided if possible in Modern Indo-European, for the sake of proper communication, if there is another 
common PIE verb with the same meaning; in this case, the verb is cognate with other IE verbs derived directly 
from klus(sk)o, and therefore it is unnecessary to use the English tertiary formation shown. Such forms are too 
derived to be considered an Europe's Indo-European term proper; it would be like using Romance 
*maturikami, get up early, loan-translating Spanish "madrugar". 

2.9. PECULIARITIES OF ORTHOGRAPHY 

2.9.1. Indo-European words may show a variable orthography. 

2.9.2. In many words the orthography varies because of alternating forms that give different 
derivatives; as in domos«, house, but demspots 44 [des-'po-ts], master, lord, despot, as Gk. decmornq, 
(despotes), Skr. dampati, Av. dang patois, (with fern, demspotnia, [des-'po-nia]) or demrom, 
timber, as Gmc. temran, all from PIE root dem-/d6m-, house. 

NOTE. The forms shown, Greek dems-pot-a, as well as Indo-Iranian dems-pot-is, are secondary formations 
derived from the original Proto-Indo-European form; compare, for an original PIE ending -t in compounds, Lat. 
sacerdos<*-ots, O.Ind. devastut-, "who praises the gods", etc. 

2.9.3. In other situations, the meaning is different, while the stems are the same; as, gher 4 ^, enclose, 
grasp, which gives ghortos, garden, enclosure, hence town (cf. Gmc. gardan, Lat. hortus, Gk. khortos, 
Phry. -gordum, O.Ir. gort, Lith. gardas, O.C.S. gradu, Alb. garth, etc.), and gher 46 , bowels, fig. like, 
want, giving ghredhus, hunger, etc. 

2.9.4. In some cases, however, the grammatical rules of Modern Indo-European affect how a word is 
written. For example, the word Spania 140 , Spain, could have been written Spdnjd , or Brittania, 
Britain, Brittanjd ; but we chose to maintain the letter -i when possible. We write -j or -w only in 
some specific cases, to differentiate clearly the Proto-Indo-European roots from its derivatives: 

NOTE. Modern English Britain comes from O.Fr. Bretaigne, in turn from L.Lat. Britannia, earlier Lat. 
Brittania, itself from Brittdn, Briton, from Lat. Britto, Brittonem, from the Celtic name given to the Celtic 
inhabitants of Great Britain before the Anglo-Saxon invasion, MIE Britts, Briton. A more Germanic noun in 
Modern Indo-European would be Britto 11 le 11 dh 0111, as it was known in Old English, Breten-lond, similar to the 
MIE term for "England", Anglolendhom, v.s. 



99 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

i. In PIE root vowels; as, trejes (possibly from earlier tri- or trei-), three, jugoms (from jeug), yoke, 
sawel 68 , sun, newos, new, (probably from nu, now), etc. Therefore, PIE roots with different 
articulations of the semivowel [u], [i] can be written differently; as, neu/nou-, shout, but part, now- 
ent- "announcing" (not nouent -), giving nowentios ['no-uen-tios], messenger, as Lat. nuntius, or 
nowentiom, message, as Lat. nuntium; also cei- 4 ?, live, with variant cjo- (not eie-), giving cjoiom 
['g w io:-iom], being, animal, as Gk. £cbov (zoon); there is also variant do- (and not e^e-), as in cios, life, 
from Gk. fiioq, and hence written -i- in compounds, as ciologia [g w io-lo-'gi-a], biology, (in compound 
with logos 1 34, from Gk. Xoyoq), and not cjologia . 

NOTE. This rule is also followed in declension; as, Nom. owis 14 ?, Gen. owjos, not owios (for [o-'uios]), from 
root owi-; or Nom. peku^ , Gen. pekuos, for ['pe-kuos], from root pek-. 

2. In traditionally reconstructed stems with a semivowel; as serw-, protect, (which some derive from 
ser-4 8 ), which gives extended serwaio, keep, preserve, and serwos, slave, servant, or cei-w-, live, 
from which zero-grade ciwos, alive, living; manu- 49 , man, which gives common manus, and Gmc. 
manwos, man, and adj. manwiskos, human; but cf. Latin situs, place (possibly but unlikely from 
PIE suffixed *tki-tus 77 ), is situaio, locate, situate, and not sitwa , etc. 

NOTE i. This rule is followed because of tradition in IE studies, and in scarcely attested roots, whose origin is 
not straightforward - as serw-, which could be from PIE ser-, but could also be just an Etruscan borrowing. 

NOTE 2. Graeco-Latin loans like Lat. situaio, from situs; Gk. pornos, porn, from pornogrbhos, 

pornograph, from porna, prostitute; resolution, revolution, from O.Fr. revolution, itself from L.Lat. 
reuolutio, for which Latin had originally res nouae; or ghostdlis, hotel, from Fr. hotel, from L.Lat. hostalis, 
"guest-house", from hostis, "guest", for which Latin used deuersorium; etc. Such loan words are common to most 
modern IE languages, especially within Europe, and may therefore be left so in MIE, instead of trying to use 
another common older Proto-Indo-European terms. 

3. In metathesized forms; as PIE neu 50 , tendon, sinew, which gives stems neuro-, and nerwo-, i.e. 
neurom, neuron, from Gk. veupov (as in abstract collective neura), and nerwos, nerve, from Lat. 
neruus, probably Ita. neurus. Non-metathesized forms should be prefered in MIE, though. 

NOTE. Following these first three rules, semivowels from Proto-Indo-European roots (whether inflected or not) 
should be clearly distinguished from the semivowels of derivatives extended in -uo-, -io-, -nu-, and so on. 

4. When there is a consonantal sound before or after a sonant, whether a PIE root or not; as, newn, 
nine; stajr^ 1 , fat, pawrs 2 , fire, prwos 155 , first, perwntos 53 , rocky, etc. 

5. When the semivowel -j- is followed or preceded by i, or the semivowel -w- is followed or preceded 
by u; as, dreuwos 54 , confidence, leuwa 55 , lag, bolijos 56 , big, etc. 

NOTE. This happens usually in inflected forms of nouns and verbs ending in [i:] or [u:]; as, dnghuwes, 
languages, bhruwes, of the brow, etc. 

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2. Letters and Sounds 

6. In word-final position, usually in elisions at the end of imperative verbs, especially in spoken 
language; as cemj' for cemie, come here; or takej' for takeie, shut up. 

NOTE. The omitted letters in a contraction are usually replaced by an apostrophe in European languages. 

7. As a general exception, none of these rules should be followed in compounds, when the semivowel is 
the last sound of the first word; e.g., for triathlom (from Gk. athlon, "contest"), triathlon, we won't 
write trjathlom . Also, more obviously, Sindhueuropaiom, and not Sindhiucuropdiom . 

NOTE. In Modern Indo-European, compounds may be written with and without hyphen, as in the different 
modern Indo-European languages; for Sindhueuropaiom/Sindhu-Europaiom, compare Eng. Indo- 
European, Ger. Indoeuropaisch, Fr. Indo-europeen, It., Sp. indoeuropeo, Gal.-Pt. Indo-europeu, Cat. 
indoeuropeu, Du. Indo-Europees, Pol. indoeuropejski, Lit. indoeuropieciu, Ir. Ind-Eorpach, Russ. 
imdoeeponeiicKuu, Gk. ivSosvpcojidixri, Ira. ^ £ jjjIjjja, Hin. f^-^rffh", etc. 

2.9.5. What many books on Late PIE reconstruct as [9] or schwa, is generally written and pronounced 
in Modern Indo-European with a simple a (v.s. §1.7.1); as, PIH ph 2 ter- -» PIE pdter- -> EIE pater- 57 , 
father; PIH b h h 2 tis -» PIE b h dtis -» EIE b h atis 5S , appearance; PIH anh 2 -» PIE and -» EIE ana- 59 , 
breath, from which derivatives MIE anama, soul, as Lat. anima (affected by Ablaut because of the 
'penultimate rule' of Classic Latin), MIE anamos, wind, as Gk. dveuoc,, MIE anati, he breathes, as Skr. 
aniti, and so on. 

2.9.6. The forms with the copulative -qe 20 , and, and disjunctive -we, or, are usually written by adding 
it to the preceding word, as in Latin -que, but with a hyphen. 

2.9.7. The capital letters are used at the beginning of the following kind of words: 

a. the names of days 60 , months 61 , seasons 62 and public holidays; as, Januarios, January, Samos, 
Summer, Newom Jerom, New Year, etc. 

b. the names of people and places, including stars and planets; as, Sawel, Sun, Djeus, God 6 3, 
Teutiskolendhom, Germany (loan-translated O.Ger. Diut-isk-lant, v.i. Compound Words §4.10). 

NOTE. Unlike English, most European languages don't write adjectives in capital letters; Europa, Europaios, 
but europaios; Teutiskolendhom, Teutiskos, but teutiskos; Brittania, Britton, but brittiskos; etc. 

c. people's titles, as Probhastor 6 4, Professor, Kelomnelis 65 , Colonel, Regtor 66 , rector, etc. 

d. with Nrtos or Skeuros, North 67 ; Suntos or Deksina, South 68 ; Austos, East 69 and Westos, 
West 70 and its derivatives. Also adjectives Nrtros, Northern, Suntros, Deksios, southern, Austros, 
eastern, Westros or Wesperos, West. 

e. in official or well-established place names; as Kolosseom, Coliseum (from Lat. Colosseum, in 
turn from kolossos, Gk. KoAoaaoc,), Plateia? 1 , the Square (from Lat. platea, from PIE pel-, flat), etc. 



101 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

2.9.8. The vocallic allophones [r], [1], [m], [n] may be written, as in Latin transliterations of Sanskrit 
texts, as r, I, rn, and n, to help the reader clearly identify the sonants; therefore, alternative writings 
nmrtos, inmortal, kmtom, hundred, wodr, water, etc. are also possible. 

2.10. KINDRED FORMS 

Compare the following Europe's Indo-European words and their evolution in Germanic and Latin, 
with their common derivatives in Modern English. 



EIE 


PGmc. 


Gothic 


O.Eng. 


Latin 


English (Lat.) 


pater, father 


fader 


fadar 


fgeder 


pater 


father (paternal) 


septm, seven 


sibun 


sibun 


seofon 


septem 


seven (September) 


trabs, dwelling, room 


burp- 


baurp 


borp 


trabs/trabes 


thorp (trabecula) 


globio, hold, clench 


klupjo 


- 


cl>TPe 


globus 


clip (globe) 


bhrater, brother 


brober 


brobar 


brobor 


frater 


brother (fraternal) 


bhero, carry 


bero 


baira 


bere 


fero 


bear (infer) 


werto, turn 


werbo 


wairba 


weorbe 


uerto 


worth (versus) 


trejes, three 


brejez 


breis 


breo 


tres 


three (trinity) 


dekm, ten 


texan 


taihun 


ten,tien 


decern 


ten (decimal) 


edo, eat 


eto 


ita 


ete 


edo 


eat (edible) 


dhemi, do, make 


domi 


- 


dom 


facio (<dha-k-io) 


do (factor) 


dherso, be adroit 


derso 


ga-darsa 


dearr 


festus (<dhers-tos) 


dare (manifest) 


leuk-, light 


leux- 


liuh- 


leoh- 


luc- 


light (lucid) 


krd, heart 


xert- 


hairt- 


heort- 


cord- 


heart (core) 


augo, increase 


auko 


auka 


eacie 


augeo 


eke (augment) 


gn-, know 


kunno 


kunna 


cunne 


(g)notus 


can (notice) 


ghostis, guest 


gastiz 


gasts 


gaBst, giest 


hostis 


guest (hostile) 


bhrgh-, mountain 


burg- 


bairga- 


beorg 


fortis (O.Lat. forctus) 


barrow (force) 


leiq-, leave 


leix w - 


lihwa 


laene 


liqu- 


lend (relic) 


qi-/qo-, what, who 


h w i-/h w o- 


hwi-/hwa- 


hwi-/hwaB- 


qui-/quo- 


why/what (quote) 


cemio, come 


k w emjo 


k w ima 


-cwem- 


uenio 


come (venue) 


ciwos, alive 


k w i(k)waz 


k w ius 


cwic 


uiuus 


quick (vivacity) 


lech-, light 


lextaz 


lihts 


liht, leoht 


leuis 


light (levity) 


chormos, warm 


warmaz 


warm- 


wearm 


formus 


warm (furnace) 



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3. WORDS AND THEIR FORMS 



3.1. THE PARTS OF SPEECH 



3.1.1. Words are divided into eight Parts of Speech: Nouns, Adjectives (including Participles), 
Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections. 

3.1.2. A Noun is the name of a person, place, thing or idea: as, Anglolendhom, England (cf. O.E. 
Engla land, "land of the Angles"); werdhom? 2 , verb; markia? 3 , mare, bakteriom™, n.pl. bakteria. 

Names of particular persons and places are called Proper Nouns; other nouns are called Common. 
NOTE. An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality or idea. A Collective Noun is the name of a group or a class. 

3.1.3. An Adjective is a word that attributes a quality; as, patrioms?, parental, bhela 75 , bright, 
Teutiskos? 6 , German, entergntios??, international. 

NOTE 1. A Participle is a word that attributes quality like an adjective, but, being derived from a verb, retains in 
some degree the power of the verb to assert. 

NOTE 2. Etymologically there is no difference between a noun and an adjective, both being formed alike. So, too, 
all names originally attribute quality, and any common name can still be so used. Thus, Regia 66 Elisabhet II or 
Elizabhet (cf. Gk. EXio(o)a/3sT, from Hebrew Eli-sheva, "God is an oath"), Queen (< Cenis? 8 ) Elizabeth II, 
distinguishes this Elizabeth from other Elizabeths, by the attribute expressed in the name Regia, Queen. 

3.1.4. A Pronoun is a word used to distinguish a person, place, thing or idea without either naming or 
describing it: as, ego 161 , 1; twos l6 3, your; wejes 162 , we. 

Nouns and pronouns are often called Substantives. 

3.1.5. A Verb is a word capable of asserting something: as, bhero, I carry, bear; bhati, it shines. 

NOTE. In English the verb is usually the only word that asserts anything, and a verb is therefore supposed to be 
necessary to complete an assertion. Strictly, however, any adjective or noun may, by attributing a quality or giving 
a name, make a complete assertion; as, wiros79 dwenos 80 (esti), the man (is) good, unlike dwenos wiros, the 
good man; or autom 81 ghddhom (esti), the car is good, unlike ghddhom autom, the good car. In the infancy 
of language there could have been no other means of asserting, as the verb is comparatively of late development. 

3.1.6. An Adverb is a word used to express the time, place, or manner of an assertion or attribute: as, 
per 82 , in front, epi 83 , near, anti 84 , opposite. 

NOTE. These same functions are often performed in Indo-European by cases of nouns, pronouns and adjectives, 
and by phrases or sentences. 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

3.1.7. A Preposition is a word which shows the relation between a noun or pronoun and some other 
word or words in the same sentence; as, e.g., ad 85 , at, to, al 86 , beyond, de 87 ,from, kom 88 , with, eghs 89 , 
out, upo 90 , up, and so on. 

3.1.8. A Conjunction is a word which connects words, or groups of words, without affecting their 
grammatical relations: as, -qe, and; -we 91 , or, -ma, but, -v,for. 

3.1.9. Interjections are mere exclamations and are not strictly to be classed as parts of speech, and may 
vary among IE dialects; as, hej, haj, (a)hoj (greeting), hallo, holla, (on the telephone); 6 (vocative); 
oh (surprise); (k)ha (k)ha (laugh); au(tsh) (pain); etc. 

NOTE. Interjections sometimes express an emotion which affects a person or thing mentioned, and so have a 
grammatical connection like other words. 

3.2. INFLECTION 

3.2.1. Indo-European is an inflected language. Inflection is a change made in the form of a word to 
show its grammatical relations. 

NOTE. Some modern Indo-European languages, like most Germanic and Romance dialects, have lost partly or 
completely their earliest attested inflection systems - due to different simplification trends -, in nominal 
declension as well as in verbal conjugation. 

3.2.2. Inflectional changes sometimes take place in the body of a word, or at the beginning, but oftener 
in its termination: 

bhabha 92 , the or a bean; sniches 93 , of the snow; (ego) wegho 94 , J ride; tratome 95 , we crossed 
over; date 96 , givel (pi.) 

3.2.3. Terminations of inflection had possibly originally independent meanings which are now 
obscured. They probably corresponded nearly to the use of prepositions, auxiliaries and personal 
pronouns in English. 

Thus, in bhares-m 9 ?, the barley (Ace), the termination is equivalent to "the" or "to the"; in bhleti 98 
[b h l-'e-ti], it blooms (Indicative), and bhleti [b h l-'e:-ti] (Subjunctive), the change of vowel grade 
signifies a change in the mood. 

3.2.4. Inflectional changes in the body of a verb usually denote relations of tense or mood, and often 
correspond to the use of auxiliary verbs in English: 

(tu) deresi", (thou) tear or are tearing; dore, he tore; (gi)gnosketi 100 , he knows, gegona, I knew 
(see Verbal Inflection for Reduplication and its meaning) 

3.2.5. The inflection of Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns and Participles to denote gender, number and 
case is called Declension, and these parts of speech are said to be declined. 

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3. Words and their Forms 

The inflection of Verbs to denote voice, mood, tense, number and person is called Conjugation, and 
the verb is said to be conjugated. 

NOTE. Adjectives are often said to have inflections of comparison. These are, however, properly stem- 
formations made by derivations. 

3.2.6. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions and Interjections are not inflected, and together form the 
group of the so-called Particles. 

3.3. ROOT, STEM AND BASE 

3.3.1. The body of a word, to which the terminations are attached, is called the Stem. The Stem 
contains the idea of the word without relations; but, except in the first part of compounds (cf. 
Niterolendhom 101 , the Low Land or Netherland, klaustrobhocia 102 , claustrophobia, etc.), it cannot 
ordinarily be used without some termination to express them. 

Thus the stem kaput 10 3 (n.) denotes head, hence also "main"; kaput (without ending) means a head 
or the head, as the Subject or Agent of an action or as Vocative, as well as to a head or to the head, as 
the Direct Object; with -os it becomes kaputos, and signifies of a head or of the head, and so on. 

NOTE. In inflected languages like Indo-European, words are built up from Roots, which at a very early time 
were possibly used alone to express ideas. Roots are then modified into Stems, which, by inflection, become fully 
formed words. The process by which roots are modified, in the various forms of derivatives and compounds, is 
called stem-building. The whole of this process is originally one of composition, by which significant endings are 
added one after another to forms capable of pronunciation and conveying a meaning. 

3.3.2. A Root is the simplest form attainable by analysis of a word into its component parts. Such a 
form contains the main idea of the word in a very general sense, and is common also to other words 
either in the same language or in kindred languages; cf. for kaput, head, kap-, from which kapelom, 
bowl, cranium (cf. O.Ind. kapalam, O.E. hafola, "head", maybe Lat. capillum, "hair of the head"). 

NOTE. The reconstruction of Europe's Indo-European looks for a very old language, and this has an obvious 
consequence on the general assertion that roots don't mean anything. In fact, many reconstructed PIE roots mean 
something, even without adding a single ending. So, for example, the English word 'special' has a root spec- (also 
root of words like speculate or species) which expresses vaguely the idea of looking. In Modern Indo-European, 
however, the (Latin) adjective spekialis, special, coexists with its original PIE root as a productive stem, as in 
verb spekio, observe. Language evolution blurs the original meanings, and many roots had possibly ceased to be 
recognized as such before IE III - although less so than in modern languages. Consequently, sometimes (not very 
often) the reconstructed PIE roots which we use as independent words in Modern Indo-European actually lacked 
a proper meaning already in Late PIE; they are used because sometimes a common IE form is needed and only 
different words from the same root have been attested. 



105 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

For example, the root of verb demo, domesticate, is dem- 104 (PIH demh 2 -), which does not 
necessarily mean to domesticate, or I domesticate, or domesticating, but merely expresses vaguely the 
idea of domesticating, and possibly cannot be used as a part of speech without terminations - in fact, 
dem- (PIH dem-) is another root which means house, but is unrelated to the verb, at least in Late PIE. 
With the ending -ti it becomes demeti, he/she/it domesticates. 

3.3.3. The Stem may be the same as the root; as, sal-s 105 , salt, bhleig-e-ti 106 , he/she/it shines; but it is 
more frequently formed from the root. 

1. By changing or lengthening its vowel: from root bhel- 10 ?, blow, swell, bhol-os, ball, or bhol-a, 
bullet, and bhl-os, bowl. Also da- 108 , divide, gives dai-mon, demon (from older Gk. daimon, divider, 
provider), and di-mon, time, period (from Gmc. timon, which gives O.Eng. tima, O.N. timi, Swe. 
timme; unrelated to Lat. tempus, MIE loan word tempos). 

2. By the addition of a simple suffix; as, bher-a 109 , bear, lit. "brown animal", lino-m 110 ,/Zax. 

3. By two or more of this methods: chn-to-s, (chen 111 in zero-grade, with participial ending -to, and 
masculine ending), beaten, gon-ia-s, angles (genus 112 , knee, in o-grade with ending -io-, feminine in - 
a, plural in -s). 

4. By derivation and composition, following the laws of development peculiar to the language, which 
we will see in the corresponding chapters. 

3.3.4. The Base is that part of a word which is unchanged in inflection: as, cherm- n 3 in chermos, 
warm, eus- n 4 in euso, burn; cou- in cous n 5, cou;,etc. 

a. The Base and the Stem are often identical, as in many consonant stems of nouns (as cer- in cers 116 , 
mount). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously 
combined with the inflectional termination. Thus the stem of nochetos, naked, is nochet- 117 ; that of 
armos 118 , arm, is armo-. 

3.3.5. Inflectional terminations are modified differently by combination with the final vowel or 
consonant of the Stem, and the various forms of Declension and Conjugation are so developed. 

3.4. GENDER 

3.4.1. The Genders distinguished in Modern Indo-European are three: Masculine, Feminine (both are 
referred to as Animate) and Neuter or Inanimate. 

3.4.2. The gender of Indo-European nouns is either natural or grammatical. 

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The masculine functions as the 
negative term in the opposition, 
i.e. when the gender is not 
defined, the masculine is used. 
This is a grammatical utility, 
one that is only relevant for 
concordance, and which has to 
do with the evolution of the 
language and its inflection. 

The earliest PIE had probably 
no distinction of gender; when 
the inanimate appeared, it was 
marked by a different inflection, 
and the animates remained as 
the negative term in the 
opposition. After that, probably 
at the same time as the thematic 
declension (in -e/o) appeared, 
the feminine was differentiated 
from the remaining animates, 
with marks like the different 
stem vowel (usually -a) or vowel 
length (as -i, -u). Therefore, the 
feminine is the positive term of 
the opposition within the 
animates, because when we use 
it we reduce the spectrum of the 
animates to the feminine, while 
the masculine still serves as the 
negative (non-differentiated) 
term for both, the general and 
the animates, when used in this 
sense, i.e. when not 
differentiating the masculine 
from the other genders. 



a. Natural Gender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted: 
bhrater n 9 (m.), brother; cena 120 (f.), woman, wife. 

NOTE. Many nouns have both a masculine and a feminine form to 
distinguish sex: as, Europaios, Europaia, European (nominalized 
adjectives), or ekwos, ekwa, horse, mare. 121 

NOTE 2. Names of classes or collections of persons may be of any gender. For 
example, armata (f.), army; from PIE ar-, fit together (as in armos, arm, 
upper arm, shoulder, cf. Gmc. armaz, Lat. armus, Gk. dpuog); also ghoros 
(m.), choir, chorus, dancing ground, from PIE gher-, grasp, enclose — loan 
translated from Gk. x°po?> originally "an special enclosure for dancing" in its 
origin, cf. Gmc. gardaz, ghordhos, or Lat. hortus, ghortos, both meaning 
garden, yard, enclosure. 122 

b. Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no 
actual sex exists in the object. It is shown in the form of the adjective 
joined with the noun: as swadtis 123 noqtis 124 (f.), a pleasant night; 
mreghus 125 kantos 126 (m.), brief song ("singing"). The gender of the 
adjective is simply a gender of concordance: it indicates to which noun 
of a concrete gender the adjective refers to. 

3.4.3. The neuter or inanimate gender differs from the other two in 
inflection, not in the theme vowel. The gender of the animates, on the 
contrary, is usually marked by the theme vowel, and sometimes by 
declension, vocalism and accent. 

3.4.4. The neuter does not refer to the lack of sex, but to the lack of 
liveliness or life. Sometimes, however, animates can be designated as 
inanimates and vice versa. 

While the distinction between masculine and feminine is usually 
straightforward, sometimes the attribution of sex is arbitrary; thus, 
different words for "ship" 127 or "war" 128 are found as feminine (as naus 
or wersa), masculine (as bhoids, or Greek loan polemos), and neuter 
(waskolom or criga). 



107 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

3.4.5. The animate nouns can have: 

a. An oppositive gender, marked: 

I. by the lexicon, as in pater-mater, father-mother, bhrater n 9-swesor 12 9, brother-sister, 
sunus 13 °-dhug(a)ter 131 , son-daughter, etc. 132 

II. by the theme vowel, as in ekwos-ekwa 121 , horse-mare, wlqos-wlqia 23 , wolf-she-wolf. 

III. by both at the same time, as in wiros 79 -cena 120 , male-female. 

b. An autonomous gender, that does not oppose itself to others, as in naus (f.), ship, pods (m.),foot, 
egnis (m.),fire, owis (f.), sheep, jewos 133 (n.) or leghs (f.), law. 134 

c. A common gender, in nouns that are masculine or feminine depending on the context; as, dhesos, 
god/goddess (cf. Gk.Hom. Geoc,), cous, cow or bull (cf. Gk. accompanied by tauros, as Scient. Eng. 
bos taurus), nauta, sailor, djousnalista, journalist, students 135 , student, etc. 

d. An epicene gender, which, although being masculine or feminine, designates both sexes: as the 
feminine sus 136 , pig, or masculine kakka 137 , shit (as an insult). 

3.4.6. The gender of a noun can thus be marked by the stem vowel (or sometimes by inflection), or has 
to be learnt: it is a feature of a word like any other. In its context, concordance is a new gender mark; a 
masculine noun has a masculine adjective, and a feminine noun a feminine adjective. However, not all 
adjectives differentiate between masculine and feminine, a lot of them (those in -is, -u-s, -es, -on, and 
many thematic in -os) are masculine-feminine: only the context, i.e. the noun with which they agree, 
helps to disambiguate them. This happens also in nouns with a common gender. 

3.4.7. Most endings do not indicate gender, as in pater and mater. Only by knowing the roots in 
many cases, or by the context in others, is it possible to determine it. Some of the suffixes determine, 
though, totally or partially if they are masculine or feminine. These are the following: 

1. -os marks masculine when it is opposed to a feminine in -a or -l/-ia, as in ekwos-ekwa, wlqos- 
wlqia, djeus-djewi, etc. This happens also in adjectives in the same situation, as in newos-newa. In 

isolated nouns, -os is generally masculine, but some traces of the old indistinctness of gender still 
remained in Late PIE, as in the names of trees (among others). In adjectives, when the ending -os is not 
opposed to feminine, concordance decides. 

2. -a marks the feminine in oppositions of nouns and adjectives. It is usually also feminine in isolated 
nouns, in the first declension. But there are also traces of masculines in -a, as, osaga, charioteer, 
driver (from 0s 116 , mouth, and ag 13 , drive), Lat. auriga; nauta, "sailor", as Gk. vauxnc,; or sluga, 
servant, as O.Sla. sluga, Lith. slauga "service", O.Ir. sluag, "army unit", etc. 

3. -l/-ia, is systematically feminine. It is used in nouns, and often in adjectives. 

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4. Finally, the roots ending in long vowels -I and -u are always feminines. 
3.5. GENERAL RULES OF GENDER 

3.5.1. Names of Male beings, and of Rivers, Winds, Months, and Mountains are masculine: 

pater57, father, Goralos 1 , Charles, Rein^ 8 , the Rhine, Austros 6 9, south wind, Magios 61 , May, 
Urales, the Urals. 

NOTE. The Urals' proper name is Uraliskas Coras, Lat. Urales Montes, " Urals' Mounts" , Ural Mountains, 
cf. Russ. Ypa/ibCKiie ropbi (Uralskiye gory). 

a. A few names of Rivers ending in -a (as Wolga), and many Greek names ending in -e(s), which 
usually corresponds to IE -a, are feminine; others are variable or uncertain, generally retaining their 
oldest attested IE gender in MIE. 

NOTE. The Russian hydronym Bo/ira is akin to the Slavic words for "wetness, humidity" (cf. Russ. enaza, 
eonoza), maybe from the same root as PIE base wed-, wet, easily borrowed in MIE from Slavic as Wolga. 

b. Some names of Mountains are feminines or neuter: as, Alpes (f. pi.), the Alps 

NOTE. Alpes, from Latin Alpes, may have been related originally to the source of adjectives albhos^ (white, 
cf. Hitt. alpas, v.i.) or altos (high, grown up, from IE al79), possibly from a Celtic or Italic dialect. 

3.5.2. Names of Female beings, of Cities, Countries, Plants, Trees and Gems, of many Animals 
(especially Birds), and of most abstract Qualities, are feminine: 

mater 14 , mother, Djowilia 6 3, Julia, Prangia 140 , France, Roma, Rome, pinus 141 , pine, saniprijos, 

sapphire (Gk. sdppheiros, ult. from Skr. sani-priyah, lit. "sacred to Saturn"), weros 128 , true. 

a. Some names of Towns and Countries are masculine: as, Montinecros 142 , Montenegro; or neuter, 
as, Jugtos Regiom, United Kingdom (English name from masc. Oinitos Gningodhomos 1 ^), 
Swioregiom 144 , Sweden, Finnlendhom 14 5, Finland. 

b A few names of Plants and Gems follow the gender of their termination; as, kmtauriom (n.), 
centaury, akantos (m., Gk. ciKavGoc,), bearsfot, upolos (m.), opal, from PIE upo, up from under. 

NOTE. The gender of most of the above may also be recognized by the terminations, according to the rules given 
under the different declensions. 

3.5.3. Indeclinable nouns, infinitives, terms or phrases used as nouns, and words quoted merely for 
their form, are neuter: poretum 146 , drive, "wetanom smeughtum", "smoking prohibited"; 
gummi, gum. 

NOTE 2. Eng. gum comes from O.Fr. gomme, from L.Lat. gumma, from Lat. gummi, from Gk. kommi, from 
Coptic kemai, hence MIE loans Lat. gummis, or Gk. kommis. 



109 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

3.5.4. Many nouns may be either masculine or feminine, according to the sex of the object. These are 
said to be of Common Gender: as, eksaliom 1 ^, exile; cous 115 , ox or cow, parents 148 , parent. 

NOTE. Several names of animals have a grammatical gender, independent of sex. These are called epicene. Thus, 
sis*, swine, and wlpes 2 3,/ox, are always feminine. 

3.5.5. Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives and Participles are declined in MIE in two Numbers, singular and 
plural - Late PIE had also possibly a dialectal dual - and up to eight cases, Nominative, Vocative, 
Accusative, Genitive and Oblique - which is found subdivided into combinations of Dative, Locative, 
Instrumental and Ablative. 

NOTE 1. European dialects show around six cases, but most of the oldest attested ones (PII, PGk, Ita.) and Balto- 
Slavic show remains of up to eight original cases, although the situation has evolved differently due to migrations 
and linguistic contacts. Traditional theories maintain that the original common PIE situation is a complex system 
of eight noun cases. On the contrary, a five-case system is for other scholars the oldest situation (of Middle PIE, as 
Anatolian dialects seem to show), later changed by some dialects by way of merging or splitting the five original 
cases. An eight-case system would have been, then, an innovation of individual dialects, just as the phonetic 
satemization. It is thus a general opinion that in IE III both dialectal trends (split and convergence of Obliques) 
coexisted. In this Grammar we follow the general, oldest trend, i.e. an eight-case inflection system. 

NOTE 2. In the number we use singular and plural, and not dual, not only because of its doubtful existence in IE 
II and the objections to its reconstruction for Late PIE, but because it is also more practical in terms of modern 
Indo-European languages. 

I. The Nominative is the case of the Subject of a sentence. 

II. The Vocative is the case of Direct Address. 

III. The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object of a verb. It is used also with many prepositions. 

IV. The Genitive may generally be translated by the English Possessive, or by the Objective with the 
preposition of. 

V. The Obliques might be found as: 

a. The Dative, the case of the Indirect Object. It may usually be translated into English by the 
Objective with the preposition to or for. 

b. The Locative, the place where. 

c. The Instrumental, the thing with. 

d. The Ablative, usually the Objective with from, by, with, in or at. It is often found with prepositions. 



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NOTE. The oblique cases appear in the English pronoun set; these pronouns are often called objective 
pronouns; as in she loves me (accusative), give it to me (dative) or that dirt wasn't wiped with me (instrumental), 
where me is not inflected differently in any of these uses; it is used for all grammatical relationships except the 
genitive case of possession and a non-disjunctive nominative case as the subject. 

3.6. VOWEL GRADE 

1. The vowel grade or Ablaut is normally the alternation between full, zero or lengthened grade 
vocalism. Europe's Indo-European had a regular ablaut sequence that contrasted the five usual vowel 
sounds called Thematic, i.e. e/e/ 0/6/0. This means that in different forms of the same word, or in 
different but related words, the basic vowel, a short e, could be replaced by a long e, a short o or a long 
6, or it could be omitted (transcribed as 0). 

NOTE. The term Ablaut comes from Ger. Abstufung der Laute, "vowel alternation". In Romance languages, the 
term Apophony is preferred. 

2. When a syllable had a short e, it is said to be in the "e-grade"; when it had no vowel, it is said to be 
in the "zero-grade", when in o, in "o-grade", and they can also be "lengthened". The e-grade is 
sometimes called "full grade". 

A classic example of the five grades of ablaut in a single root is provided by the following different case 
forms of EIE pater, father, and npator, fatherless . 



Ablaut grade 


EIE 




Greek 


Case 


e-grade or full grade 


pa-ter-m 


Tia-xep-a 


pa-ter -a 


Accusative 


lengthened e-grade 


pa-ter 


7ia-Ttjp 


pa-ter 


Nominative 


zero-grade 


pa-tr-6s 


7ia-Tp-6c 


pa-tr-6s 


Genitive 


o-grade 


n-pa-tor-m 


d-na-Top- 


a a-pa-tor-a 


Accusative 


lengthened o-grade 


n -pa -tor 


d-na-xiop 


a-pa-tor 


Nominative 



3. Late PIE had ablaut differences within the paradigms of verbs and nouns that were probably 
significant secondary markers. Compare for example for PIE pertus, passing, passage, (from verb 
perio, go through): 





PIE 


root (per-) 


suffix (-tu) 


Nominative 


per-tu-s 


e-grade 


zero-grade 


Accusative 


per-tu-m 


e-grade 


zero-grade 


Genitive 


pr-teu-s 


zero-grade 


e-grade 


Dative 


pr-t(eu)-ei 


zero-grade 


e-grade 



111 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



4. Some common examples of different vowel grades (including their lengthened form) as found in 
Proto-Indo-European are the following: 



Vowel Grade 


Full (F) 


Zero (0) 


Lengthened (L) 


e/o - - e/o 


ped, dom 


pd, dm 


ped, dom 


ie/io -i- ie/io 


djeus 


diwos/djus 


dje- 


ue/uo - u - ue/uo 


kwon 


kun- 


kwdn 


ei/oi - u/i - ei/6i 


bheid 


bhid 


bheid 


eu/ou - u/i - eu/6u 


bheud, ous 


bhud, us 


bheud, ous 


a/e/6 -a- a/e/6 


bhle, bha, oku 


bhla, bha, aku 


bhle, bha, oku 


au/ai - u/i - au/ai 


bhau, aik 


bhu 


bhau, aik 


ei/6i - u/i - ei/6i 


po(i) 


Pi 


poi 



3. There are also some other possible vowel grade changes, as a-grade, i-grade and u-grade, which 
usually come from old root endings, rather than from systematized phonetic changes. 

NOTE. It seems that the alternation e/0 in PIE was dependent on the accent. Compare kleivos/klutos, 
eimi/ lines, paterm/patros, etc., where the unaccented morpheme looses its vowel. This happened only in the 
oldest formations, though, as Late PIE had probably already lost this morphological pattern, freezing the older 
alternations into a more or less stable vocabulary without changes in vowel grade. 

3.7. WORD FORMATION 

3.7.1. Word Formation refers to the creation of new words from older ones. Indo-European scholars 
show an especial interest in Derivational Affixes (most commonly Suffixes), i.e. morphemes that are 
attached to a base morpheme, such as a Root or a Stem, to form a new word. The main affixes are: 

A. Athematic suffixes: 

a. The most simple is the zero-ending, i.e. root nouns like dem-s (Gk. des-), house, in consonant, as 
neq-t-s (Hitt. nekuz), night, or mens (Av. maz-), mind, in -r, as ghes-6r (Hitt. kissar), hand, with 
apophony, Ac. ghes-er-m (Hitt. kisseran), Loc. ghes-r-i (Hitt. kisri, Gk. kheiri), with ending -n, as 
or-6n (Hitt. hara[s], stem ha.ra.n-, from PIH h 3 or-o-, cf. O.H.G. aro, Eng. erne, Gk. or-n-[is]), eagle. 
Common examples include regs, as Lat. rex, Cel. ri, Gmc. rih, Skr. rat, cous, as Lat. bou, Cel. bo, 
Gmc. ko, Skr. gdu/go, mus, Lat. mils, Gk. uuc,, Gmc. mils, Sla. mys, Skr. mu, etc. 

b. Also, the stem r/n, with -r- in 'strong' cases (Nom-Acc.) and -n- in the Obliques, is well 
represented in Anatolian; see Variable Nouns in the next chapter for more on these heteroclites. 

c. An old stem in -u- appears e.g. in the words gon-u, knee, dor-u, wood, and oj-u, "lifetime", cf. 
Av. zanu, daru, aiiu, Skv.janu, dam, ayu, Gk. gony, dory, ou(ki), "no", etc. Apophonic variants are 
found as full-grade genw-, derw-, ejw-, cf. Hitt. genu-, Lat. genu-, Sla. derw-o, Gk. ai(w)-ei, etc., 



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and as zero-grade gn-ew, dr-ew, (a)j-ew-, as in Goth, kniu, Av. yaos, Hitt. ganu-t, etc. Such zero- 
grades are found within Declension, in Composition (cf. Skr. jnu-badh-, "kneeled", Gk. dru-tomos, 
"timber-cutter"), and in Derivation, as e.g. ju-wen-, vigorous, young (cf. Skr. yuvdn-, Lat. iuuen-is). 

d. A suffix -it-, which refers to edible substances, as mel-it, honey (cf. Gk. melit-, Hitt. milit, Luw. 
mallit, Gmc. mil-), sep-it, wheat (cf. Hitt. seppit, Gk. dlphit), etc. 

B. Feminine and Abstract (Collectives): 

a. A general PIH suffix -(e)h 2 is found in Feminine, as in send, old (<seneh 2 , cf. Gk. hene, Skr. sand-, 
Lith. send), swekru-, husband's mother (<swekruh 2 -, cf. O.Sla. svekrii, Lat. socrus, O.H.G. swigar), 
in Abstract Collectives, as in Gk. tomd, cut, or neurd, rope made from sinew (cf. neurom, Eng. 
neuron), etc., and in the Nom.-Acc. Neuter singular of the collective that functions as Nom.-Acc. 
Plural (cf. Skr. yuga, Gk. zygd, Lat. iuga, Goth, juka, "jokes", Hitt. -a, Pal. -a/-a, etc.). 

b. It is also very well attested a Feminine and Abstract Collective -i, PIH -ih 2 , with variant -ia, PIH - 
ih 2 /-jeh 2 , cf. Skr. devx (Gen. devyas), "goddess", vrkis (Gen. vrkias), "she-wolf, etc. 

C. Thematic Suffixes, the most abundant affixes found in PIE Nominal and Adjectival derivation: 

a. A simple -o-, which appears in some primary and secondary old formations, as wlq-o-s, wolf, 
rtk-o-s, bear, neuters jug-6-m,joke, werg-o-m, work, adjectives sen-o-, old, new-o-, new, etc. 

NOTE. The Distinction into primary and secondary is not straightforward, unless there is an older root attested; 
compare e.g. PIE ekivo-s, horse, which is usually deemed a derivation from PIH h^k-, "quick", as in PIE okus. 

Accented -6- is deemed a secondary suffix which marks the possession of the base, as well as 
adjectives in -6- with lengthened grade root, cf. PIE cjd, bow's string, as Skr.jyd, but cjos, bow (< 
"that has a bow's string"), as Gk. bios, or swekuros (> swekuros), husband's father, from 
swekrus, husband's mother, deiwos, from djeus, etc. 

b. About the Root Grade, o-grade roots are found in two thematic types, barytone Action Nouns (cf. 
Gk. tomos, "slice"), and oxytones Agent Nouns and Adjectives (cf. Gk. tomos, "who cuts, acute"), 
both from PIE tern-, cut; zero-grade in neuters jug-6m, joke, from jeug-, join, and in second 
elements of compounds like ni-sd-6s, nest, from sed, sit, or newo-gn-6s, "newborn", as Gk. 
neognos. 

c. Adjectival suffixes -jo- and -ijo- have a relational sense, as in cow-jos, "of a cow/ox", from cow-, 
cow, ox, as in Av. gaoya-, Skr. gavyd or gdvya, Gk. hekatom-boios, "that costs a hundred cows", 
Arm. kogi (<cow-ijo-), "derived from the cow", O.Ir. ambuse (<n-cow-ijo-, as in Skr. agos, Gk. 
abouteo), "man without cows", or e.g. patrios, paternal, pedios, "of the foot", etc. As a nominal 
suffix, cf. Lat. ingenium, officium, O.Ir. cride, setig, Skr. vairya, saujanya, Sla. stoletie, dolia, etc. 



113 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

d. Verbal adjectives in -to- (Ind.-Ira. -red-), with zero-grade verbal root, are common in secondary 
derivation, as in klu-tos, heard, famous, from kleu-, hear, cf. Skr. srutd-, Av. sruta-, Gk. klytos, Lat. 
in-clitus, M.Ir. rocloth, O.H.G. Hlot-, Arm. lu, etc. They were incorporated to the Verbal inflection as 
participles and gerunds. For nouns in -to-, -no-, -ti(j)-o-, -ni(j)-o-, -tu(w)-o-, -nu(w)-o-, etc. cf. 
Skr. svdpn(i)ya, pravinya, Lat. somnium, dominium, O.Ir. bliad(a)in, Sla. sunie, cozarenie, etc. 

e. Other common thematic suffixes include -no-, -ro-, -mo-, and diminutives in -ko-, -to-, -isko-, 

etc. which may also be participial, ordinal or adjectival (from nouns) lengthenings. They are usually 
preceded by a vowel, as in -e/ono-, -e/oro-, and so on. Compare for example from cher-, warm, 
adjective cher-mos, warm, cf. Skr. gharmd, Av. garama-, Gk. thermos, Toe. A. sarme, Phryg. 
Germiai, Arm. jerm, Alb. zjarm, or o-grade chor-mos (cf. Gmc. warmaz, Lat. formus). -bho- gives 
names of animals, as e.g. Gk. eribhos, "kid". 

f. A secondary suffix -tero- / -toro- marks the opposition of two notions, and is found in Anatolian 
(cf. Hitt. nun-taras, Adv. gen. "from now"), en-teros/al-teros (or anteros), "the other (of two)" 
(cf. Goth, anpar, Skr. dntaras, Lat. alter, etc.) opposed to a simple "other", alios (cf. Skr. anyds, Lat. 
alius, Gk. alios, Goth, aljis). This suffix is also found in some syntactic formations, as Gk. deksios - 
aris-teros, skaios - deksi-teros, both meaning "right-left" (Benveniste 1948). 

g. The suffix -wo- is particularly found in words for "alive", as ct-wo- (cf. Skr.jivds, Lat. uiuos, O.Ir. 
beo, Welsh buw, Goth, qius) and "death", as mr-wo- (cf. O.Ir. marb, Welsh marw, and also Lat. 
mortuos, Sla. mirtvu, where the -t- was possibly inserted influenced by mr-tos, "mortal"). 

h. There are some instrumental suffixes, as -tro-, -tlo-, -klo-, -dhro-, -dhlo-, as Lat. -trum, - 
c(u)lum, -brum, -bulum, etc.; e.g. ara-trom, plough, cf. Gk. drotron, Lat. aratrum, O.Ir. arathar, 
Welsh aradr, Arm. arawr, Lith. drklas, etc.; also, Gk. bdthron, O.Ind. bharitram, Goth, fodr, etc. 

i. Other common suffixes (also participial) are -men-, -mon-, -mn-, with secondary -mn-to-, - 
men-o-, -men-t- (and -wen-t-), etc., cf. Lat. augmentum, or Goth, hliumant, equivalent to O.Ind. 
sromatam, both meaning "reputation" , from kleu-, hear, and so on. 

NOTE. Detailed information on Proto-Indo-European word morphology with dialectal examples might be found 
at <http://dnghu.org/indoeuropean_noun_morphology.pdf>. 



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4. NOUNS 



4.1. DECLENSION OF NOUNS 



4.1.1. Declension is made by adding terminations to different stem endings, vowel or consonant. The 
various phonetic changes in the language have given rise to the different declensions. Most of the case- 
endings, as shown in this Modern Indo-European grammar, contain also the final letter of the stem. 

Adjectives are generally declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed with them, but they 
have some peculiarities of inflection which will be later explained. 

4.1.2. Nouns and adjectives are inflected in four regular Declensions, distinguished by their final 
phonemes - characteristic of the Stem -, and by the opposition of different forms in irregular nouns. 
They are numbered following Graeco-Latin tradition: First or a-Declension, Second or o- 
Declension, Third or i/u-Declension, Fourth or Consonant Declension, and the variable nouns. 

NOTE. The Second or o-Declension is also the Thematic Declension, opposed to the rest - and probably 
older in the evolution of PIE nominal inflection -, which form together the Athematic Declension. 



Decl. 


Stem ending 


Nom. 


Genitive 


1. 


a, ia/i/ia (e, 6) 


-0 


-s 


2. 


e/o (Thematic) 


-s 


-os, -os(i)o, (-1) 


3 


i, u and Diphthong 


m.J.-s, n.-0 


-e/ois, -e/ous, -(t)ios, -(t)uos 


4- 


Sonants & Consonants 


-s, -0 


-(e/o)s 


(5) 


Heteroclites 


-0, -r 


-(e)n 



The Stem of a noun may be found, if a consonant stem, by omitting the case-ending; if a vowel stem, 
by substituting for the case-ending the characteristic vowel. 

NOTE. Most Indo-Europeanists tend to distinguish at least two major types of declension, Thematic and 
Athematic. Thematic nominal stems are formed with a suffix -o- (in vocative -e), and the stem does not undergo 
ablaut. The Athematic stems are more archaic, and they are classified further by their ablaut behaviour: aero- 
dynamic, protero-dynamic, hystero-dynamic and holo -dynamic, after the positioning of the early PIE accent 
(dynamis) in the paradigm. 

4.1.3. The following are General Rules of Declension: 

a. The Nominative singular for animates ends in -s when the stem endings are i, u, I, u, Diphthong, 
Occlusive and Thematic (-os), or -0 in a, a, Sonant and s; while in the plural -es is general, -s for those 
in a, and -os for the Thematic ones. 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

b. The Accusative singular of all masculines and feminines ends in -m; the Accusative plural in -ms. 

c. The Vocative singular for animates is always -0, and in the plural it is identical to the Nominative. 

d. The Genitive singular is common to animates and inanimates, it is formed with -s: -s, -es, -os. A 
very old alternative possibility is extended -os-(i)o. The Genitive plural is formed in -6m (also -em), 
and in -am in a-stems. 

e. The Obliques singular end usually in -i: it can be -i, -ei, -ei, -oi, -6i or -ai. In the plural, there are 
two series of declensions, with -bh- (general) and -m- (only Gmc. and Sla.), generally -bhi, -bhis, - 
bhios, -bhos, and (Gmc, BS1.) -mis, -mos, and also some forms in -si (plural mark -s- plus oblique 
mark -i), found mainly in Graeco-Aryan dialects. 

f. Inanimates have a syncretic form for Nom.-Ac.-Voc. in -0 in Athematic, or -m in Thematic. The 
plural forms end in -a or -a. 

g. All Animates have the same form in the plural for Nom.-Voc, in -es. 

4.1.4. The so-called Oblique cases - opposed to the Straight ones, Nom.-Acc.-Voc -, are Genitive and 
the Obliques, i.e. Dative, Locative, Instrumental and Ablative. However, the Ablative seems to have 
never been independent, but for thematic stems in some dialectal areas. The other three cases were 
usually just one local case in different contexts (what we call the Oblique), although Late PIE clearly 
shows an irregular Oblique declension system. 

Note 1. There are some traces - in the Indo-European proto-languages which show divided Oblique cases - that 
could indicate a possible first division - from a hypothetical five-case-IE II- between a Dat. and a Loc.-Ins., and 
then another, more recent between Loc. and Ins (see Adrados). Languages like Sanskrit or Avestan show 8 cases, 
while some Italic dialects show up to 8 (cf. Osc. Loc. aasai for Lat. 'in ara', or Ins. cadeis amnud for Lat. 
'inimicitiae causae', preiuatud for Lat. 'priuato', etc.), while Latin shows six and a semisystematic Locative 
notion; Slavic and Baltic dialects show seven, Mycenaean Greek shows at least six cases, while Koine Greek and 
Germanic show five. 

Note 2. We know that the splitting and merging processes that affected the Obliques didn't happen uniformly 
among the different stems, and it didn't happen at the same time in plural and singular. Therefore, there was 
neither a homogene and definite declension system in IE III, nor in the dialects and languages that followed. From 
language to language, from stem to stem, differences over the number of cases and its formation developed. 
Firstly syncretism obscured the cases, and thereafter the entire system collapsed: after the time when cases broke 
up in others, as in most modern Slavic languages, another time came when all cases merged or were completely 
lost: so today in most Romance and Germanic languages, or in Slavic like Bulgarian. However, a Modern Indo- 
European needs a systematic declension, based on the obvious underlying old system, which usually results in 7- 
case paradigms (with Dat.-Abl. or Gen.-Abl.) in most inflected forms. 

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4. Nouns 



Nominal Desinences (Summary) 





Singular 


Plural 


NOM. 


-s, -0, (n. Them -m) 


m.,f. -es, n. -a 


ACC. 


-ml-m 

1 o 


m.,f. -ms/-ms; n. -a. 


VOC. 


-0 


m.,f. -es, n. -a 


GEN. 


-ie/o)s; -(e/o)s(i)o 


-6m (dial -em) 


OBL. 


-i- (general Obi. mark) 


-bh-i-, (dialectal -m-i-); -s-i/u 


DAT. 


-ei 


-bh(i)os, (dial, -mos) 


LOC. 


-i 


-su/i 


INS. 


-e, -bhi 


-bhis, (dial. -mis);-6is (Them.) 


ABL. 


-(e/o)s; -ed/-6d/-ad 


-bh(i)os, (dial, -mos) 



4.2. FIRST DECLENSION 



4.2.1. FIRST DECLENSION 



1. They are usually Animate nouns and end in a, and ia/i/ia, and also rarely in e, 6. Those in a are 
very common, generally feminine in nouns and always in adjectives. Those in ia/i/ia are always 
feminine and are also used to make feminines in the adjectival Motion. Those in 6 and e are feminine 
only in lesser used words. Those in a are etymologically identical to the Neuter plural in Nom.-Acc.-Voc. 

2. MIE First Declension corresponds loosely to the Latin First Declension (cf. Lat. rosa, rosae, or 
puella, puellae), and to the Ancient Greek Alpha Declension (cf. Gk. x&pa, X&pa?, or xTur), xTufj?)- 

a-Declension Paradigm 





Animate 


Inanimate 


NOM. 


-0 


-0 


ACC. 


-m 


VOC. 


-0 


GEN. 


-s 


DAT. 


-i 


LOC. 


-i 


INS. 


-0, -bhi, (-mi) 


ABL. 


-ad, (-s) 



117 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE l. The entire stem could have been reduced to MIE a (hence a-Declension), because this is the origin of 
the whole PIE stem system in PIH, the ending -(e)h 2 , see §1.7.1. 

NOTE 2. Dat. -i is sometimes reconstructed as from a regular PIH Dat. -ei; as, *h 1 ekweh 2 -ei -» ekwai. 

3. It is therefore identical to those nouns in r, n, s of the Fourth Declension, but for some details in 
vocalism: the Gen. has an -s and not -es/-os; the difference between Nom. and Voc. is that of -a and - 
a. The zero-grade of the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. in ia/i stems is different from the Gen. in -id. 

1. Nominative Singular in -0; as, ekwa 73 , mare, sena 79 , old. 

Example of ia/i stems are potnia/potni44, lady, wlqia/wlqi, she-wolf, djewia/djewi, goddess 
(maybe also Lat. galli in the later extended gallina, regi'm regina, etc.), as well as Pres.Part. feminines, 
as prijontia/prijonti, "who loves", friend, wesntia/wesnti, "who drives", driver, etc. 

Those in e, 6, which aren't found very often, can present an -s as well; as in Latin bhidhes (Lat. fides, 
but also O.Lat. fidis), trust, spekies, species, etc. 

Nouns in a can also rarely present forms in a; as in Gk. Lesb. Dika. 

2. Accusative Singular in -m; as, ekwam, potniam/potnim, bhidhem. 

3. Vocative Singular in -0. It is normally identical to the Nominative, but disambiguation could happen 
with distinct vowel grades, i.e. Nom. in -a, Voc. in -a. 

4. Genitive Singular in -s; as, ekwas, senas. 

The theme in ia/i/ia produces a Genitive Singular in -as; as, potnias. 

5. Dative-Ablative Singular in -di, probably from an original Dat. -ei ending. 
There is also a form -ei for themes in e and in ia. 

6. Locative in -di, Instrumental in -d, -d-bhi, -d-mi. 





/. ekwd 


/. potnia/potni 


/. spekie- 


adj.fi cowijd 


NOM. 


ekwa 


potnia/potni 


spekies 


cowija 


ACC. 


ekwam 


potniam/potnim 


spekiem 


cowijam 


VOC. 


ekwa 


potnia/potni 


spekie 


cowija 


GEN. 


ekwas 


potnias 


spekies 


cowijas 


DAT. 


ekwai 


potniai 


spekiei 


cowijai 


LOC. 


ekwai 


potniai 


spekiei 


cowijai 


INS. 


ekwa 


potnia 


spekie 


cowija 


ABL. 


ekwad 


potnias 


spekied 


cowijad 



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4. Nouns 



4.2.3. THE PLURAL IN THE FIRST DECLENSION 



1. The following table presents the plural paradigm of the a-Declension. 



NOM. 


-s 


ACC. 


-ms 


VOC. 


-s 


GEN. 


-m 


DAT.-ABL. 


-bh(i)os (-mos) 


LOC. 


-su/i 


INS. 


-bhis (-mis) 



NOTE. Nom. Pi. -s is often reconstructed as derived from older (regular) PIH pi. -es; as, *h 1 ekweh 2 -es -> ekwas. 

2. The Nominative-Vocative Plural in -s: ekwas, newas, cowijas. 

This form could obviously be confused with the Genitive Singular. In equivocal contexts we change 
preferably the accent (ekwas, ekwams, ekwam). 

3. The Accusative Plural in -ms: ekwams, newams. 

4. The Genitive Plural in -m: ekwam, newam. 

5. The Dative and Ablative Plural in -bhos, -bhios (dial, -mos); as, ekwabh(i)os, ekwamos. 

6. The Locative Plural in -su (also -si, -se); as, ekwasi, ekwasu. 

6. The Instrumental Plural in -bhis (dial, -mis); as, ekwabhis, ekwamis. 

The Obliques have also special forms Gk. -aisi, -ais, Lat. -ais; as, Lat. rosis<*rosa.is. 





/. ekwa 


/. potnia/potni 


NOM. 


ekwas 


potnias/potnis 


ACC. 


ekwams 


potniams/potnlms 


VOC. 


ekwas 


potnias/potnis 


GEN. 


ekwam 


potniam 


DAT. 


ekwabhios 


potniabhios 


LOC. 


ekwasi 


potniasu 


INS. 


ekwabhis 


potniabhis 


ABL. 


ekwabhios 


potniabhios 



119 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



4.3. SECOND DECLENSION 



4.3.1. SECOND DECLENSION 



1. The Stem of nouns of the Second Declension ends in e/o, and they are usually called Thematic. 
They can be animates and inanimates, as well as adjectives. The inanimates have an ending -m only in 
Nom.-Acc.-Voc. The animates, with a Nominative in -s, are generally masculine in nouns and 
adjectives, but there are also feminine nouns and animate adjectives in -os, probably remains of the old 
indistinctness of declension. 

2. MIE Second Declension is equivalent to the Second Declension in Latin (cf. Lat. dominus, domini, 
or uinum, uini), and to the Omicron Declension in Greek (cf. Gk. Aoyoc;, Xoyou, or 5copov, 5copou). 

o-Declension Paradigm 





Animate 


Inanimate 


NOM. 


-OS 


-om 


ACC. 


-om 


VOC. 


-e 


GEN. 


-os, -os(i)o, (-1) 


DAT. 


-6i 


LOC. 


-ei/-oi 


INS. 


-el -6 


ABL. 


-ed/-6d 



NOTE 1. This model could indeed have been written without the initial vowel -o-, given that the probable origin 
of this vowel is the ending vowel of some thematic stems, while other, primitive athematic stems were 
reinterpreted thereafter and this vowel was added to stem by way of analogy. So, for thematic stems, as ivlqo-, 
this paradigm could be read Nom. -s, Ace. -in, Voc. -c, Gen. -s, -sio, -so, -1, and so on. 

NOTE 2. Dat. -6i is often interpreted as from an older PIE (regular) -ei; as, *w\k w -o-ei -> wlqdi. 

3. The Nominative and the Genitive in -os can be confused. This can only be solved with lengthenings, 
as in Gen. -os-io or os-o. 

^^■ 2 ygg^Q^PPg^LENSlONlN''E^MPLES 

1. Nominative Singular Animate in -os; as in wlqos, wolf, domunos, lord, adj. ciwos, alive. 

2. Accusative Singular Animate in -om; as in wlqom, domunom, ciwom. 

3. Vocative Singular Animate in -e; as in wlqe, domune, ciwe. 

5. The Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Sg. Inanimate in -om; as in jugoms, joke, adj. newom, new, mrwom, dead. 

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4. Nouns 



4. Genitive Singular in -os, -osio, -e/oso (also -i); as in wlqosio, mrwos, domuni. 

NOTE. The original form -os is rare, as the Genitive had to be distinguished from the Nominative. This 
disambiguation happens, as already said, by alternatively lengthening the ending or changing it altogether. The o- 
Declension is probably recent in PIE - even though it happened already in PIH, before the Proto -Anatolian split - 
and that's why it is homogeneous in most IE dialects, without variations in vocalism or accent. 

6. Dative Singular in -oi, -6: wlqoi, domunoi, newoi, mrwo. 

7. Locative Singular in -oi, -ei: wlqoi, domunoi, newoi, mrwoi. 

8. Instrumental Singular in -o: wlqo, ciwo, newo, mrwo. 

9. The Ablative Singular is formed in -6d, and sometimes in -ed: wlqod, ciwod, newod. 





m. wlqo 


n.jugo 


NOM. 


wlqos 


jugom 


ACC. 


wlqom 


jugom 


VOC. 


wlqe 


jugom 


GEN. 


wlqosio 


jugos 


DAT. 


wlqoi 


jugoi 


LOC. 


wlqoi 


jugoi 


INS. 


wlqo 


jugo 


ABL. 


wlqod 


jugod 



4.5.3. THE PLURAL IN THE SECOND DECLENSION 



1. The Thematic Plural system is usually depicted as follows: 





Animate 


Inanimate 


NOM. 


-6s, (-oi) 


-a 


ACC. 


-oms 


VOC. 


-6s, (-oi) 


GEN. 


-6m, (-em) 


DAT.-ABL. 


-obh(i)os, (-omos) 


LOC. 


-oisu/i 


INS. 


-ois 



NOTE. The ending -6s is usually reconstructed as from an older (regular) pi. -es; as, *wlk w o-(s)-es -> wlqos. 

2. The Nominative-Vocative Animate Plural in -6s; as, wlqos, domunos, wiros. 

3. The Accusative Animate Plural in -oms; as, wlqoms, domunoms, mrtoms. 



121 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

4. The Nom.-Voc.-Acc. Inanimate Plural in -a, -a; as, juga/juga, newa, mrwa. 

5. The Genitive Plural in -6m/ -om (and -em); as, wlqom, domunom, ceiwom, jugom. 

6. The Instrumental-Locative Plural in -ois/-oisi; -6is/-6isi, and also, as in the other declensions, 
Obliques in -bhis, -bhos, -bhios (-mis, -mos); as, wlqoisi, wirois, newoisu, mrwois. 





m. wlqo- 


n.jugo- 


NOM. 


wlqos 


juga 


ACC. 


wlqoms 


juga 


VOC. 


wlqos 


juga 


GEN. 


wlqom 


jugom 


DAT. 


wlqobhios 


jugobhios 


LOC. 


wlqoisi 


jugoisu 


INS. 


wlqois 


jugois 


ABL. 


wlqobhios 


jugobhios 



4.4. THIRD DECLENSION 



4.4.1. THIRD DECLENSION PARADIGM 



1. Third Declension nouns end in i, u (also I, u) and Diphthong. The Nominative ending is -s. 

2. This declension usually corresponds to Latin nouns of the Third Declension in -i (cf. Lat. ciuis, ciuis, 
or pars, partis), and of the Fourth Declension in -u (cf. Lat. cornit, cornus, or portus, portus). 

i/u-Declension Paradigm 





Animate 


Inanimate 


NOM. 


-s 


-0 


ACC. 


-m 


VOC. 


-0 


GEN. 


-s 


DAT. 


-ei 


LOC. 


-0, -i 


INS. 


-i/-u, (-bhi) 


ABL. 


-s 



NOTE. Reduplication or combination with the alternating endings -i, -ei/-oi and -u, -eu/-ou, was a common 
resort in the attested dialects that distinguished Dat. and Loc. in this declension, as in -i-ei, -ei-ei, -eu-ei, and so 
on, to distinguish similar forms. A common distinction of Loc. -i, Dat. -ei, was known to most dialects of Late PIE, 



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4. Nouns 



while a general Instrumental in lengthened -i, -u (from a regular PIH Ins. ending -e-hx) was commonly used; the 
Ablative, when it appears, shows the same declension as the Genitive. 

3. The animates in i and u are masculine or feminine (indifferent to the distinction in adjectives); 
those in I and u, always feminine. 

4. The -s can indicate Nominative and Genitive: the distinction is made through the full-grade of the 
vowel before the declension, i.e. Gen. -ei-s for i, -ou-s for u - but for those in -ti, -tu (type II), v.i. 

NOTE. The Vocative of the animates is the same as the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. of the inanimates. In nouns 
differentiation isn't necessary, because they have different stem vowels; in adjectives, however, a Vocative singular 
animate -i can be an homophone with Nom.-Acc.-Voc. singular neuter -i; as e.g. m.Voc. albhi, n.Acc. albhi. This 
is a rare case, though, in which the context is generally enough for disambiguation. 



4.4.2. IN I, U 



1. Nominative Singular Animate in -s; as in owis 149 , ewe, noqtis 124 , night, ghostis 26 , guest, sunus 130 , 
son (Gk. suius), medhus, mead, egnis,fire, manus, hand, adj. swadtis, sweet, etc. 

2. Accusative Singular Animate in -m; as in owim, noqtim, ghostim, sunum, manum, etc. 

3. Vocative Singular Animate in -ei or -i, -eu or -u; as in owei-owi, suneu/sunou-sunu, 

sometimes the same Nominative form, as systematically in Latin (cf. Lat. hostis). 

4. The Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular Inanimate in -i, -u; as in mori, peku 150 , medhu, swadu 123 . 

5. Genitive Singular in -eis (-ois) or -(t)ios, -ens (-ous), -(t)uos; as in egneis 151 , sunous, oweis 
(also dial, owios), manous, pekuos, adj. swadeus. 

6. Dative Singular in -(ej)ei, -(ew)ei, -owei, and long vowel, -ei, -owi, egnei, noqtei, owei, etc. 

7. Locative Singular -(e)i, -(e)wi, -owi, Instrumental -i, -u or dial, -bhi; as sun(e)ui, owi, owi, etc. 





Type I 


Type II 


Neuter 




f. owi- 


m. siinu- 


f. noq-ti- 


m. sena-tu- 


n. mori- 


n. peku- 


NOM. 


owis 


sunus 


noqtis 


senatus 


mori 


peku 


ACC. 


owim 


sunum 


noqtim 


senatum 


mori 


peku 


VOC. 


owi 


sunu 


noqti 


senatu 


mori 


peku 


GEN. 


oweis 


sunous 


noqtios 


senatuos 


morois 


pekeus 


DAT. 


owei 


sunouei 


noqtei 


senatouei 


morei 


pekouei 


LOC. 


owi 


sunoui 


noqti 


senatui 


mori 


pekui 


INS. 


OWI 


sunu 


noqti 


senatu 


mori 


peku 


ABL. 


oweis 


sunous 


noqtios 


senatuos 


morois 


pekeus 



123 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



THE STRONG TYPE 



i. Its inflection is similar to that of i, u, but they have no alternating vowels before the declension, and 
the i and u are substituted before vowel by -ij, -uw. They are always feminine, and they cannot be 
inanimates nor adjectives. They are mostly PIE roots, and found mainly in Indo-Iranian. 





/. bhru- 1 ^ 


/. dnghii- 3 


/. swekrii- 132 


/. dhl- 


NOM. 


bhrus 


dnghus 


swekrus 


dhis 


ACC. 


bhrum 


dnghum 


swekrum 


dhijm 


VOC. 


bhru 


dnghu 


swekru 


dhi 


GEN. 


bhruwes 


dnghuwos 


swekruwes 


dhijos 


DAT. 


bhruwei 


dnghuwei 


swekruwei 


dhijei 


LOC. 


bhruwi 


dnghuwi 


swekruwi 


dhiji 


INS. 


bhru(bhi) 


dnghu(bhi) 


swekru(bhi) 


dhijf(bhi) 


ABL. 


bhruwes 


dnghuwos 


swekruwes 


dhijos 



4.4.3. IN DIPHTHONG 



1. There are long diphthongs au, eu, ou, ei, which sometimes present short vowels, as well as other 
endings without diphthong, i.e., a, e, 6. 

NOTE. The last are probably remains of older diphthongs, from Middle PIE. Therefore, even though from the 
point of view of Late Proto-Indo-European there are only stems with variants an, eu, e, etc, these can all be 
classified as Diphthong endings, because the original stems were formed as diphthongs in the language history. 
This kind of irregularities is usual in today's languages, as it was already four millennia ago. 

In zero grade Genitives there are forms with -i- or -ij- or -u- or -uw-, depending on the diphthongs. 





m. cou- 115 


m. djeu- 63 


NOM. 


cous 


djeus 


ACC. 


com 


djem/dijem 


VOC. 


cou 


djeu 


GEN. 


cous 


diwos 


DAT. 


cowei 


diwei 


LOC. 


cowi 


djewi/diwi 


INS. 


cou 


djeu 


ABL. 


cous 


diwos 



NOTE 1. Some secondary formations - especially found in Greek - are so declined, in -eus, -euos as in Av. 
bazaus, Arm.,Gk. Basileus, possibly from PIE -aus (Perpillou, 1973) but Beekes (2007) considers it Pre-Greek. 

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4. Nouns 



NOTE 2. Stang's law governs the word-final sequences of a vowel + semivowel j or iv + nasal, simplified in PIE 
so that semivowels are dropped, with compensatory lengthening of a preceding vowel, i.e. VwM,VjM -» V:M. It 

also supposedly applies to PIH laryngeals, *Vh 2 m > V:M. Cf. PIE djem, not *djewm; PIE g w om, not *g w owm, etc. 

^^7^£^ 

l. The following table depicts the general plural system, common to the Fourth Declension. 





Animate 


Inanimate 


NOM. 


-es 


-a 


ACC. 


-ms 


VOC. 


-es 


GEN. 


-6m, (-em) 


DAT.-ABL. 


-bh(i)os, (-mos) 


LOC. 


-su/i 


INS. 


-bhis, (-mis) 



NOTE. The inanimate plural forms, -a and -a, correspond to an older stem vowel of PIH, -h 2 and -eh 2 , following 
the Laryngeals' Theory. 

2. Unlike in the Singular, in which only some Nominatives have an -s, in Nom.-Voc. Plural the -s is 
general, and there is always one fix-grade vowel, e. So, the opposition Singular-Plural in -s/-es is 
actually a 0/e distinction. This opposition has also sometimes another mark, the vowel before the 
ending (see § 4.7). 

3. The Nom.-Voc. Plural Animate is normally in -es; as in cowes, owes, sunes, etc. 

There are forms in -ei-es for i stems, as in owejes; in -eu-es for u stems, as in suneues; in ijes, - 
uwes for i, u; as in bhruwes; etc. 

4. The Accusative Plural Animate is in -ms: owims, sunums, coms/coums. 

NOTE. Some scholars reconstruct a general Accusative Plural ending -ns, because most of the attested proto- 
languages show either -ns (as some endings in Sanskrit or Germanic) or long vowel, sometimes followed by -s. 
Most scholars also admit an original, older -ms form (a logical accusative singular -m- plus the plural mark -s), 
but they prefer to reconstruct the attested -ns, thus (implicitly) suggesting an intermediate phase common to all 
proto-languages, i.e. PIE -ms -» *-ns -» -ns/ ~s. We don't know if such an intermediate ns phase happened in PIE 
or EIE, and if it did, if it was common to all dialects, or limited to those languages which present in some 
declensions -ns, and different endings in other declensions. What we do know with some certainty is that the form 
-ms existed, and at least since PIH, as the Anatolian dialects show. 

5. Nom.-Voc. Ace. Plural Inanimate in -a, -a: pekwa, morja, medhwa, swadwa, etc. 



125 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

6. Genitive Plural Animate in -om/-6m (and Gmc. -em): owjom, noqtiom, 
sunuwem/sunuwom, cowom, etc. 

NOTE. The -m of the Ace. sg. Animate, Nom.-Acc.-Voc. sg. Inanimate and this case could sometimes be 
confused. It is disambiguated with the vocalic grade of the Genitive, full or lengthened, as the singular is always 0. 





/. owi- 


m. siinu- 


/. bhru- 


m. cou- 


NOM. 


owes 


sunes 


bhruwes 


cowes 


ACC. 


owims 


sunums 


bhrums 


coums 


VOC. 


owes 


sunes 


bhruwes 


cowes 


GEN. 


owjom 


sunuwem 


bhruwom 


cowom 


DAT. 


owibhios 


sunumos 


bhrubhos 


coubhios 


LOC. 


owisi 


sunusu 


bhruse 


cousi 


INS. 


owibhis 


sunumis 


bhrubhis 


coubhis 


ABL. 


owibhios 


sunumos 


bhrubhos 


coubhios 



7. The Obliques are generally divided into two groups, in -bh- (that of Lat., Gk., Ind.-Ira., Arm., and 
Cel.) and in -m- (that of Gmc. and BSL). There are, thus, -bhis, -bhos, -bhios, -bhi , and -mis, -mos; 
as, sunubhis, sunubhos, sunubhios, sunumis, sunumos. 

There is also another ending possible, that in -s-i, -s-u, s-e, generally Locative (in Ind.-Ira. and BSL), 
but also possibly general Dat.-Loc.-Ins. (as in Greek); as, sunusi, sunusu, sunuse. 

In the Oblique Plural specialized system, which is a common feature of Proto-Balto-Slavic and Proto- 
Indo-Iranian dialects, (and, to some extent, of Proto-Greek and Proto-Armenian), the Instrumental was 
probably formed adding the plural mark -s to the Instrumental Singular of the Second Declension, - 
bhi, -mi. The Dat.-Abl. was then opposed in vowel stem to the Instrumental: -bhos or -mos against - 
bhis or -mis. The Locative was made with an -s marking the plural, and an -i which is the Loc. mark. 

NOTE. Its origin is probably the plural mark -s-, to which the local case ending -i is added. This is a general 
oblique ending in the thematic declension. 

4.5. fourth declension 

4!5Ttheparadigm 

1. The Stem of Nouns of the Second Declension ends in Consonant or Sonant, i.e. -n, -r, -s, Occlusive 
(especially -t), and rarely -I, -m. The inflection of animates is essentially the same as that of the Second 
or Thematic Declension. 

2. Nouns of the Fourth Declension in MIE correspond to Latin nouns of First Declension in -r (cf. Lat. 
magister, magistri), and Third Declension in consonant (cf. Lat. princeps, principis, phoenix, 



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4. Nouns 



phoenicis, conamen, conaminis, etc.), and to the Ancient Greek Labial and Velar declension (cf. Gk. 
'Apcnn, 'ApaPoc;, or Opu^, Opiryoc,). 

The Nominative ending is -s (with Occlusive, -m, -I), but there is also a Nominative Sg. with pure stem 
vowel (desinence -0 and lengthened ending vowel), so that the full-grade Vocative is differentiated. And 
there is no confusion in Nom./Gen., as -s has a different vowel grade (Nom. -s, Gen. -es or -os). 

Consonant- Declension Paradigm 





Occlusive, -m, -I 


-r, -n, -s 


NOM. 


-s 


-0 (long vowel) 


ACC. 


-m 


VOC. 


-0 


-0 (full grade) 


GEN.-ABL. 


-e/os 


DAT. 


-ei 


LOC. 


-i 


INS. 


-bhi, (-mi) 



NOTE. These specialized Oblique endings were probably already splitting in Late PIE, at least in a dialect -to- 
dialect basis. Compare Indo-Iranian Dat. -ei, Loc. -i; Italic Dat. -ei, Loc.-Inst.-Abl. -i; Greek Inst, -bhi; in Balto- 
Slavic Inst, -mi, and so on. There is no exact original pattern that includes every dialect, but we may reliably imply 
an original Oblique declension -i, which had split into -i (Loc.) and -ei (Dat.) already in Late PIE. 

3. Inanimates have pure vowel stems with different vocalic grades. In nouns there should be no 
confusion at all, as they are different words, but neuter adjectives could be mistaken in Nominative or 
Vocative Animate. Distinction is thus obtained with vocalism, as in Animate -on vs. Inanimate -on, 
Animate -es vs. Inanimate -es (neuter nouns in -s are in -os). 

^si^TiN^ccujsi^rMrL 

1. Nominative SgAnimates in -s; as, doms, house, pods 37 , foot, bhrghs 128 , fort, donts 173 , tooth. 

2. Accusative Singular Animate in -m; as, domm, podm, bhrghm, dontm. 

3. Vocative Singular Animate in -0; a sin pod, bhrgh, dont. 

4. The Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular Inanimate in -0, with various vocalisms; as in krd 153 

5. Genitive Singular in -es/-os; as in ped(e)s/pedes, dent(e)s/dentes, dem(e)s/demes. 

6. Dative Singular in -ei: pedei, dontei, bhrghei, etc. 

7. Locative Singular in -i: pedi/pedi, donti, bhrghi, etc. 



127 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 





m. ped- 


m. ddnt- 


n. krd- 


NOM. 


pods 


donts 


krd 


ACC. 


podm 


dontm 


krd 


VOC. 


pod 


dont 


krd 


GEN. 


pedes 


dentos 


krdos 


DAT. 


pedei 


dentei 


krdei 


LOC. 


pedi 


denti 


krdi 


INS. 


pedbhi 


dentmi 


krdbhi 


ABL. 


pedos 


dentos 


krdos 



4.5.3. IN R,N,S 



1. Nominative Singular Animate in -0 with lengthened vowel; as in mater (also mater 1 *), mother, 
kwon 1 54, dog, ghesor, hand (cf. Hitt. kissar, Gk. kheiri), oron 1 39, eagle. 

Stems in s, ndhergenes, degenerate, genos3 2 , kin, ausos 6 ?, dawn, nebhoss 1 , cloud. 

2. Accusative Sg. Animate in -m; as in materm, kwonm, ndheregenesm, ausosm, gheserm. 

3. Vocative Singular Animate in -0 with full vowel; as in mater, kuon ['ku-on], ausos. 

4. The Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular Inanimate in -0; as in nomn, genos. 

The adjectives in -s have the neuter in -es: sugenes (from h 2 su-, cf. Gk. eugenes, O.Ind. suganah) 

5. Genitive Singular in -es/-os; as in matres/matros (also matfs, patfs, bhratrs, etc.), 
kunes/kunos, nomnes/nomnos, ornes. 

Nouns and adjectives in -s have an e, not an o, as the final stem vowel: geneses, but ausoses. 

6. Dative Singular in -ei, Locative Singular in -i: materei, materi, kwonei, ausosei, ghesri etc. 
8. Instrumental Singular in -bhi (dialectal -mi): matrbhi, kunbhi, ausosbhi, etc. 





m. kwon 


/. mater 


n. genes 


n. nomn 


adj. m. ndhergenes 


NOM. 


kwon 


mater 


genos 


nomn 


ndhergenes 


ACC. 


kwonm 


materm 


genos 


nomn 


ndhergenesm 


VOC. 


kwon 


mater 


genos 


nomn 


ndhergenes 


GEN. 


kunes 


matros 


genesos 


nomnos 


ndhergeneses 


DAT. 


kunei 


matrei 


genesei 


nomnei 


ndhergenesei 


LOC. 


kwoni/kuni 


mat(e)ri 


genesi 


nomni 


ndhergenesi 


INS. 


kunmi 


matrbhi 


genesmi 


nomnbhi 


ndhergenesmi 


ABL. 


kunos 


matros 


genesos 


nomnos 


ndhergenesos 



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4. Nouns 



4.5.4. THE PLURAL IN THE FOURTH DECLENSION 



With a paradigm common to the Third Declension, here are some inflected examples. 





m. kwon 


/. mater 


n. genos 


m. dont- 


n. nomn- 


NOM. 


kwones 


materes 


genesa 


dontes 


nomna 


ACC. 


kwonms 


matrms 


genesa 


dontms 


nomna 


VOC. 


kwones 


materes 


genesa 


dontes 


nomna 


GEN. 


kunom 


matrom 


genesom 


dontom 


nomnom 


DAT. 


kunmos 


matrbhios 


genesbhos 


dontbhios 


nomnbhios 


LOC. 


kunsu 


matrsti 


genessi 


dontsi 


nomnsi 


INS. 


kunmi 


matrbhis 


genesbhis 


dontbhis 


nomnbhis 


ABL. 


kunmos 


matrbhios 


genesbhios 


dontbhios 


nomnbhios 



4.6. VARIABLE NOUNS 



4.6.1. Many nouns vary in Declension, and they are called Heteroclites. 
Note, i.e., "nouns of different inflections" (Exepoc., "another", kXivw, "to inflect") 

4.6.2. Heteroclitic forms are isolated and archaic, given only in Inanimates, as remains of an older 
system, well attested in Anatolian. 

4.6.3. They consist of one form to mark the Nom.-Acc.-Voc, and another for the Obliques, as e.g. 

a. Opposition 0-n: deru, drunos54, tree; 6s, osonos, mouth. 

b. Opposition r-(e)n: aghor, aghnos 60 , day; bhemor, bhemnes thigh, jeqr (t), jeqn(t)6s, liver, 

wodor, wodenos (cf. Got. wato/watins), udor, udn(t)6s (cf. Gk. udor, udatos), water, etc. 

NOTE. For PIE root bhed(h), cf. Slav, bedro, Lat. femur, feminis/femoris; for PIE jeqr, cf. Gk. hepar, Lat. 
iecur, Av. yakard, for jeqr cf. Ved. yakrt, and compare its Obi. Skr. yakn-ds, Gk. hepat-os<*hepn(t). 

4.6.4. The Heteroclites follow the form of the Genitive Singular when forming the Obliques. That is so 
in the lengthening before declension, vocalism, and in the accent too. 

4.7. VOCALISM BEFORE THE DECLENSION 

4.7.1. The Predeclensional vowel is that which precedes the ending, even the ending; i.e., we say that 
Nom. paters? has a long predeclensional vowel; that the Vocative pater has a full one, and that patf s 
has it 0. Other examples of the three possibilities are pod, pod and -pd-. 

NOTE 1. The vocalic changes in timbre and grade aren't meaningful by themselves, they are multifunctional: 
they can only have meaning in a specific declension, and it is not necessarily always the same. They are thus 
disambiguating elements, which help distinguish homophones (i.e., words that sound alike). 



129 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE 2. The lengthening of the predeclensional vowel in r/n/s stems has been explained (Szemerenyi's law) as 
a consequence of an older (regular) Nom. -s ending; as PIH ph 2 ter-s->ph 2 ter, kwon-s->kw5n, etc. 

4.7.2. Two kinds of nominal inflection have no alternating vowel: that in i, u, and that of the 
participles of Reduplicates. 

4.7.3. Stems in r and n have two possibilities, both with a Nom. sg. in -0 and lengthened vowel. 

1. Nom. with lengthened vowel, Ace, Voc. with full vowel, and Gen. -0. The timbre can be e or o, 
depending on the words. 

a. In r, as in Nom. mater, Ace. materm, Voc. mater, Gen. matros. 

b. In n, in PIE root stems, as in dog: Nom. kwon/kuwon, Ace. kwonm/kuwonm, Voc. 
kuon/kuwon, Gen. kunos. 

2. Sometimes, the Genitive has a full grade as the Accusative and the Vocative. This grade is 
redundant, not necessary for the disambiguation of the Genitive from the Nominative. There are, as 
above, different timbres e and o, sometimes o in Nom.-Acc.-Voc, and e in Gen., sometimes o in Acc- 
Voc.-Gen. and e in Obi. 

4.7.4. There is usually the same vocalism in nouns ending in Occlusive. 

An exception is made in the adjectives and participles in -nt, which present long vowel in the 
Nominative, full vowel in Accusative and Vocative, and zero-grade in the Genitive; cf. 
bheronts/bherontm/bherntos or bherents/bherentm/bherntos. 

NOTE. There are remains of what seems to be an older alternating vocalism in monosyllables. The variants 
ped/pod, neqt/noqt, etc. suggest an original (i.e. IE II) paradigm Nom. pods, Ace. pod-m, Gen. ped-6s. This 
is, again, mostly irrelevant for Modern Indo-European, in which both alternating forms may appear in frozen 
vocabulary, either with o or e. 

4.7.5. Stems in s do not present a zero-grade. Animates, as already said, oppose a lengthened-vowel 
Nominative to the other cases, which have full vowel, i.e., Nom. -es, rest -es, Nom. -6s, rest -os. 

4.7.6. We know already what happens with stems in i, u, which have two general models: 

1. Nom. -is, Ace. -i-m, Voc. -ei or -i, Gen. -i-os / Nom. -u-s, Ace. -u-m, Voc. -ei or -i, Gen. -u-os 

2. Nom. -is, Ace. -i-m, Voc. -eu or -u, Gen. -eis / Nom. -u-s, Ace. -u-m, Voc. -eu or -u, Gen. -eu-s 

NOTE. This is an inversion of the normal situation: the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. has zero-grade (but for some Voc), the 
Gen. or full. Distinction is obtained through alternating forms; as in Voc, in which the ending -ei distinguishes 
it from Neuters in -i; or with changes of e/o. 



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4. Nouns 

4.7.7. Those in Long Diphthong alternate the diphthong (or long vowel) with j or w, which represents 
the 0-grade; as in djeus 63 , djem, diwos; or nau-s 127 , naw-6s. Uniform vocalism (i.e., no vowel 
change) is generalized, though. 

NOTE. These diphthongs reflect an older situation, of a vowel plus a laryngeal, and they are probably related to 
nouns in a, and also to those in e and o. 

4.7.8. Stems in a usually maintain an uniform vocalism: Nom.-Voc. -a, Ace. -am, Gen. -as. But those 
in ia/i may alternate Nom.-Voc. -ia/-i, Gen. -ids. 

There are also remains of -a in Voc. (and even Nom.), as well as -ai, cf. Gk. yuvai (gunai, an example 
also found in Armenian), Gk. Eupcojicu (Europai) and other forms in -ai in Latin (as rosae<-*rosai), 
Old Indian and other IE dialects. The -e and -6 endings have also traces of alternating phonetic 
changes. 

NOTE. In O.Gk. Eupcbjin {Europe), EupcoTia (Eurdpa), the Genitive is Europ-ai, which gives also the thematic 
adjective Europai-6s, hence Modern Indo-European adjective Europaios, Europaia, Europaiom, and 
nominalized forms (with accent shift) Europaios /Europaios, -om, -a. In Latin this -ai-o- corresponds to -ae- 
u-, and so Europae-us, -a, -um. See also § 1.7.7. 

4.7.9. Finally, the Neuter stems distinguish the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. forms by having a predeclensional 
vowel, normally (the ending is also 0, but for thematic stems), as we have seen in nouns ending in i, u, 
r, n and Occlusive; as madhu, nomn, krd. There are exceptions, though: 

1. Nouns with lengthened or full vowel; as, Gk. udor 61 (cf. O.Ind. ahar) for EIE udros. 

2. Nouns in s cannot have -0-, they have -o- in nouns, -e- in adjectives; as in genos, race; adj. 
sugenes, of good race. 

3. Finals e/o have a uniform predeclensional vowel, normally o, plus Nom.-Acc.-Voc ending -m. 

NOTE 1. In the Oblique cases, neuters are declined like the animates. 

NOTE 2. There are no neuters in -a, but for those which became common plural nouns, as e.g. n. Bublia, Bible, 
\it."the books", from Gk. bubliom, book. 

4.8. VOCALISM IN THE PLURAL 

4.8.1. Vocalism in the Plural is generally the same as in the Singular. In Nominative-Vocative and 
Accusative, the straight cases, the full vowel grade is general (there is no Nominative with lengthened 
vowel), and in the Genitive the zero-grade is general. But there are also some special situations: 

1. There are examples of full vowel in Nom.-Voc; stems in -ei-es and -eu-es (in i, u stems); in -er-es, 
-or-es; -en-es, -on-es; -es-es. 



131 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

2. Sometimes, the vowel timbre varies; as, akmon-akmenes, or kamon-kamenes, (sharp) stone, 
which give Lith. akmuo/akmenes and O.C.S. kamy/kamene respectively, and so on. 

3. There are also some zero-grades, as Gk. dies, and some analogical forms, as Gk. kunes, Lat. comes. 

4.8.2. The 0-grade, an exception in the Nom.-Voc, is usual in Accusative Plural in i, u stems; as in 
derivatives with forms -i-ns, -u-ns. 

As a general rule, then, the Plural has a full vowel: akmenes, materes, etc. 

4.8.3. The stems in s of Inanimates in the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Plural present -es-a, -es-a: they follow the 
vowel timbre in the whole inflection, but for the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular in -os. The rest are in -0. 

4.8.4. The general vocalism of the Genitive Plural is 0. But the full grade is sometimes found, too; as 
in akmenom. The most common stems in which the full grade can be found are n and sometimes r; as 
in matrom, which could also be materom. 

To sum up, Nominative Plural is usually opposed to Nominative Singular, while Genitive and 
Accusative tend to assimilate Singular and Plural. When the last are the same, full vowel is found in the 
Accusative, and in the Genitive. 

4.8.5. In the Obliques, where there is a distinction, the form is that of the Nominative Singular 
Animate or Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular Inanimate; and when, in any of them, there is a distinction 
between full- and 0-grade, they take the last. An example of Animates is ped-, which gives Nom. pods, 
Gen. pedos, Obi. Plural podbhis. In Inanimates it happens with s stems which have -os in Nom. -Ace. 
and -es in the other cases; as in genos, genesi, genesbhos. And in Heteroclites that oppose an -n in 
the cases that are not Nom.-Acc.-Voc. with r, s or 0. 

The zero-grade in the predeclensional syllable is very common, whether it has the Genitive vocalism or 
the full one; as, kwon/kunsi. This 0-grade is also found in r stems, as in patros, patrbhios. And so 
in i, u, stems too, in Nom. and Ace. Sg., while e is otherwise found (in Nom. PL, and sometimes in Gen. 
Sg. and PL). The Obliques Plural have 0; as, egnibhios, egnisi, egnibhis; ghostibhis, etc. 

4.9. ACCENT IN DECLENSION 

4.9.1. Just like vocalic grades, the accent is used (normally redundantly) to oppose the Straight cases 
(Nom.-Acc.-Voc.) to the Oblique ones. 

NOTE. This is one of the worst reconstructed parts of PIE, as each language has developed its own accent 
system. Only Vedic Sanskrit, Greek and Balto-Slavic dialects appear to have more or less retained the oldest 
accent system, and even these have undergone different systematizations, which obscure the original situation. 

4.9.2. In monosyllables, the alternating system is clearly observed: 
Nom. pods, Ace. podm, Gen. pedes. 

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4. Nouns 

Nom. kwon, Ace. kwonm, Gen. kunos. 

4.9.3. In polysyllables, there is e.g. dhtigater^ 1 , dhugatros, etc., but also bhrater, bhratrs (cf. Skr. 
bhartuh, O.N. brodor), or matf s (cf. O.Ind. matur), patfs (cf. Got. fadrs), and so on. 

1. Stems in i, u, had probably a root accent in Nom. -Ace, and a Genitive with accent on declension, as 
in the rest of examples. 

2. Those in a are not clearly reconstructed, therefore the alternating system is maintained. 

3. The Vocative could be distinguished with the accent. The general rule, observed in Skr., Gk. and 
O.C.S., is that it is unstressed, but for the beginning of a sentence; in this case, the accent goes in the 
first syllable, to differentiate it from the Nominative with accent on declension. 

NOTE. The accent in the Vocative is also related to the intonation of the sentence. 

4.9.4. In the Plural system no general accent pattern can be found. Each IE dialect developed its own 
system to distinguish the homophones in Singular and Plural. In the Obliques, however, the accent is 
that of the Genitive, when it is opposed to the Nom. -Ace; as in patrbhios, matrbhis, etc. 

NOTE. The so-called qetwores-ru\e had been observed by earlier scholars, but has only recently attracted 
attention. It is a sound law of PIE accent, stating that in a word of three syllables e-o-X the accent will be moved 
to the penultimate, e-6-X. Examples include qetwores < qetwores, four, singular accusatives of r-stems (cf. 
swesorm < swesorm, sister), of r/n-heteroclitica (cf. ghesorm < ghesorm, hand), of s-stems (cf. ausosm < 
ausosm). This rule is fed by an assumed earlier sound law that changes PIH e to PIE o after an accented syllable, 
i.e. qetwores <qetwores<*qef iveres. Rix (1988) invokes this rule to explain why in the PIE Perfect the o-grade 
root is accented, e.g. gegon-/gegn- < gegen-/gegn-, created, engendered. 

4.10. COMPOUND WORDS 

4.10.1. Nominal Compositum or nominal composition is the process of putting two or more words 
together to form another word. The new word, called a Compound Word, is either a Noun or an 
Adjective, and it does not necessarily have the same meaning as its parts. 

4.10.2. The second term of a Compound Word may be 

a) a Noun (Gk. akro-polis, "high city, citadel") 

b) an Adjective (Gk. theo-eikelos, "similar to the gods") or 

c) a Noun adapted to the adjectival inflection (Gk. arguro-tozos, "silver arc") 

NOTE. Sometimes a suffix is added (cf. Gk. en-ned-boios, "of nine cows"), and the Compound Noun may have a 
different gender than the second term (cf. Lat. triuium, "cross roads", from tres and uia). 

4.10.3. The first term is a Pure Stem, without distinction of word class, gender or number. It may be 
an Adverb, a Numeral (Gk. tri-llistos, "supplicated three times", polu-llistos, "very supplicated") or a 

133 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Pronoun (cf. O.Ind. tat-purusa, "that man"), as well as a Nominal-Verbal stem with Nominal (Gk. 
andra-phonos, "who kills a man"), Adjetival (Gk. akro-polis), or Verbal function (Gk. arkhe-kakos, 
"who begins the evil"), and also an Adjective proper (Gk. polu-tropos, "of many resources"). 

4.10.4. Usually, the first term has zero-grade, cf. O.Ind. nr-hdn, Gk. polu-tropos, Lat. aui-(caps), etc. 
Common exceptions are stems in -e/os, as Gk. sakes-palos, "who shakes the shield" (Gk. sdkos, 
"shield"), and some suffixes which are substituted by a lengthening in -i, cf. Gk. kudi-dneira, "who 
glorifies men" (Gk. kudros), Av. bdrdzi-caxra-, "of high wheels" (Av. bdrazant-). 

In Thematic stems, however, the thematic -e/o appears always, as an o if Noun or Adjective (Gk. 
akro-polis), as an e if Verb (Gk. arkhe-kakos). 

4.10.5. The first term usually defines the second, the contrary is rare; the main Compound types are: 

A. Formed by Verbs, cf. O.Ind. nr-hdn, Gk. andra-phonos (Gk. andro- is newer) Lat. auceps, O.Sla. 
medv-edi, "honey-eater" , bear, and also with the second term defining the first, as Gk. arkhe-kakos. 

B. Nominal Determiners (first term defines the second), with first term Noun (cf. Gk. metro-pdtor, 
"mother's father", Goth, piudan-gardi, "kingdom"), Adective (cf. Gk. akro-polis, O.Sla. dobro-godu, 
"good time", O.Ir. find-airgit, "white plant" , Lat. angi-portus, "narrow pass"), or Numeral (cf. Lat. tri- 
uium, from uia, Gk. dmaza, "chariot frame", from dzon). 

C. Adjectival Determiners (tatpurusa- for Indian grammarians), with first term Noun (cf. Gk. theo- 
eikelos, Goth, gasti-gods "good for the guests"), Adverb (cf. O.Ind. djnatas, Gk. dgnotos, "unknown", 
phroudos, "who is on its way", from pro and odds). 

D. Possessive Compounds (bahu-vrihi-, "which has a lot of rice", for Indian grammarians), as in Eng. 
barefoot, "(who goes) with bare feet", with the first term Noun (cf. Gk. arguro-tozos, O.Sla. crilno- 
vladii, "of black hair"), Adjective (cf. Lat. magn-animus, "of great spirit), Adverb (cf. O.Ind. 
durmanas, GK. dus-menes, "wicked"). 

The accent could also distinguish the Determiners from the Possessives, as in O.Ind. rdja-putrds, "a 
king's son", from O.Ind. rajd-putras, "who has a son as king, king's father". 

NOTE. The use of two-word compound words for personal names is common in IE languages. They are found in 
in Ger. Alfred, "elf -counsel", O.H.G. Hlude-rich, "rich in glory", O.Eng. God-gifu, "gift of God" (Eng. Godiva), 
Gaul. Orgeto-rix, "king who harms", Gaul. Dumno-rix, "king of the world", Gaul. Epo-pennus, "horse's head", 
O.Ir. Cin-neide (Eng. Kennedy) "ugly head", O.Ind. Asva-ghosa, "tamer of horses", O.Ind. Asva-medhas, "who 
has done the horse sacrifice", O.Pers. Xsa-yarsa (Gk. Xerxes) "ruler of heroes", O.Pers. Arta-xsaca, "whose reign 
is through truth/law", Gk. So-krates, "good ruler", Gk. Mene-ptolemos, "who faces war", Gk. Hipp-archus, 
"horse master", Gk. Cleo-patra, "from famous lineage", Gk. Arkhe-laos, "who governs the people", O.Sla. Bogu- 
milu, "loved by god", Sla. Vladi-mir, "peaceful ruler", from volodi-mirom, "possess the world'; etc. 

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5. ADJECTIVES 



5.1. INFLECTION OF ADJECTIVES 



5.1.1. In Proto-Indo-European, the noun could be determined in three different ways: with another 
noun, as in "stone wall"; with a noun in Genitive, as in "the father's house"; or with an adjective, as in 
"paternal love". These are all possible in MIE too, but the adjective corresponds to the third way, i.e., to 
that kind of words - possibly derived from older Genitives - that are declined to make it agree in case, 
gender and number with the noun they define. 

5.1.2. The adjective is from the older stages like a noun, and even today Indo-European languages 
have the possibility to make an adjective a noun (as English), or a noun an adjective (stone wall). 
Furthermore, some words are nouns and adjectives as well: wrsen 79 , male, man, can be the subject of a 
verb (i.e., a noun), and can determine a noun. 

Most stems and suffixes are actually indifferent to the opposition noun/adjective. Their inflection is 
common, too, and differences are usually secondary. This is the reason why we have already studied the 
adjective declensions; they follow the same inflection as nouns. 

5.1.3. However, since the oldest reconstructible PIE language there were nouns different from 
adjectives, as PIE wlqos or pods, and adjectives different from nouns, as rudhros 61 , solwos, etc. 
Nouns could, in turn, be used as adjectives, and adjectives be nominalized. 

NOTE. There were already in IE II some trends of adjective specialization, with the use of suffixes, vocalism, 
accent, and sometimes inflection, which changed a noun to an adjective and vice versa. 

5.2. THE MOTION 

5.2.1. In accordance with their use, adjectives distinguish gender by different forms in the same word, 
and agree with the nouns they define in gender, number and case. This is the Motion of the Adjective. 

5.2.2. We saw in § 3.4. that there are some rare cases of Motion in the noun. Sometimes the opposition 
is made between nouns, and this seems to be the older situation; as, pater-mater, bhrater-swesor. 

But an adjective distinguishes between masculine, feminine and neuter, or at least between animate 
and neuter (or inanimate). This opposition is of two different kinds: 

a. Animates are opposed to Inanimates by declension, vocalism and accent; as, -os/-om, -is/-i, -nts/- 
nt, -es/-es. 

b. The masculine is opposed to the feminine, when it happens, by the stem vowel; as, -os/-a, -nts/- 
ntia (or -nti), -us/-ui. 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



The general system may be so depicted: 





Animates 


Inanimates 




Maskuline 


Feminine 


Neuter 


1. 


-OS 


-a 


-om 


2. 


-is 


-is 


-i 


3- 


-nts 


-ntia/-nti 


-nt 


4- 


-es 


-es 


-es 


5- 


-us 


-ui 


-u 



NOTE. The masculine-feminine opposition is possibly new to Late PIE; IE II - as the Anatolian dialects show - 
had probably only an Animate-Inanimate opposition. The existence of this kind of adjectives is very important for 
an easy communication because, for example, adjectives in -d are only feminine (unlike nouns, which can also be 
masculine). An o stem followed by an -s in Nom. Sg. is animate or masculine, never feminine only, whilst there 
are still remains of feminine nouns in -os. 

5.2.3. Compare the following examples: 

1. For the so-called thematic adjectives, in -6s, -a, -6m, cf. kaikos, -a, -6m, blind (cf. Lat. caecus, 
Gk. Kaixia, a north wind), akros, -a, -6m, sour, rudhros, -a, -6m, red, koilos, -a, -6m, empty (cf. 
Gk. Koikbq, maybe also Lat. caelus, caelum), elnghros, -a, -6m, light (cf. Gk. eAacppocJ, etc. But note 
the older root accent in newos, -a, -om, new. 

2. For adjectives in -us, -ui, -u, cf. swadtis, -ui, -ti, sweet, mreghus, -ui, -u, brief, lechus, -ui, -u, 
light, trnis, -ui, -ti, stretched, mldus, -ui, -u, soft, okus, -ui, -u, quick. Other common examples 
include asus, good, bhanghus, dense, ghertis, small, bad, cr(aw)us, heavy, dalkus, sweet, 
dansus, dense, dhanghus, quick, lghus, light, maldus, soft, pnghus, thick, tegtis, fat, dense, 
tanghus, fat, obese, udhus, quick, immediate, etc. 

5.3. ADJECTIVE SPECIALIZATION 

5.3.1. The specialization of adjectives from nouns is not absolute, but a question of grade, as e.g. 

1. Stems in -nt are usually adjectives, but they were also assimilated to the verb system and have 
become (Present) Participles. 

2. Words in -ter are nouns, and adjectives are derived usually in -trios and others. 

3. Nouns in -ti have adjectives in -tikos, which usually has an ethnic meaning. 

4. Sometimes distinction is made with alternating vowels: neuters in -om and adjectives in -es, -es. 
The accent is normally used to distinguish thematic nouns in -os with adj. in -6s (mainly -tos, -nos). 

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5. Adjectives 

NOTE. There are sometimes secondary processes that displace the accent from an adjective to create a noun; cf. 
Gk. leukos, "white", leukos, "white spot". These correlations noun-adjective were often created, but from some 
point onward the derivation of adjectives was made with suffixes like -merit (-uent), -jo, -to, -no, -iko, etc. 
There are, however, abundant remains of the old identity between noun and adjective in IE III and therefore in 
Modern Indo-European. An example of the accent shift is that of Eurdpaio-, which as an adjective is 
europaios, europaia, europaiom, while as a noun the accent is shifted towards the root. 

5.4. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

5.4.1. In Modern Indo-European, as in English, there are three degrees of comparison: the Positive, 
the Comparative and the Superlative. 

NOTE. There weren't degrees in the Anatolian dialects, and therefore probably neither in Middle PIE. It is thus 
an innovation of Late PIE, further developed by each dialect after the great IE migrations. 

5.4.2. The Comparative is generally formed by adding -id-, which has variants -ijo- and -ison; as in 
sen-ios (Lat. senior), older, meg-ios, bigger (cf. "major"), etc. 

5.4.3. The same suffix is the base for the Superlative -isto- (from -is-to-); as in mreghwistos, 
briefest, newistos, newest, etc. 

Other dialectal Superlative suffixes include: O.Ind. and Gk. -tero-, Gk. -tm-to- (cf. Gk. tato) O.Ind. - 
tmo- (cf. O.Sla., O.Ind. prijo-tmos), Ita. and Cel. -mo-, -smo-, -tmo-, and extended -is-smo-, - 
uper-mo-; cf. Lat. summus < sup-mos; Skr. adhamas, Lat. inftmus < ndh-mos; lat. maximus < 
mag-s-mos; lat. intimus (cf. intus)< en-/n-t-mos, innermost. These are all derivatives of the suffix - 
mos, i.e., [mos] or [mos]. The suffix is also present in other adjectives, but it took usually the 
Superlative degree. 

5.4.4. It is interesting to point out that both suffixes, -io- (also -tero-) and -is-to-, had probably an 
original nominal meaning. Thus, the elongations in -ios had a meaning; as in Latin, where junioses 
and senioses were used for groups of age; or those in -teros, as matertera, aunt on the mother's 
side, ekwateros, mule. 

NOTE 1. Probably forms like junioses are not the most common in IE, although indeed attested in different 
dialects; actually adjectival suffixes -ids, -istos are added to the root (in e-grade) without the initial suffixes, 
while -teros and -tinos are added with the suffixes. Compare e.g. O.Ir. sir, cp. sia <seios, 'longus, longior'; Ian 
(plenus cf. lin 'numerus'), cp. lia < pleios (Lat ploios, Gk. pleos); cf. Lat. ploirume, zero-grade Lat. maios, O.Ir. 
mia. So, for juwenes we find Umb. cp.jovie <joivie-s, O.Ir. 6ac 'iuuenis', 6a 'iunior'; 6am 'iuuenissimus', O.Ind. 
yuva(n)- (yunah), cp. ydviyas-, sup. ydvista-h. 

NOTE 2. In Latin and Germanic, as already said, the intervocalic -s- becomes voiced, and then it is pronounced 
as the trilled consonant, what is known with the name of rhotacism. Hence Lat. iuniores and seniores. 



137 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



5.5. NUMERALS 



5.5.1. CLASSIFICATION OF NUMERALS 



Modern Indo-European Numerals maybe classified as follows: 
I. Numeral Adjectives: 

1. Cardinal Numbers, answering the question how many? as, oinos, one; dwo, two, etc. 

2. Ordinal Numbers, adjectives derived (in most cases) from the Cardinals, and answering the 
question which in order? as, pfwos, first; alteros, second, etc. 

3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time? as, semni, one at a time; 
dwini (also dwisnoi), two by two, etc. 

II. Numeral Adverbs, answering the question how often? as, smis, once; dwis, twice, etc. 



5.5.2. CARDINALS AND ORDINALS 



1. These two series are as follows, from one to ten: 155 





Cardinal 


Eng. 


Ordinal 


Eng. 


1. 


oinos, oina, oinom 


one 


pfwos 


first 


2. 


dwo, dwa, dwoi 


two 


alteros (dwoteros) 


second 


3- 


trejes, tresres/trisores, tri 


three 


trios, trit(i)6s 


third 


4- 


qetwor (qetwores, qetwesores, qetwor) 


four 


qturos, qetwrtos 


fourth 


5- 


penqe 


five 


pnqos, penqtos 


fifth 


6. 


s(w)eks (weks) 


six 


(*suksos), sekstos 


sixth 


7- 


septm/septrh 


seven 


septmos 


seventh 


8. 


okto(u) 


eight 


oktowos 


eighth 


9- 


newn 


nine 


nownos, neuntos 


ninth 


10. 


dekm/dekrh 


ten 


dekmos, dekmtos 


tenth 



NOTE. The Ordinals are formed by means of the thematic suffix -o, which causes the syllable coming before the 
ending to have zero grade. This is the older form, which is combined with a newer suffix -to. For seven and eight 
there is no zero grade, due probably to their old roots. 

2. The forms from eleven to nineteen were usually formed by copulative compounds with the unit plus 
-dekm, ten. 156 Hence Modern Indo-European uses the following system: 



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5. Adjectives 





Cardinal 


Ordinal 


11. 


oindekm 


oindekm(t)6s 


12. 


dwodekm 


dwodekm(t)6s 


13- 


tridekm 


tridekm(t)6s 


14- 


qetwfdekm 


qeturdekm(t)6s 


15- 


penqedekm 


penqedekm(t)6s 


16. 


seksdekm 


seksdekm(t)6s 


17- 


septrhdekm 


septmdekm(t)6s 


18. 


oktodekm 


oktodekm(t)6s 


19. 


newndekm 


newndekm(t)6s 



3. The tens were normally formed with the units with lengthened vowel/sonant and a general 
kmta/-k6rnt{a) 157 , "group often", although some dialectal differences existed. 158 





Cardinal 


Ordinal 


20. 


(d)wikmti 


(d)wikmt(m)6s 


30. 


trikomt(a) 


trikomtos 


40. 


qetwfkomt(a) 


qetwfkomtos 


50. 


penqekomt(a) 


penqekomtos 


60. 


sekskomt(a) 


sekskomtos 


70. 


septmkomt(a) 


septmkomtos 


80. 


oktokomtfa) 


oktokomtos 


90. 


newnkomt(a) 


newnkomtos 


100. 


(sm)kmtom 


kmtom(t)6s 


1000. 


ttisnti, (sm)gheslo- 


tusntitos 



4. The hundreds are made as compounds of two numerals, like the tens, but without lengthened 
vowel. The thousands are made of the numerals plus the indeclinable ttisnti: 





Cardinal 


Ordinal 


200. 


dwokmti 


dwokmtos 


300. 


trikmti 


trikmtos 


400. 


qetwrkmti 


qetwrkmtos 


500. 


penqekmti 


penqekmtos 


600. 


sekskmti 


sekskmtos 


700. 


septmkmti 


septmkmtos 


800. 


oktokmti 


oktokmtos 



139 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



900. 


newnkmti 


newnkmtos 


2000. 


dwo/dwei/dwo 
ttisnti 


dwo tusntitoi, dwei 
tusntitas, dwo tusntitom 


3000. 


trejes/trisores/tri 
ttisnti 


trejes tusntitoi, trisores 
tusntitas, tri tusntitom 



NOTE 1. These MIE uninflected cardinals are equivalent to most European forms; as, for two hundred, Lat. 
quingenti, Gk. JiEVTaxooia, and also Eng. five hundred, Ger. funfhundert, Russ. nnmbcom, Pol. piecset, Welsh 
pum cant, Bret, pemp-kant. Inflected forms, such as modern Indo-European dialectal Da. fern hundrede, Fr. cinq 
cents, It. cinquecento, Spa. quinientos, Pt. quinhentos, Sr.-Cr. petsto (f. pet stotina), etc. are left for the ordinals in 
this Modern Indo-European system. 

NOTE 2. In Germanic the hundreds are compounds made of a substantive "hundred" , MIE kmt(m)-radhom, 
Gmc. khund(a)-ratham, v.s., but we have chosen this - for us more straightforward - European form, found in 
Italic, Balto-Slavic and Greek. 

5. The compound numerals are made with the units in the second place, usually followed by the 
copulative -qe: 

f. wikmti oina(-qe), twenty (and) one; m. trikomta qetwor(-qe), thirty (and) four; etc. 

NOTE. Alternative forms with the unit in the first place are also possible in Modern Indo-European, even though 
most modern European languages think about numeric compounds with the units at the end. In fact, such lesser 
used formation is possibly the most archaic, maybe the original Late PIE. Compare e.g. for "twenty-one" (m.): 

MIE wikmti oinos(-qe), as Eng. twenty-one, Swe. tjugoett, Nor. tjueen, Ice. tuttugu og einn, Lat. uiginti 
unus (as modern Romance, cf. Fr. vingt-et-un, It ventuno, Spa. veintiuno, Pt. vinte e um, Rom. douazeci si unu), 
Gk. sixocu ev, Ltv. divdesmit viens, Russ. deadu 1 amb oduu, Pol. dwadziesciajeden, etc. 

For oinoswikmtiqe, maybe the oldest form, compare Gmc. (as Ger. einundzwanzig , Du. eenentwintig , Fris. 
ienentweintich, Da. enogtyve), and Lat. unus et uiginti, Skr. ekavinsati, Bret, unan-warn-ugent, etc. 

6. In compounds we find: 

sm-, one-; du-, dwi-, two-; tri-, three-; q(e)tur-,four- 

sl^/DEH^NSiaNOFC^^WM^^DO^mME 

Of the Cardinals only oinos, dwo, trejes (and dialectally qetwor), as well as (sm)gheslos, are 

declinable. 

a. The declension of oinos, -a, -om has often the meaning of same or only. The plural is used in this 
sense; but also, as a simple numeral, to agree with a plural noun of singular meaning. The plural occurs 
also in phrases like oinoi alteroi-qe, one party and the other (the ones and the others). 



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5. Adjectives 



b. The declension of sem- (and o-grade som-), one, is as follows: 



PIE sem- /som-, one 


NOM. 


sems 


soms 


ACC. 


semm 


somm 


GEN. 


smos 


somos 


D.-A. 


smei 


somei 


L.-I. 


smi, semi 


somi/somi 



c. Dwo, two, and trejes, three, are thus declined: 





dwo 


trejes 




m. 


n. 


/• 


m. 


/• 


n. 


NOM. 


dwo 


dwoi 


dwa 


trejes 


tri 


ACC. 


dwom 


dwoi 


dwam 


trims 


tri 


GEN. 


dwosio 


dwesas 


trijom 


D.-A. 


dwosmei 


dwesiai 


tribhios 


LOC. 


dwosmi 


dwesiai 


trisu 


INS. 


dwosmo 


dwesia 


tribhis 



NOTE, ambho, both, is sometimes declined like dwo, as in Latin. 

d. Ttisnti , a thousand, functions as an indeclinable adjective: 

ttisnti modois, in a thousand ways, kom ttisnti wirois, with a thousand men 

e. The ordinals are adjectives of the Fourth and Third Declensions, and are regularly declined. 
6.3.2. Cardinals and Ordinals have the following uses: 

a. In numbers below 100, if units precede tens, the number is generally written as one word; as in f. 
dwawikmtiqe, twenty one; otherwise it is separated: wikmti dwa(-qe). 

b. In numbers above 100 the highest denomination generally stands first, the next second, etc., as in 
English; as, 1764, ttisnti septmkmti sekskomta qetwor(-qe), or ttisnti septmkmti 
qetworsekskomtaqe. 

NOTE. Observe the following combinations of numerals with substantives: 
wikmti oinos(-qe) wiros, or wikmti wiros oinos-qe, 21 men. 
dwo tusnti penqekmti tridekm cenas, 2513 women. 



141 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

c. The Proto-Indo-European language had no special words for million, billion, trillion, etc., and these 
numbers were expressed by multiplication. In Modern Indo-European they are formed with IE 
common loan from Italic smghesli (cf. Ita. *(s)m i gheli > O.Lat. mihili > Lat. mille), a derivative of 
sm+gheslos meaning "one thousand"; as, smgheslion, million, dwigheslion, billion, trigheslion, 
trillion, etc. For the word milliard, one thousand million, smghesliardos might also be used. 

d. Fractions are expressed, as in English, by cardinals in the numerator and ordinals in the 
denominator. The feminine gender is used to agree with partis, part, either expressed (with adjective) 
or understood (nominalized): two-sevenths, dwa septmai (or dwa septmai partes); three-eighths, 
trejes oktowai (or trejes oktowdi partes). 

One-half 'is (dwi)medhj a partis or (dwi)medhjom. 

NOTE. When the numerator is one, it can be omitted and partis must then be expressed: one-third, trita 
partis; one-fourth, qetwrta partis. 

5i54TDISTOIBimVES 

l. Distributive Numerals are usually formed with the zero-grade forms and the suffix -ni. 
NOTE. These answer to the interrogative qoteni?, how many of each? or how many at a time? 



1. 


semni, one by one 


20. 


(d)wikrhtini 


2. 


dwi(s)ni, two by two 


21. 


(d)wikrhtini semni-qe, etc. 


3- 


tri(s)ni, three by three 


30. 


trikmtni 


4- 


qturni 


40. 


qetwrkmtni 


5- 


pnqeni 


50. 


penqekmtni 


6. 


sek(s)ni (older *suksni) 


6o. 


sekskmtni 


7- 


septmni 


70. 


septmkmtni 


8. 


oktoni 


8o. 


oktokmtni 


9- 


newnni 


90. 


newnkmtni 


10. 


dekmni 


100. 


kmtmni 


n. 


semni dekmni 


200. 


dukmtmni 


12. 


dwini dekmni 


1.000 


tusntini 


13- 


trini dekmni 


2.000 


dwini tusntini 


14- 


qturni dekmni, etc. 


10.000 


dekmni tusntini 



NOTE l. The word for "one by one" can also be semgoli, one, individual, separate, as Lat. singuli, from 
semgolos, alone, single, formed with suffixed sem-go-lo-, although that Lat. -g- is generally believed to be a 
later addition, i.e. proper MIE semoli, from sem-o-los. 



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5. Adjectives 

NOTE 2. Suffixed trisni, three each, is found in Lat. trini, Skr. trini, giving derivative trisnos, trine, as Lat. 
trinus, as well as trisnita, trinity. 

2. Distributives are used mainly in the sense of so many apiece or on each side, and also in 
multiplications. 

5 ^^' 5 'j^^g^L'ADVERBS 

The Numeral Adverbs answer the question how many times? how often?, and are usually formed with 
i and sometimes a lengthening in -s. 



1. 


smis, once 


20. 


(d)wikmtis 


2. 


dwis, twice 


21. 


(d)wikmti smis-qe, 


3- 


tris, thrice 


30. 


trikomti 


4- 


qeturs, qetrus 


40. 


qetwrkomti 


5- 


penqei 


50. 


penqekomti 


6. 


sek(s)i 


6o. 


sekskomti 


7- 


septmi 


70. 


septmkomti 


8: 


oktoi 


8o. 


oktokomti 


9- 


newni 


90. 


newnkomti 


10. 


dekmi 


100. 


kmtomi 


n. 


oindekmi 


200. 


dukmtomi 


12. 


dwodekmi 


1.000 


tusntis 


13- 


tridekmi 


2.000 


dwis tusntis 


14- 


qettirdekmi, etc. 


10.000 


dekmi tusntis 



5.5.6. OTHER NUMERALS 



1. The following adjectives are called Multiplicatives, formed in PIE with common suffix -io, and also 
dialectally in compound with PIE root pel- 159 , fold, as zero-grade Gk., Ita., Gmc. and Ira. in -plos, full- 
grade Gk., Gmc. and Cel. in suffixed -pol-t-os: 

semios, smplos, oinpoltos, simple, semolos, single, oinikos, unique; dwoios, 
dwiplos/duplos, dweipoltos, double, twofold (for full-grade dwei-plos, cf. Goth, twei-fls, O.H.G. 
zvi-fal, "doubt", Av. bi-fra-, "comparison"); treijos, triplos, trejespoltos, triple, threefold; 
qetworios, qeturplos, qetworpoltos, quadruple, fourfold, etc.; mltiplos, mltipleks, multiple, 
monoghopoltos 160 , manifold, etc. 



143 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE. For oinikos, any, anyone, unique, compare Gmc. ainagas (cf. O.S. enig, O.N. einigr, O.E. eenig, O.Fris. 
enich, O.H.G. einag, Du. enig, Eng. any, Ger. einig), Lat. unicus; also O.Ir. den into Sco. aon, from oinos, as 
Welsh un. 

2. Other usual numerals (from Latin) are made as follows: 

a. Temporals: dwimos, trimos, of two or three years' age; dwiatnis, triatnis, lasting two or three 
years (from atnos 62 ); dwimensris, trimensris, of two or three months (from mens 61 ); 
dwiatniom, a period of two years , as Lat. biennium, smgheslatniom, milleniwm. 

b. Partitives: dwisnasios, trisnasios, of two or three parts (cf. Eng. binary). 

c. Other possible derivatives are: oinion, unity, union; dwisnion, the two (of dice); prwimanos, of 
the first legion; prwimasios, of the first rank; dwisnos (distributive), double, dwisnasios, of the 
second rank, tritasios, of the third rang, etc. 

NOTE l. English onion comes from O.Fr. oignon (formerly also oingnon), from Lat. unionem (nom. unio), 
colloquial rustic Roman for a kind of onion; sense connection is the successive layers of an onion, in contrast with 
garlic or cloves. 

NOTE 2. Most of these forms are taken from Latin, as it has influenced all other European languages for 
centuries, especially in numerals. These forms are neither the only ones, nor are they preferred to others in this 
Modern Indo-European system; they are mainly indications. To reconstruct every possible numeral usable in 
Indo-European is not the aim of this Grammar. 



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6. PRONOUNS 



6.1. ABOUT THE PRONOUNS 



6.1.1. Pronouns are used as Nouns or as Adjectives. They are divided into the following seven classes: 

1. Personal Pronouns: as, ego, I. 

2. Reflexive Pronouns: as, swe, himself. 

3. Possessive Pronouns: as, mos, my. 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns: as, so, this; i, that. 

5. Relative Pronouns: as, qis, who. 

6. Interrogative Pronouns: as, qis?, who? 

7. Indefinite Pronouns: as, aliqis, some one. 

6.1.2. Pronouns have a special declension. 
6.2. PERSONAL PRONOUNS 

6.2.1. The Personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I, wejes, we; of the second person, tu, thou 
or you, juwes, you. The personal pronouns of the third person - he, she, it, they - are wanting in Indo- 
European, an anaphoric (or even a demonstrative) being used instead. 

NOTE. IE III had no personal pronouns for the third person, like most of its early dialects. For that purpose, a 
demonstrative was used instead; as, from ki, id, cf. Anatolian ki, Gmc. khi-, Lat. cis-, id, Gk. ekeinos, Lith. sis, 
O.C.S. si, etc. It is this system the one used in Modern Indo-European; although no unitary form was chosen in 
Late PIE times, the general pattern (at least in the European or Northwestern dialects) is obvious. 

6.2.3. The Personal (Non-Reflexive) Pronouns are declined as follows (with tonic variants in italic): 



1 st PERSON 


Singular eg-, me- 161 


Plural we-, ns- 162 


NOM. 


ego, egom, I 


wejes, nsme, we 


ACC. 


mewom; me, me 


noms, nsme; nos, us 


GEN. 


mene; mo, mei, of me 


nserom; nos, of us 


DAT. 


meghei; moi 


nsmei, nosbhos 


LOC. 


moi 


nsmi, nossi 


INS. 


moio 


nosbhis 


ABL. 


med 


nsmed 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



2 nd PERSON 


Singular tu-, te- 163 


Plural ju-, ivs- 164 


NOM. 


tu, thou 


juwes, jusme, you 


ACC. 


tewom; t(w)e, thee 


woms, jusme; wos, you 


GEN. 


tewe; t(w)o, t(w)ei, of thee 


wesrom; wos, of you 


DAT. 


tebhei; t(w)oi 


jusmei, wosbhos; wos 


LOC. 


t(w)ei, t(w)oi 


jusmi, wossi 


INS. 


t(w)oio 


wosbhis 


ABL. 


t(w)ed 


jusmed 



NOTE 1. There is probably an original (regular) Ace. Pi. ending *nos-m-s -> 110ms and *ivos-m-s -> woms. 
For detailed etymologies of these forms, see <http://dnghu.org/indoeuropean_personal_pronouns.pdf>. 

NOTE 2. Other attested pronouns include 1 st P. Nom. eghom (cf. O.Ind. ahdm, Av. azam, Hom.Gk. zyaiv, Ven. 
ehoiri); Dat. sg. meghei, tebhei, sebhei in Osco-Umbrian and Slavic; -es endings in Nom. pi., nsiiies, jusmes, 
attested in Att.-Ion. Gk. and Gothic. Also, Osco-Umbrian and Old Indian show variant (tonic or accented) series of 
Ace. Sg. in -m, as mem(e), tivem, teive, usom, s(iv)em. The 1 st Person Dative form is often found 
reconstructed as *mebhi/*mebhei, following the second form tebhei - for some scholars also *tebhi. 

For the Personal Pronouns of the third person singular and plural, the demonstrative i is used. See 
§6.5 for more details on its use and inflection. 

a. The plural wejes is often used for the singular ego; the plural juwes can also be so used for the 
singular tu. Both situations happen usually in formal contexts. 

b. The forms nserom, wesrom, etc., can be used partitively: 
oinosqisqe nserom, each one of us. 

wesrom opniom, of all of you. 

c. The genitives mene, tewe, nserom, wesrom, are chiefly used objectively: 
es mnamon nserom, be mindful of us. 

6.3. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 

6.3.1. Reflexive Pronouns are used in the accusative and the oblique cases to refer to the subject of the 
sentence or clause in which they stand; as, s(w)e lubheieti, he/she loves himself/herself; sewe 
bhami, I talk about (of) me, and so on. 

a. In the first and second persons, the oblique cases of the personal pronouns were also commonly 
used as Reflexives: as, me wideio (for se wideio), I see myself, nos perswadeiomos (for swe 
perswadeiomos), we persuade ourselves, etc. 



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6. Pronouns 

b. The Reflexive pronoun of the third person has a special form used only in this sense, the same for 
both singular and plural. It is thus declined: 

swe l65 



ACC. 



s(w)e, myself, yourself, himself/ herself/ itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. 



GEN. 



sewe, of myself, yourself, himself/ herself/ itself ourselves, yourselves, themselves. 



DAT. 



sebhei, s(w)oi, to myself, yourself, himself/ herself/ itself, ourselves, etc. 



LOG-INS. 



s(w)oi, in/with myself, yourself, himself/ herself/ itself ourselves, etc. 



ABL. 



swed, by /from/etc. myself, yourself, himself/ herself/ itself, ourselves, etc. 



6.4. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 



6.4.1. The main Possessive pronouns in Modern Indo-European are: 



1 st PERSON 


mewijos, menios; (e)mos, 


ns(e)ros, nos, our 


2 nd PERSON 


tewijos, t(e)wos, thy, your 


us(e)ros, usos, your 


REFLEXIVE 


sewijos, swos, my, your, his/her /its, our, your, their 



These are really adjectives of the first type (-6s, -a, -6m) , and are so declined. 

NOTE 1. There are older Oblique singular forms which were assimilated to the thematic inflection by some Indo- 
European dialects, as moi, toi, soi, and its derivatives with -s, -os, -w-, etc. Forms in -s-(e)ros are sometimes 
reconstructed along with another common -s-t(e)ros, as from Lat. nostrum, Cel. aterom, etc. 

NOTE 2. PIE sewijos, sivos is used only as a reflexive pronoun, referring to the subject of the sentence. For a 
possessive pronoun of the third person not referring to the subject, the genitive of a demonstrative must be used. 
Thus, (i) paterm sworn chenti, (he) kills his [own] father; but (i) paterm eso chenti, (he) kills his [somebody 
(m.) else's] father. 

6.4.3. Other forms are the following: 

a. A possessive qosos, -a, -6m, whose, is formed from the genitive singular of the relative or 
interrogative pronoun (qi/qo). It may be either interrogative or relative in force according to its 
derivation, but is usually the former. 

b. The reciprocals one another and each other may be expressed with meitos (cf. Goth, misso, O.Ind. 
mithd-, Lat. mutuus, Ltv. mite-, Ir. mith-, Bal-Sla. meitu-, etc.) or other common expressions, as Lat. 
enter s(w)e or alter os... alter om, Gmc. oinos...alterom (cf. Eng. one another, Ger. einander), etc. 

alteros alter! automs deukonti 166 (or oinos alter! automs deukonti), they drive each other's 
cars (one... of the other); 

enter se lubheionti (or lubheionti alteros alterom), they love one another (they love among 
themselves); and so on. 

147 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



6.5. ANAPHORIC PRONOUNS 



6.5.1. Anaphora is an instance of an expression referring to another, the weak part of the deixis. In 
general, an anaphoric is represented by a pro-form or some kind of deictic. They usually don't have 
adjectival use, and are only used as mere abbreviating substitutes of the noun. 

NOTE. The old anaphorics are usually substituted in modern Indo-European dialects by demonstratives. 

They are usually integrated into the pronoun system with gender; only occasionally some of these 
anaphorics have been integrated into the Personal Pronouns system in Indo-European languages. 

6.5.2. Modern Indo-European has a general anaphoric pronoun based on PIE root i. It can also be 
added to old e forms, hence ei. 

NOTE. This root i is also the base for common PIE relative jo. 

6.5.3. The other demonstrative, so/to, functions as anaphoric too, but tends to appear leading the 
sentence, being its origin probably the relative. They are also used for the second term in comparisons. 

NOTE. Modern IE languages have sometimes mixed both forms to create a single system, while others maintain 
the old differentiation. 



6.6. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 



6.6.1. The Demonstrative Pronouns so, this, and i, that, are used to point out or designate a person or 
thing for special attention, either with nouns, as Adjectives, or alone, as Pronouns, and are so declined: 

so/to 16 ?, this 





Singular 


Plural 




m. 


n. 


/• 


m. 


n. 


/• 


NOM. 


so 


tod 


sa 


toi 


ta 


tai/sai 


ACC. 


torn 


tod 


tarn 


toms 


ta 


tarns 


GEN. 


tosio 


tesas 


tesom 


tesom 


DAT. 


tosmoi 


tesiai 


toibh(i)os, toimos 


tabh(i)os, tamos 


LOC. 


tosmi 


tesiai 


toisu 


tasu 


INS. 


toi 


toibhis, toimis 


tabhis, tamis 


ABL. 


tosmod 


toios 



NOTE. Different variants are observed in the attested dialects: 1) Nom. so is also found as sos in Old Indian, 
Greek and Gothic, and as se in Latin (cf. Lat. ipse). 2) Nom. sa is found as si in Gothic and Celtic, also as sja in 
Germanic. 3) Nom. Pi. tai is general, while sai is restricted to some dialects, as Attic-Ionic Greek. However, 
linguists like Beekes or Adrados reconstruct the Nominative form in s- as the original Proto-Indo-European form. 
4) Oblique forms in -bh-/-m- are sometimes reconstructed as -m- only (Beekes). 



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6. Pronouns 



i 168 , that 





Singular 


Plural 




m. 


n. 


/• 


m. 


n. 


/• 


NOM. 


i 


id 


i 


ei 


1 


fes 


ACC. 


im 


id 


im 


ims 


1 


ims 


GEN. 


eso, ejos 


esas 


esom 


DAT. 


esmoi 


esiai 


eibh(i)os, eimos 


LOC. 


esmi 


esiai 


eisu, -si 


INS. 


ei 


eibhis, eimis 


ABL. 


esmod 


eios 



Deictic particles which appear frequently with demonstrative pronouns include ko, ki l6 9, here; en, 
e/ono 170 , there; e/owo, away, again. 

NOTE. Compare for PIE is, se, he, Lat. is, O.Ind. sah, esah, Hitt. apa, Goth, is, O.Ir. (h)i; for (e)ke, ghei-(ke), 
se, ete, this (here), cf. Lat. hie (<*ghe-i-ke), Gk. ovroq, O.Ind. ay-am, id-am, esah, Hitt. ka, eda (def.), Goth, hi-, 
sa(h), O.Ir. sin, O.Russ. ceil, smom; for oise, iste, ene, this (there), cf. Lat. iste, Gk. oioq (<*oihos), O.Ind. enam 
(clit.); for el-ne, that, cf. Lat. Me (<el-ne), ollus (<ol-nos), Gk. sxsivog, O.Ind. a-sau, u-, Goth, jains 

6.7. interrogative and indefinite pronouns 

6!tZintooductton 

1. There are two forms of the Interrogative-Indefinite Pronoun in Modern Indo-European, and each 
one corresponds to one different class in our system, qi to the Substantive, and qo to the Adjective 
pronouns. 



SUBSTANTIVE 


ADJECTIVE 


qis bhereti? who carries? 


qos wiros bhereti? what man carries? 


qim wideiesi? what/who do you see? 


qom autom wideiesi? which car do you see? 



NOTE 1. In the origin, qi/qo was possibly a noun which meant "the unknown", and its interrogative/indefinite 
sense depended on the individual sentences. Later both became pronouns with gender, thus functioning as 
interrogatives (stressed) or as indefinites (unstressed). 

NOTE 2. The form qi is probably the original independent form (compare the degree of specialization of qo, 
further extended in IE dialects), for which qo could have been originally the o-grade form (see Beekes, Adrados) - 
hence our choice of clearly dividing a Substantive-qi from an Adjective-qo in this Modern Indo-European system. 
Some Indo-European dialects have chosen the o-stem only, as Germanic, while some others have mixed them 
together in a single paradigm, as Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic or Italic. Compare Gmc. khwo- (cf. Goth, hwas, O.N. 



149 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

hverr, O.S. hive, O.E. hwa, Dan. hvo, O.Fris. hwa, O.H.G. hwer), Lat. qui, quae, quod; quis, quid, Osc. pisi, Umb. 
pui, svepis, Gk. tis, Sktr. kah, Av. ko, O.Pers. ciy, Pers. ki, Phryg. kos, Toch. kus/ktise, Arm. ou, mc', Lith. kas, Ltv. 
fcas, O.C.S. fcuto, Rus. kto, Pol. Arto, O.Ir. ce, cid, Welsh pwy, Alb. kush, Kam. Mca; in Anatolian, compare Hitt. 
kuis, Luw. kui-, Lyd. qi-, Lye. fz'&e, and Carian kuo. 

2. The Substantive Interrogative Pronoun qi-? who?, what?, is declined in the Singular as follows: 





Singular 


Plural 




m. 


/• 


n. 


m. 


/• 


n. 


NOM. 


qis 


qid 


qei(es) 


qi 


ACC. 


qim 


qims 


GEN. 


qes(i)o, qeios 


qeisom 


DAT. 


qesmei 


qeibh(i)os, qeimos 


LOC. 


qesmi 


qeisu, qeisi 


INS. 


q(esm)i 


qeibhis, qeimos 


ABL. 


qosmod 


qeibh(i)os, qeimos 



3. The Adjective Interrogative Pronoun, qo-?, who (of them)? what kind of? what? which? is declined 
throughout like the Relative: 





Singular 


Plural 




m. 


/• 


n. 


m. 


/■ 


n. 


NOM. 


qos 


qa 


qod 


qoi 


qas 


qa 


ACC. 


qom 


qam 


qoms 


qams 


GEN. 


qoso, qosio 


qosom 


DAT. 


qosmoi 


qoibh(i)os, qoimos 


LOC. 


qosmi 


qoisu, qoisi 


INS. 


q(osm)i 


qoibhis, qoimis 


ABL. 


qosmod 


qoibh(i)os, qoimos 



Qoteros?, who of two? is derived from the stem qo with the suffix -tero. 
4. The Indefinite Pronouns qi/qo, any one, any, are declined like the corresponding Interrogatives. 



SUBSTANTIVE 


qis, any one; qid, anything 


ADJECTIVE 


qos, qa, qod, any 



5. The Adverbial form of the Indefinite-Interrogative pronoun is qu. 



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6. Pronouns 



6.7.2. COMPOUNDS 



1. The pronouns qi and qo appear in various combinations. 

a. The forms can be repeated, as in substantive qisqis, qidqid, or adjective qosqos, qaqa, qodqod; 

with an usual meaning whatever, whoever, whichever, etc. 

b. In some forms the copulative conjunction -qe is added to form new pronouns (both as substantives 
and as adjectives), usually universals; as, qisqe, every one: qoterqe, each of two, or both. Qisqe is 
declined like the interrogative qi: substantive, qisqe, qidqe, adjective, qosqe, qaqe, qodqe 

c. Other forms are those with prefixes - deemed more modern -, like aliqis (substantive), some one, 
aliqod (adjective), some. 

d. Forms with the numerals oino-, sem-, one, are also frequently pronouns; as in oinos, oina, 
oinom, and sems (gen. semos), some, somebody, someone. 

oinosqisqe, each one 

c. The negatives are usually composed with negation particles, as ne or modal me. As in neqis, 
neqos, meqis, n(e)oin(os) (cf. Eng. none, Ger. nein, maybe Lat. non), noin(o)los (Lat. nullus). 

In the compound oinosqisqe, each one, every single one, both parts are declined (genitive 
oinosoqeisoqe), and they may be separated by other words: 

ne en oino qisqis qosqe, not even in a single one. 

h. The relative and interrogative have a possessive adjective qosos (-a, -om), whose. 

i. Other Latin forms are qamtos, how great, and qalis, of what sort, both derivative adjectives from 
the interrogative. They are either interrogative or relative, corresponding respectively to the 
demonstratives tamtos, talis, from to. Indefinite compounds are qamtoskomqe and qaliskomqe. 

j. It is also found as in compound with relative jo, as in jos qis, jod qid, anyone, anything. 

h. An interrogative mo- is also attested in Anatolian and Tocharian. 



6.7.3. CORRELATIVES 



1. Many Pronouns, Pronominal Adjectives and Adverbs have corresponding demonstrative, relative, 
interrogative, and indefinite forms in most Indo-European languages. Such parallel forms are called 
Correlatives. Some of those usable in Modern Indo-European are shown in the following table. 

NOTE. Other common PIE forms include (sol)wos, all, cf. Gk. 0X01, O.Ind. visva, sarva, Hitt. humant-, O.Ir. 
u(i)le; qaqos, each one, cf. Gk. sxaTepoc, skoiotoc, O.Ind. pratieka, Hitt. kuissa, Gaul, papon, O.Ir. each, Ru. 
Kaxoii, Goth, ainhvaparuh; qisqis, anyone, cf. Gk. tic, ootic, O.Ind. kacit, kascana, kopi, Hitt. kuis kuis, kuis-as 
kuis, Lat. quisquis, quilibet, quivis, Goth, hvazuh, hvarjizuh; qiskomqe, qisimmoqe, whoever, cf. Gk. Tig av, Tig 

151 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

sav, O.Ind. yah kas cit, yo yah, yadanga, Hitt. kuis imma, kuis imma kuis, kuis-as imma (kuis), Lat. quiscumque, 
Goth, sahvazuh saei, Ger. wer auch immer, O.Ir. cibe duine, Russ. xmo 6u hu; qejespeioi, some, cf. Gk. omvec, 
O.Ind. katipaya, Hitt. kuis ki, Russ. necxoAhKo; (ed)qis, some(one) among many, cf. Gk. tic, O.Ind. anyatama, 
Hitt. kuis ki, Lat. ecquis, quis, aliquis, Goth, hvashun, Russ. edvd, O.Ir. nech, duine; enis, certain, cf. Gk. 
evrafTov, O.Ind. ekascana Lat. quidam; somos, the same, cf. O.Ind. sama, Goth, sama, Russ. ca.Mb(u; se epse, 
epe, s(w)el (e)pe, (him)self, cf. Hitt. apasila, O.Lat. sapsa, sumpse, ipse, Goth. sz'Zfoa, O.Ir. fessin, fadessin 
(>fein), Russ. com, neqis, noone, cf. Gk. ovSeic, O.Ind. na kah, Hitt. t/L kuiski, Goth, (ni) hvashun, Gaul, nepon, 
O.Ir. Tii aon duine, Lat. nee quisquam, Russ. nuxmo; alteros, onteros, the other, alios, onios, some other, etc. 



Demonstrative 


Relative 


Interrogative 


Indefinite Relative 


Indefinite 


i 


qis 


qis? 


qisqis 


aliqis 


that 


who? what? 


who? what? 


whoever, whatever 


some one, something 


tamtos 


qamtos 


qamtos? 


qamtoskomqe 


aliqamtos 


so great 


how (as) great 


how great? 


however great 


some/other 


talis/swo 


qalis 


qalis? 


qaliskomqe 


- 


such, so, this ifay 


as 


of what sort? 


of whatever kind 


- 


tom/toeno 


qom/qieno 


qamdo/qieno? 


qamdokomqe/eneno 


aliqamdo 


fhen Corn's there') 


when 


when? 


whenever 


at some/other time 


totro(d) 


qitro 


qitro? 


qitrqiter 


aliqiter 


thither 


whither 


whither? 


whithersoever 


(to) somewhere 


1 


qa 


qa? 


qaqa 


aliqa 


that ifay 


which way 


which way? 


whithersoever 


(to) anywhere 


toendes 


qiendes 


qiendes? 


qiendekomqe 


aliqiende 


thence 


whence 


whence? 


whencesoever 


from somewhere 


qidhei'/toko 


qodhei/qisko 


qodhei/qisko? 


qodheiqisqe 


aliqidhei/aliqodhei 


there ("fhz's here') 


inhere 


inhere? 


wherever 


other place /somewhere 


tot 


qot 


qot? 


qotqot 


aliqot 


so many 


as 


how many? 


however many 


other, some, several 


totients 


qotients 


qotients? 


qotients komqe 


aliqotients 


so often 


as 


how often? 


however often 


at several times 


so 


qos 


qos 


qosqos 


aliqos 


this 


who? which? 


who? which? 


whoever, whichever 


some (of them) 



1 Latin (c)ibi, (c)ubi is frequently reconstructed as a conceivable PIE *qibhi, *qobhi, but it is not difficult to find 
a common origin in PIE qi-dhei, qo-dhei for similar forms attested in different IE dialects; cf. Lat. ubi, Osc. puf 
O.Ind. kuha, O.Sla. kude, etc. See <http://dnghu.org/indoeuropean_pronouns.pdf> for more information. 



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6. Pronouns 



6.8. RELATIVE PRONOUNS 



6.8.1. There are two general pronominal stems used as relative pronouns, one related to the 
anaphorics and one to the interrogative-indefinites. 

6.8.2. Relative Pronoun jo, the o-stem derivative from i. It is inflected like so/to and qo. 





Singular 


Plural 




m. 


n. 


/■ 


m. 


n. 


/■ 


NOM. 


jos 


jod 


ja 


• * • 

joi 


ja 


sai 


ACC. 


jom 


jod 


jam 


joms 


ja 


jams 


GEN. 


josio 


jesas 


jesom 


DAT. 


josmoi 


jesiai 


j eibh (i)os, jeimos 


LOC. 


josmi 


jesiai 


jeisu,jeisi 


INS. 


jei 


jeibhis, j eimis 


ABL. 


jesmod 


jeios 



6.8.3. qo/qi, who, which, has its origin in the interrogative pronouns, and are declined alike. 

NOTE. Relative pronoun jo-, maybe from an older *hjo-, is found in Gk. hos, Skr. yd-, Av. ya-, Phryg. ios, Cel. 
io. Italic and Germanic dialects use qo- as relative, in compound with -qe in Germanic. In Balto-Slavic, this 
pronouns is suffixed in some adjectives to create indefinites. It is also found as indefinite in compound with 
qi/qo, as in jos qis,jod qid, anyone, anything, as Gk. hostis hotti, Skr. yds cit, ydc cit. 

6.9. IDENTITY PRONOUNS 

6.9.1. With Identity pronoun we are referring to the English self, which is formed differently in most 
Indo-European dialects. The different possibilities are: 

1. Those which come from a Pronoun, which are only valid for the third person, formed basically by 
the anaphoric pronoun lengthened with another particle: 

a. Greek autos, as Gk. auxoc,, from adverb au, newly, and the anaphoric to. 

b. Latin identity idem formed by id and ending -em. 

2. Those formed from a Noun, with the sense equal, same, able to modify demonstrative or personal 
pronouns, and even having an autonomous pronominal use, with a pronoun declension: 

The common Indo-European form is derived from adjective somos, same, similar. 

NOTE. Common adjective somos, same, and different derivatives from PIE root sem, give Gmc. samaz (cf. 
O.S., O.H.G., Goth, sama, O.N. somr, O.E. same, O.H.G. samant, Ger. samt, Du. zamelen), Lat. similis, (IE 
sniilis) Gk. ouoc., ouou, ouaAoc., Skr. samah, Av. hama, O.C.S., O.Russ. comk, Pol. sam, sama, O.Ir. som, saim 
(from IE somi). 



153 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



6.10. OPPOSITIVE PRONOUNS 



6.10.1. There are two forms to express the opposition of two deictic or anaphoric pronouns. 

6.10.2. The first type of opposition is made with the same word, meaning what is different. This is the 
same as the English either... either sentences. 

6.10.3. Modern Indo-European has also terms itself oppositives, apart from the correlation sentences: 

a. Derived from the oppositive suffix -tero: 

siiteros, different, from which Gmc. sunteraz, Ger. sonder, Gk azep (cf. Gk. exepoc,, "other, 
different, uneven"), Lat. sine, "without", O.Ind. sanutar, O.Sla. svene, O.Ir. sain, "different". 

qoteros, either (of two), and quteros (as Lat. uter), formed with adverb qu (from interrogative- 
indefinite qi/qo). The later appears also in common Indo-European loan from Lat. neuter, MIE 
nequteros, "neither one nor the other". 

NOTE. The oldest interrogative form is probably qoteros?, who of two?, attested in different IE dialects. 

alteros, the other, already seen. 

NOTE. Another form is that of the deictic en-/eno- and -teros, as in enteros, also anteros (influenced by 
alteros), found in Germanic and Balto-Slavic dialects. 

b. The Stem al-, ali- is very common in Modern Indo-European, the -i being a characteristic 
lengthening of the pronouns and not an adjectival one. Some usual forms are alios, alidhei 
(sometimes reconstructed as *alibhi, but cf. Lat. alibi, Gk. aAXvdiq, Goth, aljap, etc.), aliqis, etc. 



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7. VERBS 
7.1. INTRODUCTION 



7.1.1. VOICE, MOOD, TENSE, PERSON, NUMBER 

1. The inflection of the Verb is called its Conjugation. 

2. Through its conjugation the Verb expresses Voice, Mood, Tense, Person and Number. 

3. The Voices are two: Active and Middle (or Mediopassive). 

4. The Moods can be four: Indicative and Imperative are the oldest ones, while Subjunctive and 
Optative, which are more recent, are not common to all Indo-European dialects. 

5. The General Tenses are three, viz.: 

a. The Present 

b. The Past or Preterite. 

c. The Future 

NOTE. The Future Stem is generally believed to have appeared in Late PIE, not being able to spread to some 
dialects before the general split of the proto-languages; the distinction between a Present and a Future tense, 
however, is common to all IE languages. 

6. The Aspects were up to three: 

a. For continued, not completed action, the Present. 

b. For the state derived from the action, the Perfect. 

c. For completed action, the Aorist. 

NOTE 1. There is some confusion on whether the Aorist (from Gk. aopiomg, "indefinite or unlimited') is a tense 
or an aspect. This reflects the double nature of the aorist in Ancient Greek. In the indicative, the Ancient Greek 
aorist represents a combination of tense and aspect: past tense, perfective aspect. In other moods (subjunctive, 
optative and imperative), however, as well as in the infinitive and (largely) the participle, the aorist is purely 
aspectual, with no reference to any particular tense. Modern Greek has inherited the same system. In Proto-Indo- 
European, the aorist was originally just an aspect, but before the split of Late PIE dialects it was already spread as 
a combination of tense and aspect, just as in Ancient Greek, since a similar system is also found in Sanskrit. 

NOTE 2. The original meanings of the past tenses (Aorist, Perfect and Imperfect) are often assumed to match 
their meanings in Greek. That is, the Aorist represents a single action in the past, viewed as a discrete event; the 
Imperfect represents a repeated past action or a past action viewed as extending over time, with the focus on some 
point in the middle of the action; and the Perfect represents a present state resulting from a past action. This 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

corresponds, approximately, to the English distinction between "I ate", "I was eating" and "I have eaten", 
respectively. Note that the English "I have eaten" often has the meaning, or at least the strong implication, of "I 
am in the state resulting from having eaten", in other words "I am now full". Similarly, "I have sent the letter" 
means approximately "The letter is now (in the state of having been) sent". However, the Greek, and presumably 
PIE, perfect, more strongly emphasizes the state resulting from an action, rather than the action itself, and can 
shade into a present tense. 

In Greek the difference between the present, aorist and perfect tenses when used outside of the indicative (that 
is, in the subjunctive, optative, imperative, infinitive and participles) is almost entirely one of grammatical aspect, 
not of tense. That is, the aorist refers to a simple action, the present to an ongoing action, and the perfect to a state 
resulting from a previous action. An aorist infinitive or imperative, for example, does not refer to a past action, 
and in fact for many verbs (e.g. "kill") would likely be more common than a present infinitive or imperative. In 
some participial constructions, however, an aorist participle can have either a tensal or aspectual meaning. It is 
assumed that this distinction of aspect was the original significance of the Early PIE "tenses", rather than any 
actual tense distinction, and that tense distinctions were originally indicated by means of adverbs, as in Chinese. 
However, it appears that by Late PIE, the different tenses had already acquired a tensal meaning in particular 
contexts, as in Greek, and in later Indo-European languages this became dominant. 

The meanings of the three tenses in the oldest Vedic Sanskrit, however, differs somewhat from their meanings in 
Greek, and thus it is not clear whether the PIE meanings corresponded exactly to the Greek meanings. In 
particular, the Vedic imperfect had a meaning that was close to the Greek aorist, and the Vedic aorist had a 
meaning that was close to the Greek perfect. Meanwhile, the Vedic perfect was often indistinguishable from a 
present tense (Whitney 1924). In the moods other than the indicative, the present, aorist and perfect were almost 
indistinguishable from each other. The lack of semantic distinction between different grammatical forms in a 
literary language often indicates that some of these forms no longer existed in the spoken language of the time. In 
fact, in Classical Sanskrit, the subjunctive dropped out, as did all tenses of the optative and imperative other than 
the present; meanwhile, in the indicative the imperfect, aorist and perfect became largely interchangeable, and in 
later Classical Sanskrit, all three could be freely replaced by a participial construction. All of these developments 
appear to reflect changes in spoken Middle Indo-Aryan; among the past tenses, for example, only the aorist 
survived into early Middle Indo-Aryan, which was later displaced by a participial past tense. 

7. There are four IE Verbal Stems we will deal with in this grammar: 

I. The Present Stem, which gives the Present with primary endings and the Imperfect with secondary 
endings. 

II. The Aorist Stem, always Past, with secondary endings, giving the Aorist, usually in zero-grade, 
with dialectal augment and sometimes reduplication. 

III. The Perfect Stem, giving the Perfect, only later specialized in Present and Past. 

IV. The Future Stem, an innovation of Late PIE. 

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7. Verbs 

NOTE. Under the point of view of most scholars, then, from this original PIE verbal system, the Aorist merged 
with the Imperfect Stem in Balto-Slavic, and further with the Perfect Stem in Germanic, Italic, Celtic and 
Tocharian dialects. The Aorist, meaning the completed action, is then reconstructed as a third PIE tense-aspect, 
following mainly the findings of Old Indian, Greek, and also - mixed with the Imperfect and Perfect Stems - 
Latin. 

8. The Persons are three: First, Second, and Third. 

9. The Numbers in Modern Indo-European are two: Singular and Plural, and it is the only common 
class with the name. It is marked very differently, though. 

NOTE. The reconstructed Dual, as in nouns, whether an innovation or (unlikely) an archaism of Late Proto- 
Indo-European dialects, is not systematized in MIE, due to its limited dialectal spread and early disappearance. 

7Z2rNOUN\^D^JECTTVEFORMS 

1. The following Noun and Adjective forms are also included in the inflection of the Indo-European 
Verb: 

A. Verbal Nouns existed in Proto-Indo-European, but there is no single common prototype for a PIE 
Infinitive, as they were originally nouns which later entered the verbal conjugation and began to be 
inflected as verbs. There are some successful infinitive endings, though, that will be later explained. 

NOTE 1. It is common to most IE languages that a special case-form (usually dative or accusative) of the verbal 
nouns froze, thus entering the verbal inflection and becoming infinitives. Although some endings of those 
successful precedents of the infinitives may be reproduced with some certainty for PIE, the (later selected) 
dialectal case-forms may not, as no general pattern is found. 

NOTE 2. A common practice in Proto-Indo-European manuals (following the Latin tradition) is to name the 
verbs conjugated in first person present, e.g. esmi, / am, for the verb es, to be, or bhero (also probably older 
Athematic bhermi), / carry, for the verb bher-, to carry. 

B. The Participles are older adjectives which were later included in the verbal inflection. 

I. The oldest known is the Present Participle, in -nt. 

II. The Perfect Participle, more recent, shows multiple endings, as -ues, -uos, -uet, -uot. 

III. Middle Participles, an innovation in Late PIE, end in -meno, -mono, -mno; and also some in 
-to, -no, -to, -mo, etc. 

C. The Gerund and the Absolutive, not generalized in Late PIE, indicated possibility or necessity. 



157 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

2. The Participles are used as follows: 

A. The Present Participle has commonly the same meaning and use as the English participle in -ing; 
as, woqants, calling, legents 134 , reading. 

B. The Perfect Participle has two uses: 

I. It is sometimes equivalent to the English perfect passive participle; as, tektos34, sheltered, 
adkeptos, accepted, and often has simply an adjective meaning. 

II. It is used with the verb es, to be, to form the static passive; as, i woqatos esti, he is called. 

NOTE 1. Some questions about the participles are not easily conciled: in Latin, they are formed with e ending 
and are stems in i; in Greek, they are formed in o and are consonantal stems. Greek, on the other hand, still shows 
remains of the thematic vowel in participles of verba vocalia -aiont-, -eiont-, etc. Latin doesn't. 

NOTE 2. The static passive is a new independent formation of many Indo-European dialects, not common to 
Late PIE, but probably a common resource of Europe's Indo-European, easily loan translated from Romance, 
Germanic and Balto-Slavic languages into Modern Indo-European as auxiliary verb to be + perfect participle. 

C. The Gerundive is often used as an adjective implying obligation, necessity, or propriety (ought or 
must); as, i awisdhijendhos esti, he must be heard. 

NOTE. The verb is usually at the end of the sentence, as in Latin, Greek and Sanskrit. In Hittite, it is behind the 
particles (up to seven in succession). In Old Irish it was either at the beginning of the sentence or in second place 
after a particle. For more on this, see PIE Syntax in Appendix I. 

7Z3?VOICES 

1. In grammar, Voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb and its 
arguments. When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is said to be in the Active. When 
the subject is the patient or target of the action, it is said to be in the Passive. 

2. The Active and Middle (or Mediopassive) Voices in Modern Indo-European generally correspond to 
the active and passive in English, but: 

a. The Middle voice often has a reflexive meaning. It generally refers to an action whose object is the 
subject, or an action in which the subject has an interest or a special participation: 

(i) wertetoi, she/he turns (herself/ himself). 

(ei) wesntoi, they dress (themselves). 

NOTE. This reflexive sense could also carry a sense of benefaction for the subject, as in the sentence "I sacrificed 
a goat (for my own benefit)". These constructions would have used the active form of "sacrificed" when the action 
was performed for some reason other than the subject's benefit. 

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7. Verbs 

b. The Mediopassive with Passive endings (in -r) is reserved for a very specific use in Modern Indo- 
European, the Dynamic or Eventive passives; as 

(ego) bheromar 20 t6s Djowilioi, I became born on July 20 th (or 20 Djowilii, "20 of July"). 

moiros 1 ? 1 pingetor ^ 2 , the wall is being painted or someone paints the wall, lit. "the wall paints 
(impersonal mark)". 

NOTE 1. The dynamic passive usually means that an action is done, while the static or stative passive means that 
the action was done at a point in time, that it is already made. The last is obtained in MIE (as usually in Germanic, 
Romance and Balto-Slavic dialects) with a periphrasis, including the verb es, be. Following the above examples: 

(ego) gn(a)ta/bh(e)rta esmi 20 6s Djowilios, / (f.) was born on July 20. 

moiros pigtos 1 (esti), the wall (is) [already] painted. 

1 The infix -n is lost outside the Present Stem; thus, the Participle is not pingtos , but pigtos. Nevertheless, 
when the n is part of the Basic Stem, it remains. See the Verbal Stems for more details on the Nasal Infix. 

NOTE 2. The Modern Indo-European Passive Voice endings (in -r) are older Impersonal and PIE Middle Voice 
alternative endings, found in Italic, Celtic, Tocharian, Germanic, Indo-Iranian and Anatolian, later dialectally 
specialized for the passive in some of those dialects. The concepts underlying modern IE Passives are, though, 
general to the Northern dialects (although differently expressed in Germanic and Balto-Slavic), and therefore MIE 
needs a common translation to express it. For the stative passive, the use of the verb es-, to be, is common, but 
dynamic passives have different formations in each dialect. The specialized Mediopassive dialectal endings seems 
thus the best option keeping thus tradition and unity. See §§ 7.2.2 and 7.2.7.3. 

c. Some verbs are only active, as, esmi44, be, edmi 1 ^, eat, or domi? 16 , give 

d. Many verbs are middle in form, but active or reflexive in meaning. These are called Deponents: as, 
kejai 77 , lay; seqomai 60 , follow , etc. 

tZ^Tmoods 

1. While IE II had possibly only Indicative and Imperative, a Subjunctive and an Optative were added 
in the third stage of Proto-Indo-European, both used in the Present, Perfect and Aorist. Not all dialects, 
however, developed those new formations further. 

2. The Imperative is usually formed with a pure stem, adding sometimes adverbial or pronominal 
elements. 

3. Some common Subjunctive marks are the stem endings -a, -e, and -s, but it is more usually formed 
with the opposition Indicative Athematic vs. Subjunctive Thematic, or Indicative Thematic vs. 
Subjunctive Thematic with lengthened vowel. 



159 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

4. The Optative is differentiated from the Subjunctive by its characteristic suffix -ie/-i; in thematic 
Tenses it is -oi, i.e. originally the same Subjunctive suffix added to the thematic vowel -o. 

5. The Moods are used as follows: 

a. The Indicative Mood is used for most direct assertions and interrogations. 

b. The Subjunctive Mood has many idiomatic uses, as in commands, conditions, and various 
dependent clauses. It is often translated by the English Indicative; frequently by means of the 
auxiliaries may, might, would, should; sometimes by the (rare) Subjunctive; sometimes by the 
Infinitive; and often by the Imperative, especially in prohibitions. 

c. The Imperative is used for exhortation, entreaty, or command; but the Subjunctive could be used 
instead. 

d. The Infinitive is used chiefly as an indeclinable noun, as the subject or complement of another verb. 
7ii!5!l^SESOFTlIEFINnEVERB 

1. The Tenses of the Indicative have, in general, the same meaning as the corresponding tenses in 
English: 

a. Of continued action, 

I. Present: bhero 24 , 1 bear, lam bearing, I do bear. 

II. Imperfect: bherom, I was bearing. 

III. Future: bherso, I shall bear. 

b. Of completed action or the state derived from the action, 

IV. Perfect: (bhe)bhora, I have borne. 

V. Aorist: (e)bherom, I bore. 

NOTE. Although the Aorist formation was probably generalized in Late PIE, Augment is a dialectal feature only 
found in Ind.-Ira., Gk., Arm and Phryg. It seems that the great success of that particular augment (similar to other 
additions like Lat. per- or Gmc. ga-) happened later in the proto-languages. Vedic Sanskrit shows that Augment 
was not obligatory, and for Proto-Greek, cf. Mycenaean do-ke/a-pe-do-ke, Myc. qi-ri-ja-to, Horn. Gk. jipiaxo, etc. 

7.2. FORMS OF THE VERB 



7.2.1. THE VERBAL STEMS 



1. The Forms of the verb may be referred to four basic Stems, called (1) the Present, (2) the Aorist, (3) 
the Perfect and (4) the Future. 



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7. Verbs 

NOTE. There are some forms characteristic of each stem, like the suffix -n- or -sko, which give generally Present 
stems. Generally, however, forms give different stems only when opposed to others. 

2. There are some monothematic verbs as esmi, to be, or edmi, eat - supposedly remains of the older 
situation of IE II. And there are also some traces of recent or even nonexistent mood oppositions. To 
obtain this opposition there are not only reduplications, lengthenings and alternations, but also vowel 
changes and accent shifts. 

3. There are also some other verbs, not derived from root words, the Denominatives and Deverbatives. 
The first are derived from nouns; as, strowio, strew, sprinkle, from strou-, structure; the last are 
derived from verbs, as, wedio, inform (from weid- 33 , know, see), also guard, look after. 

NOTE. It is not clear whether these Deverbatives - Causatives, Desideratives, Intensives, Iteratives, etc. - are 
actually derivatives of older PIE roots, or are frozen remains, formed by compounds of older (IE II or Early PIE) 
independent verbs added to other verbs, the ones regarded as basic. 

5. Reduplication is another common resource; it consists of the repetition of the root, either complete 
or abbreviated; as, sisdo, sit down, settle down (or sizdo, as Lat. sisto, Gk. hidzein, found in 
nisdos/nizdos, nest, from sed-44, sit), gignosko, know (as Gk. gignosko, from gno- 100 ), 
mimnasko, remember (from men- 178 , think), etc. 

6. The Stem Vowel has no meaning in itself, but it helps to build different stems, whether thematic or 
semithematic (those which can be thematic and athematic), opposed to athematics. Thus, It can be used 
to oppose a) Indicative Athematic to Subjunctive Thematic, b) Present Thematic to Imperfect 
Athematic, c) Active to Middle voice, etc. Sometimes an accent shift helps to create a distinctive 
meaning, too. 

7. Stems are inflected, as in the declension of nouns, with the help of lengthenings and endings (or 
"desinences"). 

7i2i2TvERB^ENDINGS 

1. Every form of the finite verb is made up of two parts: 

I. The Stem. This is either the root or a modification or development of it. 

II. The Ending or Desinence, consisting of: 

a. The signs of Mood and Tense. 

b. The Personal Ending. 



161 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Thus in the verb bher-se-ti, he will carry, the root is bher-, carry, modified into the thematic future 
verb-stem bher-s-e/o-, will carry, which by the addition of the personal primary ending -ti becomes 
the meaningful bherseti; the ending -ti, in turn, consists of the (probably) tense-sign -i and the 
personal ending of the third person singular, -t. 

2. Verbal endings can thus define the verb Stem, Tense and Mood. 

The primary series indicates present and future, and -mi, -si, -ti, and 3 rd Pi. -nti are the most obvious 
formations of Late PIE. The secondary endings indicate Past; as, -m, -s, -t and 3 rd Pi. -nt. The 

subjunctive and optative are usually marked with the secondary endings, but in the subjunctive primary 
desinences are attested sometimes. The imperative has or special endings. 

NOTE. Although not easily reconstructed, Late Proto-Indo-European had already independent formations for 
the first and second person plural. However, there were probably no common endings used in all attested dialects, 
and therefore a selection has to be made for MIE, v.i. 

They can also mark the person; those above mark the first, second and third person singular and third 
plural. Also, with thematic vowels, they mark the voice: -ti Active Prim. | -toi Middle Prim. | -tor 
Passive, and so on. 

3. The Augment was used in the southern dialects - i.e. Indo-Iranian, Greek & Armenian - to mark 
the Past Tense (i.e., the Aorist and the Imperfect). It was placed before the Stem, and consisted 
generally of a stressed e-, which is a dialectal Graeco-Aryan feature not generally used in MIE. 

NOTE. Some common variants existed, as lengthened c-, cf. Gk. n<e/a and co<6 , the so-called Wackernagel 
contractions of the Augment and the beginning of the verbal root, which happened already by 2000 BC. These are 
different from those which happened in Attic Greek by 1000 BC. 

4. Modern Indo-European verbal endings, as they are formed by the signs for mood and tense 
combined with personal endings, may be organized in five series. 







ACTIVE 


MIDDLE (or Middle-Passive) 






Primary 


Secondary 


Primary 


Secondary 


Passive-only 


sg. 


1. 


-mi 


-m 


-(m)ai 


-ma 


-(m)ar 




2. 


-si 


-s 


-soi 


-so 


-sor 




3- 


-ti 


-t 


-toi 


-to 


-tor 


PI. 


1. 


-mes/-mos 


-me/ -mo 


-mesdha 


-medha 


-mosr/-mor 




2. 


-te 


-te 


-dhe 


-dhue 


-dhuer 




3- 


-nti 


-nt 


-ntoi 


-nto 


-ntor 



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7. Verbs 



NOTE. The Middle is easily reconstructed for the singular and the third person plural of the secondary endings. 
For the rest of the Primary Endings there is no consensus as how they looked like in PIE. What we do know is: 

l.that the Southern and Anatolian dialects show Middle Primary Endings in -i, and second plural forms in - 
medha (PIH raed h h^), -mesdha (PIH mesd h h 2 ), which may be also substituted by the common PIE forms in 
-men-, which is found as Gk. -men, Hitt. -meni. 

2. that Latin, Italic, Celtic and Tocharian had Mediopassive Primary Endings in -r, whilst in Indo-Iranian 
and Anatolian, such endings coexisted with the general thematic -oi. 

3. that therefore both Mediopassive endings (-r and -oi) coexisted already in the earliest reconstructible 
Proto-Indo-European; and 

4. that the Middle endings were used for the Middle Voice in Graeco-Aryan dialects, while in the Northern 
dialects they were sometimes specialized as Passives or otherwise disappeared. 

Thus, following the need for clarity in Modern Indo-European, we reserve the PIE endings in -r for the dynamic 
passive, and keep those in -i for the original Middle Voice. 

5. The Perfect endings are as follows: 







Perfect 


sg. 


1. 


-a 




2. 


-ta 




3- 


-e 


pi. 


1. 


-me 




2. 


-te 




3- 


~(e)r 



6. The Thematic and Athematic endings of Active, Middle and Passive are: 



Active 


Athematic 


Thematic 






Primary 


Secondary 


Primary 


Secondary 


sg. 


1. 


-mi 


-m 


-6, -omi 


-om 




2. 


-si 


-s 


-esi 


-es 




3- 


-ti 


-t 


-eti 


-et 


pi. 


1. 


-m.es/-mos 


-mej-mo 


-om.es/-omos 


-ome/-omo 




2. 


-te 


-ete 




3- 


-nti 


-nt 


-onti 


-ont 



NOTE. Athematic Desinences in *-cnfi, as found in Mycenaean and usually reconstructed as proper PIE 
endings, weren't probably common PIE forms. Compare Att.Gk. -aasi (<-ansi<-anti), or O.Ind. -ati, both remade 



163 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

from an original zero-grade PIE -nti. In fact, Mycenaean shows some clearly remade examples, as Myc. e-e- 
esi<*esenti (cf. Ion. ecov), or ki-ti-je-si (<ktiensi) 



Mediopass. 


Athematic 


Thematic 


PASSIVE* 






Primary 


Secondary 


Primary 


Secondary 


Athematic 


Thematic 


sg. 


1. 


-mai 


-ma 


-ai, -omai 


-oma 


-mar 


-ar, -omar 




2. 


-soi 


-so 


-esoi 


-eso 


-sor 


-esor 




3- 


-toi 


-to 


-etoi 


-eto 


-tor 


-etor 


pi. 


1. 


-mesdha 


-medha 


-omesdha 


-omedha 


-mo(s)r 


-omo(s)r 




2. 


-dhe 


-dhue 


-edhe 


-edhue 


-dhuer 


-edhuer 




3- 


-ntoi 


-nto 


-ontoi 


-onto 


-ntor 


-ontor 



a. The secondary endings are actually a negative term opposed to the primaries. They may be opposed 
to the present or future of indicative, they may indicate indifference to Tense, and they might also be 
used in Present. 

NOTE l. It is generally accepted that the Secondary Endings appeared first, and then an -i (or an -r) was added 
to them. Being opposed to the newer formations, the older endings received a Preterite (or Past) value, and 
became then Secondary. 

NOTE 2. Forms with secondary endings - i.e. without a time marker -i or -r (without distinction of time) -, not 
used with a Preterite value, are traditionally called Injunctives, and have mainly a modal value. The Injunctive 
seems to have never been an independent mood, though, but just another possible use of the original endings in 
Proto-Indo-European. 

b. The Middle-Active Opposition is not always straightforward, as there are only-active and only- 
middle verbs, as well as verbs with both voices but without semantic differences between them. 

tI^tiietiiem^tcvowel 

i. Stem vowels are - as in nouns - the vowel endings of the Stem, especially when they are derivatives. 
They may be i, u, a, e (and also 6 in Roots). But the most extended stem vowel is e/o (also lengthened 
e/6), called Thematic Vowel, which existed in PIH before the split of the Anatolian dialects, and which 
overshadowed the (older) athematic stems by Late PIE. The thematization of stems, so to speak, 
relegated the athematic forms especially to the aorist and to the perfect; most of the old athematics, 
even those in -a- and -e-, are usually found extended with thematic endings -ie- or -io- in IE III. 

NOTE. The old thematics were usually remade, but there are some which resisted this trend; as bhero, I bear, 
do, I give, ori!, go! 



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7. Verbs 

The stem vowel has sometimes a meaning, as with -e- and -a-, which can indicate state. There are also 
some old specializations of meanings, based on oppositions: 

a. Thematic vs. Athematic: 

- Athematic Indicative vs. Thematic Subjunctive. The contrary is rare. 

- Thematic Present vs. Athematic Aorist, and vice versa. 

- Thematic 1 st Person Sg. & Pi. and 3 rd Person PL, and Athematic the rest. 

- It may also be found in the Middle-Active voice opposition. 

b. Thematic stem with variants: 

- The first person, thematic in lengthened -o. 

- Thematic o in 1 st Person Sg. & Pi. and 3 rd Person PL; e in 2 nd and 3 rd Person Sg. and 2 nd PL There is 
also an archaic 3 rd Person PL in e, as in senti, they are. 

c. Opposition of Thematic stems. This is obtained with different vowel grades of the root and by the 
accent position. 

2. In the Semithematic inflection the Athematic forms alternate with Thematic ones. 

NOTE. The semithematic is for some an innovation of Late PIE, which didn't reach some of the dialects, while 
for others it represents a situation in which the opposition Thematic-Athematic and the Accent Shifts of an older 
system have been forgotten, leaving only some mixed remains. 

7!24TVERBCREA1T0N 

1. With Verb Creation we refer to the way verbs are created from Nouns and other Verbs by adding 
suffixes and through reduplication of stems. 

2. There are generally two kinds of suffixes: Root and Derivative; they are so classified because they 
are primarily added to the Roots or to Derivatives of them. Most of the suffixes we have seen (like -u, -i, 
-n, -s, etc.) is a root suffix. 

Derivative suffixes may be: 

a. Denominatives, which help create new verbs from nouns; as, -ie/-io. 

b. Deverbatives, those which help create new verbs from other verbs; as, -ei- (plus root vocalism o), - 
i-, -s-, -sk-, -a-, -e- etc. 

3. Reduplication is usual in many modern languages. It generally serves to indicate intensity or 
repetition in nouns; in the Proto-Indo-European verb it had two uses: 



165 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

a. It helped create a Deverbative, opposed to root verbs, generally in the Present, especially in 
intensives; as, bherbher- from bher-, carry, or galgal- (cf. O.C.S. glagoljq) from gal- 1 ™, call; etc. 

NOTE. It is doubtful whether these are remains of an older system based on the opposition Root/ Deverbative, 
prior to the more complicated developments of Late PIE in suffixes and endings, or, on the contrary, it is the 
influence of the early noun derivations. 

b. Essentially, though, reduplication has lost its old value and marks the different stems, whether 
Present, Aorist or Perfect. There are some rules in reduplication: 

- In the Present, it can be combined with roots and accent; as, bhibher-mi, gigno-mi, etc. 

- In the Perfect, generally with root vocalism and special endings; as, bhebhor-a, gegon-a, etc. 

NOTE. Reduplicated Perfects show usually o-grade root vowel (as in Gk., Gmc. and O.Ind.), but there are 
exceptions with zero-grade vocalism, cf. Lat. tutudi, Gk. memikha, tetaka, gegaa. 

- Full reduplications of intensives (cf. bher-bher-, mor-mor-) are different from simple 
reduplications of verbal Stems, which are formed by the initial consonant and i in the Present (cf. bhi- 
bher-, mi-mno-, pi-bo-), or e in the Perfect and in the Aorist (cf. bhe-bher-, ge-gon, ke-klow-). 

NOTE. In other cases, reduplicated stems might be opposed, for example, to the Aorist to form Perfects or vice 
versa, or to disambiguate other elements of the stem or ending. 

7.2.5. SEPARABLE VERBS 

1. A Separable Verb is a verb that is composed of a Verb Stem and a Separable Affix. In some verb 
forms, the verb appears in one word, whilst in others the verb stem and the affix are separated. 

NOTE. A Prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. A separable affix is an affix 
that can be detached from the word it attaches to and located elsewhere in the sentence in a certain situation. 

2. Many Modern Indo-European verbs are separable verbs, as in Homeric Greek, in Hittite, in the 
oldest Vedic and in modern German 'trennbare VerberC. 

Thus, for example, the (Latin) verb supplakatus, beg humbly, supplicate (from supplaks, 
suppliant, from PIE plak-, be flat), gives sup wos (ego) plakaio (cf. O.Lat. sub uos placo), I entreat 
you, and not ( ego) wos supplakaio , as Classic Lat. uos supplied. 

NOTE. German is well known for having many separable affixes. In the sentence Ger. Ich komme gut zu Hause 
an the prefix an in the verb ankommen is detached. However, in the participle, as in Er ist angekommen, "He has 
arrived", it is not separated. In Dutch, compare Hij is aangekomen, "He has arrived", but Ik kom morgen aan, I 
shall arrive tomorrow. 

English has many phrasal or compound verb forms that act in this way. For example, the adverb (or adverbial 
particle) up in the phrasal verb to screw up can appear after the subject ("things") in the sentence: "He is always 
screwing things up". 

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7. Verbs 

Non-personal forms, i.e. Nouns and Adjectives, formed a karmadharaya with the preposition, as 
O.Ind. prasadah, "favour", Lat subsidium, praesidium, O.Ind. apaciti, Gk. apotisis , "reprisal", etc. 

NOTE. There are, indeed, many non-separable verbs, like those formed with non-separable prefixes; as, re-. 
7.3. THE CONJUGATIONS 

7.3.1. Conjugation is the traditional name of a group of verbs that share a similar conjugation pattern 
in a particular language, a Verb Class. This is the sense in which we say that Modern Indo-European 
verbs are divided into twelve Regular Conjugations; it means that any regular Modern Indo-European 
verb may be conjugated in any person, number, tense, mood and voice by knowing which of the twelve 
conjugation groups it belongs to, and its main stems. 

NOTE. The meaning of Regular and Irregular becomes, thus, a matter of choice, although the selection is 
obviously not free. We could have divided the verbs into ten conjugations, or twenty, or just two (say Thematic 
and Athematic), and have left the less common types within them for a huge group of irregular verbs. We believe 
that our choice is in the middle between a simplified system (thus too artificial), with many irregular conjugations 
- which would need in turn more PIE data for the correct inflection of verbs -, and an extensive conjugation 
system - trying to include every possible inflection attested in Late PIE -, being thus too complicated and 
therefore difficult to learn. 

It is clear that the way a language is systematized influences its evolution; to avoid such artificial influence we try 
to offer verbal groupings as natural as possible - of those verbs frequent in the Late Proto-Indo-European verbal 
system -, without being too flexible to create a defined and stable (and thus usable) system. 

7.3.2. Modern Indo-European verbs are divided into two Conjugation Groups: the Thematic, newer 
and abundant in Late PIE, and the (older) Athematic Verbs. These groups are, in turn, subdivided into 
eight and four subgroups respectively. 

NOTE. It is important to note that the fact that a root is of a certain type doesn't imply necessarily that it belongs 
to a specific conjugation, as they might be found in different subgroups depending on the dialects (for Eng. love, 
cf. Lat. lubet, Skr. lubhyati, Gmc. liuban), and even within the same dialect (cf. Lat. scato, seated). That's why Old 
Indian verbs are not enunciated by their personal forms, but by their roots. 

Verbs cannot appear in different Conjugation Groups; they are either Thematic or Athematic. 

NOTE 1. Some verbs (mainly PIE roots) are believed to have had an older Athematic conjugation which was later 
reinterpreted as Thematic, thus giving two inflection types and maybe the so-called Semithematic inflection (v.i.). 
Therefore, old root verbs like bher-, carry, may appear as bhersi or bheresi, you carry, and so on. 

NOTE 2. Instead of this simple classification of verbs into modern groupings (the MIE Conjugations), a 
common, more traditional approach is used in this grammar to explain how Proto-Indo-European verbs and 
verbal stems were usually built from roots and regularly conjugated. 



167 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



I. THE THEMATIC CONJUGATION 



The First or Thematic Conjugation Group is formed by the following 8 subgroups: 

1) Root Verbs with root vowel e in the Present and o in the Perfect: 

o Triliteral: deiko, dikom, doika, deikso, show, etc. 

o Concave: teqo, teqom, toqa/toqa, teqso, escape, seqomai, follow, etc. 

NOTE. For IE teqo, cf. O.Ir. techid/tdich(<e/6). 

2) Concave Root Verbs with non-regular Perfect vocalism. Different variants include: 

o labho, labha, take; lawo, lawa, enjoy, slabai, slaboma, fall (Middle Voice); aidai, praise. 

NOTE. Compare Gk. aiSo/nai, O.ind. He, Gmc. part. idja-. The first sentence of the Rigveda may already be 
translated to Modern Indo-European with the aforementioned verbs. 

o kano, kekana/kekana, sing. 

o lego, lega Join, read, decide. 

o lowo, Iowa, wash. 

o rado, rada, shuffle, scrape, scratch. 

o repo, repa, grab, rip out. 

o rodo, roda, gnaw. 

3) Verba Vocalia (i.e., extended forms -a-io-, -e-io-, -i-jo-, -u-io-) 

o amaio, love. 

o lubheio, love, desire. 

o sagijo, look for, search. 

o arguio reason, argue (cf. Lat. arguo, Hitt. arkuwwai). 

4) Verbs in -io: 

o Triliteral: kupio, kup(i)6m, koupa, keupso, be worried. 

o Concave: jakiojeka, throw. 

o Lamed-he: pario, pepra/peproka , produce. 

o Reduplicated Intensives: karkario, proclaim, announce (cf. Gk. KapicaipcD, but Skr. carkarti) 

NOTE. Examples of thematic reduplicated intensives include also common forms like Greek Tropcpvpco, 
7ia/ii7iaiv(o, Yapyaipo), fiop/uopco, nep[iripi£(o, KayxaXaod, fiap/uatpco, SsvSiAXco, XaXeco, and, in other IE dialects, 
Slavic glagoljo, Latin ('broken' reduplication with different variants) bombico, bombio, cachinno, cacillo, 
cracerro, crocito, cucullio, cucurrio, curculio, didintrio, lallo, imbubino, murmillo, palpor, pipito, plipio, pipio, 
tetrinnio, tetrissito, tintinnio, titio, titubo, and so on. 



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7. Verbs 

5) Intensives-Inchoatives in -sko. 

o Of Mobile Suffix: swedhsko, swedhiom, swedhua, swedhso, get used to. 
o Of Permanent Suffix: prksko, inquire. 

6) With nasal infix or suffix. 

o Perfect with vocalism: jungo, jug6m,jouga,jeugs6,Jom. 

o Reduplicated Perfect: tundo, tet(o)uda/ttit(o)uda, strike. 

o Convex: bhrango, bhrega, break. 

o Nasal Infix and Perfect with o root: gusno, gousa (cf. Lat. deguno, degustus) 

o Nasal Infix and Reduplicated Perfect: cf. Lat. tollo, sustulii (supsi+tet-), lift. 

7) With Reduplicated Present 

o siso, sewa, sow. 

o gigno, gegna, gegnaka, produce. 

8)OtherThematics: 

o pldo, pep(o)la, 
o w(e)ideio, woida, 

o etc. 

II. THE ATHEMATIC CONJUGATION 

Verbs of the Second or Athematic Conjugation Group maybe subdivided into: 

1) Monosyllabic: 

o In Consonant: esmi, be, edmi, eat, esmai, find oneself be. 
o In a (i.e. PIH *h 2 ): snami, swim, bhamai, speak. 
o In e (i.e. PIH */ij): bhlemi, cry, (s)remai, calculate. 

o With Nasal infix: leiq- (lineqti/linqnti), leave, klew- (kluneuti/klununti), hear, pew- 
(punati/punanti), purify, etc. - but, see the suffixed (4. Ill) type below. 

NOTE. These verbal types appear mostly in Indo-Iranian and Hittite examples, and could therefore be 
more properly included in the suffixed (4. Ill) type below. 

o Others: eimi, go, etc. 

2) Reduplicated: 

o (si)stami, stand. 

o (dhi)dhemi, set, place, jijemi, throw. 

169 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

o (di)domi, give. 

o (bhi)bheimi, fear. 

o kikumi/kuwom/kekuwa, strengthen. 

3) Bisyllabic: 

o wemami, vomit. 

NOTE. Possibly Latin forms with infinitive -are, Preterite -ui and participle -itus are within this group; as, crepo, 
fried, domd, tono, etc. 

o bhelumi, weaken, (cf. Goth, bliggwan, "whip") 

NOTE. This verb might possibly be more correctly classified as bheluio, within the Verba Vocalia, type 3) in -u- 
io of the Thematic Group. 

4) Suffixed: 

o In na (<PIH neh 2 ): pernami, grant, sell (cf. Gk. Tiepvnfii, O.Ir. ren(a)id, etc.), qrfnami, 
buy (cf. O.Ind. krinati, O.Ind. cren(a)im, gr. jipiaucu, etc). 
o In nu: arnumi/ornumi, rise (up). 
o With nasal infix: lineqmi (linqo), bhenegmi (bhego), amneghti (amgho) 

NOTE. For these verbs Old Indian shows zero-grade root vowel and alternating suffixes. Greek shows the 
opposite behaviour, which should be preferred in Modern Indo-European because of its ease of use. 

7.4. THE FOUR STEMS 

7.4.1. THE FOUR STEMS 

1. The Stems of the Present may be: 

I. Roots, especially Thematic, but also Athematic and Semithematic. 

II. Reduplicated Roots, especially Athematic. 

III. Consonantal stems, all Thematic. They may end in occlusive, or -s and its lengthenings, like - 
ske/o; as, prk-sko-, ask for, inquire, from zero-grade of prek-, ask. 

IV. In Vowel, Thematic in -i-, -u-, and Athematic in -a, -e. 

V. In Nasal, Thematic and Athematic (especially in -neu/-nu, -na/-na). 

2. The Aorist Stem is opposed to the Present: 

A. Aorist Athematic Roots vs. Present Roots and Reduplicates. 

B. Aorist Thematic Roots vs. Athematic Presents. 

C. Aorist Thematic Reduplicated Roots vs. Athematic Reduplicated Present. 

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7. Verbs 

D. Aorist with -s and its lengthenings, both Thematic & Athematic. 

E. Aorist with -t and -k are rare, as Lat. feci. 

F. Aorist with -d, -c, and -i, -u, & their lengthenings. 

3. The Stems of the Perfect have usually root vowel -6/-0, with dialectal reduplication - mainly Indo- 
Iranian and Greek -, and some especial endings. 

4. Modern Indo-European uses a general Future Stem with a suffix -s-, usually Thematic. 

NOTE. The future might also be formed with the present in some situations, as in English / go to the museum, 
which could mean / am going to the museum or / will go to the museum. The Present is, thus, a simple way of 
creating (especially immediate) future sentences in most modern Indo-European languages, as it was already in 
Late PIE times. 

5. To sum up, there are four inflected Stems, but each one has in turn five inflected forms (Indicative, 
Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative and Participle), and one not inflected (Verbal Noun). Verbal 
inflection is made with desinences (including 0), which indicate Person, Time and Voice. The person is 
thus combined with the other two. 

NOTE. The imperfect stem had neither a subjunctive nor an optative formation in Late PIE. 

An example of the four stems are (for PIE verbal root leiq-^ 6 , leave) leiqe/o- (or nasal lineqe/o-) 
for the Present, (e)liqe/6- for the Aorist, (le)loiq- for the Perfect, and leiqse/o- for the Future. 

7.4.2. THE PRESENT STEM 

I. PRESENT STEM FORMATION PARADIGM 

1. Verbal Roots (Athematic, Semithematic and Thematic) were not very common in Late PIE. They 
might have only one Stem, or they might have multiple Stems opposed to each other. 

2. Reduplicates are usually different depending on the stems: those ending in occlusive or -u- are 
derived from extended roots, and are used mainly in verbs; those in -s and -u are rare, and are mainly 
used for the remaining stems. 

3. The most prolific stems in Late PIE were those ending in -i, -e and -d, closely related. Athematics in 
-c and -d have mostly Present uses (cf. dhe-^, put, do, ca- 82 , go), as Thematics in -ske/o (as gno- 
sko-, know, prk-sko-^ 2 , inquire) and Athematics or Thematics with nasal infix (i.e. in -n-, as li-n-eq-, 
leave, from leiq, or bhu-n-dho-, make aware, from bheudh- 60 ). 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



II. PRESENT ROOT STEM 

1. A pure Root Stem, with or without thematic vowel, can be used as a Present, opposed to the Aorist, 
Perfect and sometimes to the Future Stems. The Aorist Stem may also be Root, and it is then 
distinguished from the Present Stem with l) vowel opposition, i.e., full grade, o-grade or zero-grade, 2) 
thematism-athematism, or 3) with secondary phonetic differentiations (as accent shift). 

Present verbal roots may be athematic, semithematic and thematic. The athematics were, in Late PIE, 
only the remains of an older system, and so the semithematics. 

2. In Monosyllabic Roots ending in consonant or sonant, the inflection is usually made: 

a. in the Active Voice Sg., with root vowel c and root accent 

b. in the Active and Middle Voice PL, root vowel and accent on the ending. 

The most common example is es-, be, which has a singular in es- and plural in s-. There are also other 
monosyllabic verbs, as chen- 111 , strike, ed- 173 , eat. Other roots, as ei- 61 , go, follow this inflection too. 







ed-, eat 


chen-, knok 


ei-, go 


es-, be 


dhe-, set, put 


do-, give 


sg. 


1. 


edmi 


chenmi 


eimi 


esmi 


(dhi)dhemi 


(di)domi 




2. 


edsi 


chensi 


eisi 


essi 


(dhi)dhesi 


(di)dosi 




3- 


esti 1 


chenti 


eiti 


esti 


(dhi)dheti 


(di)doti 


pi. 


1. 


dme 


chnmes 


imes 


sme 


(dhi)dhames 


(di) dames 




2. 


dte 


chnte 


ite 


ste 


(dhi)dhate 


(di)date 




3- 


denti 


chnonti 


jenti 


senti 


(dhi)dhanti 


(di)danti 



1 MIE esti < PIE *edti 

NOTE. Most verbs are usually reconstructed with a mobile accent (as in Sanskrit), but we preserve the easier 
Greek columnar accent; it usually reads dhidhames, dhidhate, dhidhanti, or didames, didate, didanti. 

3. There is also another rare verbal type, Root Athematic with full or long root vowel and fixed root 
accent, usually called Proterodynamic. It appears frequently in the Middle Voice. 

4. Monosyllabic Roots with Long Vowel (as dhe- and do-) are inflected in Sg. with long vowel, and in 
Pi. and Middle with -a. They are rare in Present, usually reserved for the Aorist. 

5. Disyllabic Roots which preserve an athematic inflection have the Present in full/0-vowel. The 
alternative 0/full -vowel is generally reserved for the Aorist. 

6. In the Semithematic Root Stem, the 3 rd Person Pi. has often an ending preceded by Thematic e/o. 
That happens also in the 1 st Person Sg., which often has -o or -o-m(i); and in the 1 st Person PL, which 
may end in -o-mos, -o-mo. 



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7. Verbs 

NOTE. In an old inflection like that of the verbal root es, i.e. esmi-smes, sometimes a Semithematic alternative 
is found. Compare the paradigm of the verb be in Latin, where zero-grade and o vowel forms are found: s-omi (cf. 
Lat. sum), not es-mi; s-omes (cf. Lat. sumus), not s-me; and s-onti (cf. Lat. sunt), not s-enti. Such inflection, 
not limited to Latin, has had little success in the Indo-European verbal system, at least in the dialects that have 
been attested. There are, however, many examples of semithematic inflection in non-root verbs, what could mean 
that an independent semithematic inflection existed in PIE, or, on the contrary, that old athematic forms were 
remade and mixed with the newer thematic inflection (Adrados). 

7. Thematic verbal roots have generally an -e/o added before the endings. Therefore, in Athematic 
stems e/o may be found in the 3 rd P.Pl., in Semithematics in the 1 st P.Sg. and PL, and in Thematic it 
appears always. 

Thematic inflection shows two general formations: 

a. Root vowel c and root accent; as in deiketi, he/she/it shows. 

b. Root vowel and accent on the thematic vowel, as in dikom he/ she/ it showed. 

The first appears usually in the Present, and the second in the Aorist, although both could appear in 
any of them in PIE. In fact, when both appear in the Present, the a-type is usually a Durative - meaning 
an action not finished -, while b-type verbs are Terminatives or Punctuals - meaning the conclusion of 
the action. This semantic value is not general, though, and is often found in Graeco-Aryan dialects. 

NOTE. The newer inflection is, thus (in a singular/plural scheme), that of full/full vocalism for Present, 0/0 for 
Aorist. The (mainly) Root Athematic - and Semithematic - inflection in full/0 appears to be older than the 
Thematic one. The Thematic inflection probably overshadowed the Athematic and Semithematic ones in IE III, 
and there are lots of examples of coexisting formations, some of the newer being opposed to the older in meaning. 

III. PRESENT REDUPLICATED STEM 

1. Depending on its Formation, present stems may have either Full Reduplication, sometimes 
maintained throughout the conjugation, or Simple Reduplication, which normally consists of the initial 
consonant of the root followed by -i-. 

Depending on its Meaning, reduplication may have a general value (of Iteration or Intensity), or 
simply opposed values in individual pairs of Basic Verb-Deverbative. Therefore, it helps to distinguish 
the verb in its different forms. 

2. How Reduplication is made: 

I. Full Reduplication, normally found in the Present Stem, repeats the Root or at least the group 
consonant/sonorant+vowel+consonant/sonorant; as, gal-gal-, talk, bher-bher-, endure, mor- 
mor-/mur-mur-, whisper, etc. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Full reduplication is also that which repeats a Root with vowel+consonant/sonorant; as, ul-ul-, cry 
aloud (cf. Lat. ululare). 

II. Simple Reduplication is made: 

a. With consonant + i, 

- in Athematic verbs; as, bhi-bher, carry (from bher), 

- in Thematic verbs; as, gi-gno-sko-, know (from gno), etc. si-sdo-, sit down, settle (from zero- 
grade of sed, sit), 

- Some Intensives have half full, half simple Reduplication, as in dei-dik-, show (from deik-). 

- There are other forms with -w, -u, as in leu-luk-, shine (from leuk-, light). 

- There are also some Perfect stems with i. 

b. With consonant + e/e, as dhe-dhe-, de-do-, etc. 

Simple Reduplication in e appears mainly in the Perfect, while i is characteristic of Present stems. 
Reduplication in e is also often found in Intensives in southern dialects. 

NOTE. Formal reduplication in -i is optional in Modern Indo-European, as it is mostly a Graeco-Aryan feature; 
as, gignosko gnosko, dido/do, pibo/poti)^, etc. 

NOTE. Reduplication doesn't affect the different root vowel grades in inflection, and general rules are followed; 
as, bibherti-bibhrmes, (s)istami-(s)istames, etc. 

3. The different Meaning of Reduplicates found in PIE are: 

- Indo-Iranian and Greek show a systematic opposition Basic Verb - Deverbative Reduplicated, to 
obtain an Iterative or Intensive verb. 

- Desideratives are Reduplicates with i + Root + -se/o, as e.g. men vs. mi-mn-so-, think. Such 
Reduplicates are called Terminatives. 

NOTE. Although the Iterative-Intensives, Desideratives and sometimes Terminatives did not succeed in the 
attested European dialects, we consider it an old resource of Late PIE, probably older than the opposition Present- 
Perfect. We therefore include this feature in the global MIE system. 

IV. PRESENT CONSONANT STEM 

1. Indo-European Roots may be lengthened with an occlusive to give a verb stem, either general or 
Present-only. Such stems are usually made adding a dental -t, -d, -dh, or a guttural -k, -g, -gh (also -k, 
-g, -gh), but only rarely with labials or labiovelars. They are all Thematic, and the lengthenings are 
added to the Root. 



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NOTE. Such lengthenings were probably optional in an earlier stage of the language, before they became frozen 
as differentiated vocabulary by Late PIE. Some endings (like -sko, -io, etc.) were still optional in IE III, v.i. 

2. Here are some examples: 

- 1 : plek-to, weave, kan-to, sing; klus-tio, hear, listen, etc. 

- d : sal-do, to salt, ekskel-do, be eminent, pel-do, beat, etc. 

NOTE. The lengthening in -d sometimes is integrated completely to the root (cf. Lat. strido, tendo), or it appears 
only in some tenses, cf. Lat. pello/pepuli/ pulsus, but free, pulsd &puZfo,-dre. 

- dh : ghr-dhio, gird, gawi-dhe, rejoice; wol-dho, dominate, etc. 

- k : ped-ka, stumble, pleu-ko,/Zy, gel-kio, freeze, etc. 

- g : tma-go, from tern-, cut, etc. 

- gh : sme-gho, ne-gho, negate, stena-gho, etc. 

- p : wel-po, wait, from wel-, wish, will, etc. 

- bh : gnei-bho, shave (cf. gneid-, scratch), skre(i)-bho, scratch to write (from sker-, scratch, 
scrape), ster-bho, die (from ster-, get stiff), etc. 

NOTE. These lengthenings are considered by some linguists as equally possible root modifiers in Proto-Indo- 
European to those in -s, -sk, -n-, -nu, -na, etc. However, it is obvious that these ones (vide infra) appear more 
often, and that they appear usually as part of the conjugation, while the former become almost always part of the 
root and are modified accordingly. Whatever the nature and antiquity of all of them, those above are in Modern 
Indo-European usually just part of existing stems (i.e., part of the IE morphology), while the following extensions 
are often part of the conjugation. 

3. Imperfect Stems in -s and its derivatives, as -sk- and -st-, are almost all Thematic. 

NOTE. Thematic suffix -ste/o has usually an Expressive sense, meaning sounds most of the times; as, bresto, 
tremble, bhresto, burst, break, etc. 

4. Stems in -s have a common specialized use (opposed to Basic stems), marking the Preterite, the 
Future, and sometimes the Subjunctive. 

NOTE 1. Aorist stems in -s are usually Athematic. 

NOTE 2. Because of its common use in verbal inflection, deverbatives with a lengthening in -s- aren't generally 
opposed in Meaning to their basic stems. There may be found some individual meanings in such opposed stem 
pairs, though, already in Late PIE; as, Insistents or Iteratives (cf. weid-s-o, "want to see, go to see", hence "visit", 
as Lat. visere, Goth, gaweison, O.S. O.H.G. wlson, vs. Pres. w(e)id-e-io, see, know, as Lat. videre), Causatives, 
and especially Desideratives (which were also used to form the Future stem in the Southern Dialect). There is, 
however, no general common meaning reserved for the extended stem in -s. Compare also Lat. press! <* pres-sai 
vs. Lat. premo; Lat. tremo vs. a Gk. Tp8co<*fre-s6, O.Ind. trasate, 'he is frightened. 

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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

PRESENT CONSONANT LENGTHENINGS 

A. Thematic suffix -ske/o- is added to Roots in zero-grade, especially to monosyllables and 
disyllabics; as, prk-sko (from prek* 2 ), cm-sko, (from cem 82 ), gno-sko (from gno 10 °). It can also be 
added to Reduplicated stems, as di-dk-sko (from dek 8 " 3 ), gi-gno-sko, and to lengthened Roots, 
especially in i, u, e, a, as kre-sko (from ker 1 ^). 

Sometimes these Deverbatives show limited general patterns, creating especially Iteratives, but also 
Inchoatives, Causatives, and even Determinatives or Terminatives. 

This lengthening in -sk- seems to have been part of Present-only stems in Late PIE; cf. Lat. 
floresco/ florin, Gk. KiKhncncco/KEKXnKa, and so on. 

NOTE i. Cases like IE verb prkskd, ask, demand (cf. O.H.G. forscon, Ger. forschen, Lat. posco>por(c)sco, 
O.Ind. prcch, Arm. harc'anem, O.Ir. arcu), which appear throughout the whole conjugation in different IE 
dialects, are apparently exceptions of the Late Proto-Indo-European verbal system; supporting a common 
formation of zero-grade root Iterative presents, compare also the form (e)sko- (</ijsfa5), the verb es- with 
'existencial' sense, as O.Lat. escit, "is", Gk. eske, "was", Horn. Gk. eske, Pal. iska, etc. 

NOTE 2. Supporting the theory that -sk has a newer development than other lengthenings is e.g. the Hittite 
formation duskiski(ta) (cf. O.Ind. tusyate, 'silenter', O.Ir. inna tuai 'silentia'), which indicates that in Anatolian 
(hence possibly in IE III as well) such an ending - unlike the other endings shown - is still actively in formation. 

B. Stems in -n are said to have a nasal suffix or a nasal infix - if added within the root. They may be 
Athematic or Thematic, and the most common forms are -n, -neu/-nu, -na: as in str- neu -mi/ster- 
nu-6, spread; li-n-eq-mi/li-n-q-6, leave; ml-n-a-io, soften; dhre-n-g-aio, hold; pu-n-g-6, prik; 
bhu-n-dh-6, be aware, pla-n-ta-io, plant; etc. These verbs can be found also without the nasal suffix 
or infix, viz. streu, leiq, mid, dhreg,peug,plat. 

There are other, not so common nasal formations; as, -ne/o, i.e. -[no] or -[n-o], and (possibly derived 
from inflected -neu and -nei ) the forms -nue/o, -nie/o. So for example in sper-no, scatter, p(e)l- 
no, fill. 

NOTE. These formations are very recent to Late Proto-Indo-European In Greek it is frequent the nasal suffix - 
an. Others as -nue/o, and -nie/o appear often, too; as Gk. phthinuo, Goth, winnan (from *wenwan); Gk. iaino, 
phainomai, (see bha) and Old Indian verbs in -niati. 

V. PRESENT VOWEL STEM 

i. Some roots and derivatives (deverbatives or denominatives) form the Thematic verb stems with - 
ie/o, and Semithematics in -I, usually added to the stem in consonant . 



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The preceding vowel may be an -a-, -e-, -i- or -u-, sometimes as part of the root or derivative, 
sometimes as part of the suffix. Possible suffixes in -io are then also (the so-called Verba Vocalia) -dio, 
-eio, -ijo and -uio. 

NOTE l. Verbs in -io are usually classified as a different type of deverbatives (not included in verba vocalia); in 
these cases, the Root grade is usually 0; as, bhudhio, wake up, from bheudh-; but the full grade is also possible, 
as in spekio, Z00A:. 

NOTE 2. Deverbatives in -io give usually Statives, and sometimes Causatives and Iteratives, which survive 
mainly in the European dialects (but cf. Gk. coOsco, O.Ind. vadhayati, etc), as the especial secondary formation 
Causative-Iterative, with o-grade Root and suffix -eie/o, cf. from wes-, dress, Active woseieti (cf. Hitt. wassizzi, 
Skr. vasdiati, Ger. wazjan, Alb. vesh), from leuk-, light, Active loukeieti (cf. Hitt. lukiizzi, Skr. rocdyati, Av. 
raocayeiti, O.Lat. lumina lucent), etc. There are also many deverbatives in -io without a general meaning when 
opposed to its basic verb. 

NOTE 2. The Thematic inflection of these verbs is regular, and usually accompanied by the Semithematic in the 
Northern dialects, but not in the Southern ones, which don't combine them with -i-, -e-, nor -a-. 

2. Thematic root verbs in -io are old, but have coexisted with the semithematics -io/-i/-i. These verbs 
maybe deverbatives - normally Iteratives or Causatives - or Denominatives. 

NOTE. They served especially to form verbs from nouns and adjectives, as wesnom, price, and wesneio, value 
(cf. Skr. vasna-yd), 11011111, name, nomiiio, name (cf. Got. namnjan), or melit, honey, mlitio, take honey from 
the honeycomb (as Gk. blitto), etc. 

The deverbative inflection could have -io, -eio, or its semithematic variant. 

NOTE 1. The State or Status value of these verbs is a feature mainly found in Balto-Slavic dialects, with verbs in - 
c and -a, whose inflection is sometimes combined with thematic -ie/o. 

NOTE 2. About the usual distinction -eio /-eio, it is apparently attested in Anatolian, Indo-Iranian, Greek and 
Armenian (cf. Arm. Gen. siroy, "love", sirem, "I love" <*kejre-ie-); Greek loses the -j- and follows (as Latin) the 
rule 'uocalis ante uocalem corripitur', what helps metrics. However, Greek had probably a present with long e (as 
in non-liquid future and perfect). Mycenaean doesn't clarify the question; moreover, it is often accepted that 
forms like O.Ind. in -ayati are isolated. For pragmatic purposes, Modern Indo-European should follow always an 
ending -eio, which fits better into EIE reconstruction and Western poetry, which follows the Classical Greek and 
Latin metrics, as it is not so easy to include lubheieti (with three syllables) in the common classic hexameter... 
However, for modern dialectal purposes (i.e. to write in Hellenic, Aryan or Anatolian) it is probably safe to assume 
a common, old PIE dialectal (and very limited) trend to use -eio. 

3. Stems in -u are rarely found in the Present, but are often found in the Preterite and Perfect stems. 

NOTE. Stems in -u have, thus, an opposed behaviour to those in -i, which are usually found in Present and 
rarely in Preterite and Perfect. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

In Present stems, -u is found in roots or as a suffix, whether thematic or athematic (but not 
semithematic), giving a stem that may normally appear as the general stem of the verb. It is therefore 
generally either part of the root or a stable lengthening of it. 

NOTE. Common exceptions to this general rule concerning Late PIE verbs in -u, usually general stems, are 
different pairs gheu-gho, pleu-plo, etc. 

4. Root or stems in -e, Athematic or mixed with -i-. Sometimes the -e is part of the Root, sometimes it 
is a suffix added or substituting the -c of the Stem. 

They may be verbs of State; as, albheio, be white, with a stative value. There are also Iterative- 
Causatives; Denominatives are usually derived from thematic adjectives in e/o. 

NOTE. These are probably related with stems in -i (i.e., in -eie/o) as in albheio, be white, moneio, remind, 
advise, seneio, be old. 

Athematic examples are lubheio, be dear, be pleasing; rudheio, blush, redden; galeio, call (not 
denominative). 

5. Roots or stems in -a, Athematic or mixed with -i-. They are spread throughout the general Verb 
system; as, bha(io), draw; duka(io), drag, draw; ama(io), love, etc. 

NOTE. Some find apparently irregular formations as Lat. amo, "I love", from an older ama-io, mixed with -i-; 
however, they are sometimes reconstructed (viz. Adrados) as from *amd, i.e. in -a without ending (cf. Lat. amas, 
amat,...); against it, compare common IE formations as Umb. suboca , "invoke", Russ. delaiu, and so on. 

About their Meaning, they may be (specially in Latin) Statives or Duratives, and sometimes Factitives 
opposed to Statives in -e (cf. Hitt. marsah-marse-, Lat. clarare-clarere, albare-albere, nigrare- 
nigrere, liquare-liquere). But there are also many deverbatives in -a without a special value opposed to 
the basic verb. 

Stems in -a help create Subjunctives, Aorists, and Imperfectives. The use of -a to make Iterative and 
Stative deverbatives and denominatives is not so common as the use -e. 
NOTE. There is a relation with verbs in -i- (i.e. in - aid), as with stems in -c. 

7.4.3. THE AORIST STEM 

I. AORIST STEM FORMATION PARADIGM 

1. The Aorist describes a completed action in the past, at the moment when it is already finished, as 
e.g. Eng. I did send / had sent that e-mail before /when you appeared. 

NOTE. As opposed to the Aorist, the Imperfect refers to a durative action in the past (either not finished at that 
moment or not finished yet), as e.g. Eng. I sent / was sending the e-mail when you appeared. 

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7. Verbs 

2. The Aorist is made usually in 0/0, Secondary Endings, Augment and sometimes Reduplication; as, 
1 st . P.Sg. (e)bherom. 

NOTE. Augment was obviously obligatory neither in Imperfect nor in Aorist formations in Late PIE (cf. Oldest 
Greek and Vedic Sanskrit forms), but it is usually shown in this grammar because tradition in IE studies has made 
Augment obligatory, and because a) the Aorist is mostly a litterary resource, b) only Greek and Sanskrit further 
specialized it, and c) these dialects made Augment obligatory. It is clear, however, that for a Modern Indo- 
European of Europe it would be better to select an Augment' (if we had to) in pro-, as common Celtic ro-, in 
kom-, as regular Germanic ga-, or in per- as frequently found in Latin, instead of the Graeco-Aryan in e-. 

3. The opposition of Present and Preterite stems is made with: 

a. Present Reduplicated Root vs. Aorist Basic Root; as, si-sta-mi, I stand, vs. sta-m, I have stood. 

b. Thematic Present vs. Athematic Aorist in -s; as, leiq-6, 1 leave, leiq-s-m, I was leaving. 

c. Both stems Thematic, but with different vowel degrees; as, leiq-6, 1 leave, liq-6m, I have left. 

NOTE. Every stem could usually be Present or Aorist in PIE, provided that they were opposed to each other. And 
there could be more than one Present and Aorist stem from the same Root; as, for Thematic Present leiq-6, / 
leave, which shows two old formations, one Athematic extended leiq-s-m (the so-called sigmatic Aorist), and 
other Thematic zero-grade liq-6m. 

4. There was a logical trend to specialize the roles of the different formations, so that those Stems 
which are rarely found in Present are usual in Aorists. For example, Thematic roots for the Present, and 
Aorists extended in (athematic) -s-. 

NOTE. In fact, there was actually only one confusion problem when distinguishing stems in Proto-Indo- 
European, viz. when they ended in -e or -a, as they appeared in Presents and Aorists alike. It was through 
oppositions and formal specializations of individual pairs that they could be distinguished. 

II. AORIST ROOT STEM 

1. Athematic Aorist Root stems were generally opposed to Athematic Reduplicated Present stems, but 
it wasn't the only possible opposition in PIE. 

NOTE. Such athematic Root stems aren't found with endings in consonant, though. 

2. Monosyllabic Root Aorists are usually opposed to Presents: 

a. In -neu; as, kluneuo, from kleu-, hear, or qrneuo, from qer-, make, do; etc. 

NOTE. For kluneu- cf. Buddh. Skr. srun; Av. surunaoiti; Shughni gin; O.Ir. cluinethar; Toch. A and B kaln. Skr. 
sRno-/sRnu- < kluneu- /klunu- shows a loss of u analogous to the loss of 1 in tRtiya- 'third' < IE tritijo-. 

b. Reduplicated or in -sko, -io; as, camsko, from cem-, come, or bhesio, from bhes-, breathe; 
etc. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

c. Thematic Present; as, ghewo, from ghew-, pour; bhawo, from bha-, proclaim. 

3. Disyllabic Root Presents show a similar opposition pattern; as, gignosko-gno, bhalio-bhle, etc. 

The thematic vowel is the regular system in inflection, i.e. Present Sg. Active with full vowel, and in 
the rest. 

NOTE. It seems that Proto-Indo-European disyllabic roots tended to generalize a unique form, disregarding the 
opposition pattern; as, gno-, bhle-, etc. 

4. Thematic Aorist stems are the same ones as those of the Present, i.e. full-grade and zero-grade, e.g. 
leiq- and liq-, always opposed to the Present: 

a. The liqe/6- form (i.e. zero-grade) is usually reserved for the Aorist stem; 

b. The leiqe/o- form (i.e. full-grade) is rarely found in the Aorist - but, when it is found, the Present 
has to be logically differentiated from it; e.g. from the Imperfect with Augment, viz. from bhertus, to 
carry, Pres. bhereti/bherti, he carries, Imperf. bheret/bhert, he was carrying, Aorist 
ebheret/ebhert, he carried. 

III. AORIST REDUPLICATED STEM 

1. Aorist Reduplicated stems - thematic and athematic - are found mainly in Greek and Indo-Iranian, 
but also sporadically in Latin. 

NOTE. Southern dialects have also (as in the Present) a specialized vowel for Reduplicated Aorists, v.i., but in 
this case it is unique to them, as the other dialects attested apparently followed different schemes. In Modern 
Indo-European the attested dialectal schemes are followed. 

2. Aorist Thematic Reduplicates have a general vowel c (opposed to the i of the Present), zero-grade 
root vowel (general in Aorists), and sometimes also accent before the ending; as, chechno, I killed, 
from chen-. 

In roots which begin with vowel, reduplication is of the type vowel+consonant. 

NOTE. This resource for the Aorist formation seems not to have spread successfully outside Graeco-Aryan 
dialects; however, the opposition of Present Reduplication in i, Preterite Reduplication in e (cf. Perfect Stem) was 
indeed generalized in Late Proto-Indo-European. 

3. Some roots which begin with vowel form also Reduplicated Aorists; as agagom (as Gk. riYccyov, 
where q<a<e+a - Wackernagel, hence *e-agagom) 

4. Also, Causatives form frequently Reduplicated Aorists, cf. Lat. momorit, totondit, spopondit, etc., or 
O.Ind. atitaram, ajijanam, etc. 



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7. Verbs 

IV. AORIST CONSONANT STEM 

1. As we have seen, Present Thematic stems in -s- are often Desideratives (also used as immediate 
Futures). The same stems serve as Aorists with secondary endings, usually reserved for the Aorist, 
generally called the Sigmatic Aorist (from Gk. aiyua, "sigma", i.e. I, o or g). 

NOTE. Forms in -so are often found in Slavic; as, vedu-veso, reco-reso, etc. 

2. The -s- is added: 

a. to a Consonant ending and lengthened root vowel, in contrast with the Present in full vowel. 

b. to a vowel a, e, 6, with the same stem as the Present, or to the noun from which the verb is 
derived. Those in e and a must have root grade. 

There is also a second Aorist mark: an -e- before the -s- (possibly an older Aorist mark, to which 
another mark was added); as, alko, alkeso, grow, from al-; mnio, mneso, be mad, from men-; etc. 

NOTE. Thematic Aorist stems are mostly used as Presents in Indo-Iranian, Greek, Slavic, and Latin (cf. Lat. 
dvd). 

3. Athematic stems in -s- are widespread in Late PIE. They were formerly added to the Root, whether 
monosyllabic or disyllabic, in consonant or vowel, opposed thus to the Present. 

Monosyllabic or Disyllabic Aorist root stems in i, u, a, e, 6, have a fixed vowel grade (like most 
Athematic Root Aorists); e.g. the 3 rd P. Pi. plent, from redupl. pi(m)plemi,/i7Z (i.e. in zero-/full-grade), 
or 3 rd P. Pi. pewisnt from ponami, purify (i.e. in full-/zero-grade). 

The most frequent Aorist stems in PIE were monosyllabic roots ending in consonant or sonant. 

NOTE 1. They usually have in Graeco-Aryan lengthened root vowel in the active voice, and zero-grade in the rest; 
as, leiq-, leave, from which liq- & leiq-s-m; so too from qer-, make, giving qer-s-6; or from bher-, carry, 
bher-s-6, etc. Such lengthened vocalism in sigmatic aorists is probably an innovation in Late PIE. 

NOTE 2. Aorists in -s- are then a modern feature of Late PIE, found in all its dialects (as Imperfects or Perfects 
in European dialects), but for Germanic and Baltic, possibly the dialects spoken far away from the core of the 
remaining Europe's Indo-European dialect continuum, in close contact with other Late PIE dialects after the first 
migrations. Aorist stem formation in -i-, -c-, -a- are still more recent, appearing only in some proto-languages. 

4. Some other common dialectal formations in -s-: 

a. in -is (Latin and Indo-Aryan), -es (Greek); as, genis- from gen, beget; wersis- from wers-, rain; 
also, cf. Lat. amauis (amauisti, and amaueram<-uisam), etc. 

b. in -sd, attested in Latin, Tocharian and Armenian. 

c. in -se, -sie/o, etc. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

5. Stems in -t- function usually as Aorists opposed to Present stems, especially in Latin, Italic, Celtic 
and Germanic. 

NOTE. While the use of -t for persons in the verbal conjugation is certainly old, the use of an extension in -t- to 
form verbal Stems seems to be more recent, and mainly developed in Europe's Indo-European. 

6. Stems in -k- are rare, but there are examples of them in all forms of the verb, including Aorists. 

V. AORIST VOWEL STEM 

1. Aorists in a, e, are very common, either as pure stems with Athematic inflection, or mixed with 
other endings, as e.g. -u-. 

NOTE. Stems extended in -u- are rarely found in Present stems, but are frequent in Preterites, and the contrary 
has to be said of stems in -i-. For more on this formations, vide supra the Present Vowel Stem section. 

When opposed to a Present, stems extended in -a, -e, are often Aorists. 

2. A common pattern in the opposition Present Stem vs. Aorist Vowel Stem is: 

A. Present in -i- (thematic or semithematic) vs. Aorist in -e, -a; as, miiio-mneio, be mad, alkio- 
alkaio, be hungry. 

B. Present Thematic (in -e/o) vs. Aorist in -e, -a; as, lego-legeio, collect, speak, gnto-gntauo, 

know. 

3. The use of stems in -u- is usually related to the Past and sometimes to the Perfect. Such endings 
may appear as -u, - au, - eu, -eue, - dud, -eud, - due. 

4. Stems in -i/-i are scarcely used for Aorists, cf. awisdhijo-awisdhiui, hear, Lat. audio, audiui. 
Aorist stems are often lengthened in -e- or -i-, to avoid the loss of consonants when extended in -s-. 

7.4.4. THE PERFECT STEM 

The Perfect stem (opposed to the Present) has 6 or lengthened root vowel and special Perfect endings, 
Sg. -a, -ta, -e; 3 rd Pi. -r. In Gk. and Ind.-Ira., the stem was often reduplicated, generally with vowel c. 

NOTE. Originally the Perfect was probably a different Stative verb, which eventually entered the verbal 
conjugation, meaning the state derived from the action. PIE Perfect did not have a Tense or Voice value; it was 
opposed to the Pluperfect (or Past Perfect) and became Present, and to the Middle Perfect and became Active. 

I. Root vowel is usually 6/0; as, (Pres. i st P.Sg., Perf. i st P.Sg., Perf.i st P.Pl), gigno-mi, gegon-a, gegn- 
me, know, bhindh-6, bhondh-a, bhndh-me, bind; bheudh-6, bhoudh-a, bhudh-me, bid; 

But for different formations, cf. kan-6, (ke)kan-a, kn-me, sing; (for subgroups of conjugations, v.s.) 

NOTE 1. Compare O.Ir. cechan, cechan, cechuin (and cechain), cechnammar, cechn(u)id, cechnatar. For 
examples of root vowel a, cf. Lat. scabi, or Gk. rsOnXa, and for examples with root vowel a, cf. Umb. procanurent 

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(with ablaut in Lat. procinuerint) — this example has lost reduplication as Italic dialects usually do after a 
preposed preposition (cf. Lat. compuli, detinui), although this may not be the case (cf. Lat. concinui). 

NOTE 2. There are also (dialectal) Perfects with lengthened Root vowel; as, from Latin sede-io, sed-a, sit; ed- 
6, ed-a, eat; cem-io, cem-a, come; ag-6, ag-a, act; from Germanic, sleb-6, sesleb-a, sleep; etc. 

II. The Endings of the Perfect are -a, -ta, -e, for the singular, and -me, -(t)e, -(e)r, for the plural. 

III. Reduplication is made in e, and also sometimes in -i and -u. 

NOTE. Apparently, Indo-Iranian and Greek dialects made reduplication obligatory, whereas European dialects 
didn't. Thus, as a general rule, verbs are regularly reduplicated in Modern Indo-European if the Present Stem is a 
reduplicate; as, Present bhi-bher-, Perfect bhe-bhor-, etc. Such a general rule is indeed subjected to natural 
exceptions; cf. Gk. eyvoxa, Lat. seui (which seems old, even with Goth, saiso), etc. Also, cf. Lat. sedi, from sedeo 
and sido, which don't let us reconstruct when is from PIE sesdai, and when from sedai. 

7.4.5. THE FUTURE STEM 

1. Future stems were frequently built with a Thematic -s- ending, although not all Indo-European 
dialects show the same formations. 

NOTE. The Future comes probably from Late PIE Desiderative-Causative Present stems, usually formed with 
extensions in -s- (and its variants), which probably became with time a regular part of the verbal conjugation in 
some dialects, whilst disappearing in others. In fact, whether using this formation or not, all Indo-European 
languages tended to differentiate the Present from the Future Tense. Usual resources found in Indo-European 
languages to refer to the future are 1) the Present as Immediate Future, 2) the Present Subjunctive orAorist with 
prospective value, 3) different Desiderative formations in Present, and 4) Verbal Periphrasis. 

Future stems were usually made in Proto-Indo-European dialects: 

a. With a simple Athematic -s, or with extended Thematic -so, -sio, or -seio. 

b. With root vowel e, i.e. in full-grade. 

c. With or without reduplication. 

NOTE. Compare, for a common origin of the future in -s-, Sanskrit (and Baltic) futures in -sia (cf. Skr. da-sya- 
mi, Lith. dou-siu, "I will give"), Doric Greek in -seo, -sio, Classical Greek and Archaic Latin in -so (cf. O.Lat. 
faxo, dhak-so, "I will make", O.Lat. peccas-so, from peccare, Lat. ero, "I will be", from eso, from IE es-, be, 
etc.), and Old Irish common Desideratives in -s. Also, some more dialectal additions are found appearing before 
the -s- edings; as, -i-s- in Indo-Iranian and Latin, -e-s- in Greek and Osco-Umbrian. 

2. In Modern Indo-European, the Future is regularly made by adding a Thematic -so, -sio (or even - 
seio), following if possible the attested common vocabulary. 

NOTE. The Future stem in -s is found neither in Germanic and Slavic dialects, nor in Classic Latin, which 
developed diverse compound futures. However, Indo-Iranian, Greek and Baltic show almost the same Future 
stems (along with similar formations in Archaic Latin, Oso-Umbrian and Old Celtic dialects), what means that the 

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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Future stem had probably a common (but unstable) pattern already developed before the first migrations; 
apparently, Germanic and Slavic dialects, as well as the systematized Classic Latin, didn't follow it or later 
substituted it with their own innovative formations. We use it in Modern Indo-European, though, because a 
regular Future formation is needed. 

For Germanic future compounds, compare general Germanic from werto, PGmc. werpo, "become, turn into" 
(cf. Goth, wairpan, O.S., O.Du. werthan, O.N. verda, O.E. weordan, O.Fris. wertha, O.H.G. werdan, Eng. 
worth, Ger. werden), from PIE wer-, turn. Also, sk(e)16, Gmc. skulo, "owe, must" (cf. Goth, skulan, O.S. 
sculan, O.N., Swed. skola, O.H.G. solan, M.Du. sullen, Eng. shall, Ger. sollen), with a dialectal meaning shift 
from 'obligation' to 'probable future', related to O.E. scyld "guilt", Ger. Schuld, also in O.N. Skuld; cf. O.Prus. 
skallisnan, Lith. skeleti "be guilty", skilti, "get into debt". Also, for Eng. "will", from Gmc. welljan, "wish, 
desire", compare derivatives from PIE wel-. 

In Osco-Umbrian and Classic Latin, similar forms are found that reveal the use of compounds with the verb 
bheu-^ , be, exist, used as an auxiliary verb with Potential-Prospective value (maybe a common Proto-Italic 
resource), later entering the verbal conjugation as a desinence; compare Osc.,Umb. -fo-, (cf. Osc.,Umb. carefo, 
pipafo), or Lat. -bo-, -be- (cf. Lat. ama-bo, from earlier *amai bhewd, or lauda-bo, from *laudai bheivo). 

The common Slavic formation comes also from PIE bheu-, be, exist, grow, with extended bhutio, come to be, 
become, found in BS1. byt- (cf. O.C.S. &bimu, Russ. 6bimb, Cz. byti, Pol. bye, Sr.-Cr. biti, etc.), and also in Lith. 
buti, O.Ind. bhutis, and Cel. but- (O.Ir buith). Also, with similar meanings and forms, compare Gmc. biju, "be", 
(cf. Eng. be, Ger. bin), or Lat. fui, "was", also in zero-grade bliutus, "that is to be", and bhutusos, future, as 
Lat. futurus, or Gk. cpvouai; from the same root cf. Goth, bauan, O.H.G. buan, "live". 

3. Conditional sentences might be built in some Proto-Indo-European dialects using common 
Indicative and Subjunctive formations. In Modern Indo-European, either such archaic syntax is 
imitated, or an innovative formation is used, viz. the Future Stem with Secondary Endings. 

NOTE. Modern IE languages show a newer possibility for conditional inflection: using a past form of the Future 
stem", using the Future Stem with secondary endings, thus applying this modern (future) formation to the 
common Late PIE verbal system of Secondary Endings. However, conditional sentences might also be made with 
the available Late PIE verbal conjugation, using periphrasis with Indicative and Subjunctive (as Classic Latin), or 
with the Subjunctive and Optative (as Classical Greek), etc. Whether MIE speakers prefer to use the modern 
European Conditional Inflection or different periphrasis of PIE indicatives, subjunctives and optatives, is a 
practical matter outside the scope of this grammar. 

In Sanskrit, the Conditional was built using the Future Stem with Secondary Endings; as, Skr. daa-sya-ti, "he 
will give", vs. daa-sya-t, "he would give", from IE do-, or Skr. abhavi-sya-mi, "I will be", abhavi-sya-m, "I 
would be", from IE bheu-. 

In Ancient Greek, the Optative is found as modal marker in the antecedent, which defines the conditional 
sense of the sentence; cf. e\ npaoooi touto koAgoc, dv Syoi , "if he were to do that, it would turn out well". 



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7. Verbs 

In Germanic dialects, the conditional is usually made with a verbal periphrasis, consisting of the modal 
(future) auxiliary verb in the past, i.e. would (or should, also could, might), and the infinitive form of the main 
verb, as in I will come, but / would come; compare also Ger. (fut.) Ich werde kommen, (cond.) Ich wiirde 
kommen. 

While Latin used the indicative and subjunctive in conditional sentences, Romance languages developed a 
conditional inflection, made by the imperfect of Lat. habere, cf. V.Lat. (fut.) uenire habeo, "I have to come", 
V.Lat. (cond.) uenire habebam, "I had to come", as in Fr. (fut.) je viendr-ai, (cond.) je viendr-ais, Spa. (fut.) yo 
vendr-e, (cond.) yo vendr-ia, etc., cf. also the Portuguese still separable forms, as e.g. Pt. faze-lo-ia instead of "o 
fazeria". Modern Italian has substituted it by another similar ending, from the perfect of Lat. habere. 

Full conditional sentences contain two clauses: the Protasis or condition, and the Apodosis or result, 
although this is a matter studied in detail by Indo-European Syntax. 

7.4. 6. OTHER FORMATIONS 

MIDDLE PERFECT AND PAST PERFECT 

a. It was a common resource already in Proto-Indo-European to oppose a new Perfect formation to the 
old one, so that the old became only Active and the newer Middle. Such formations were generalized in 
the southern dialects, but didn't succeed in the northern ones. 

The new Perfect Middle stem was generally obtained with the Perfect stem in zero -grade and middle 
endings. 

b. The Past Perfect or Pluperfect was also a common development of some dialects, opposing the new 
Perfect with secondary endings to the old Perfect, which became then a Present Perfect. 

THE COMPOUND PAST 

A special Past or Preterite is found in IE dialects of Europe (i.e., the northwestern dialects and Greek), 
sometimes called Future Past, which is formed by two elements: a verbal stem followed by a vowel (-a, - 
e, -i, -6), and an auxiliary verb, with the meanings be (es-), become (bheu-), do (dhe-), or give (do-). 

NOTE. Although each language shows different formations, they all share a common pattern and therefore have 
a common origin traceable to Late PIE, unstable at first and later systematized in the individual proto-languages. 

The Compound Past may be studied dividing the formation in three main parts: the forms of the first 
and second elements and the sense of the compound. 

1. The First Element may be 

a. A Pure Root. 

b. Past Stem with the same lengthening as the rest of the verb. 

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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

c. Past Stem lengthened, but alternating with the Present stem, i.e. normally Present zero-grade vs. 
Past in full-grade. 

d. Past Stem lengthened vs. Thematic Present (and Aorist). 

NOTE. Originally, then, Compound Pasts are derived from a root or a stem with vowel ending, either the Present 
or the Aorist Stem. They are, then, Pasts similar to the others (i.e. Imperfects and Aorists), but instead of receiving 
secondary endings, they receive a secondary stem (like the Perfect). 

2. The second element is an auxiliary verb; as, dhe- in Greek and Germanic, bheu- in Latin and 
Celtic, and do- in Balto-Slavic. 

3. Their specifical Past meaning could vary according to the needs of the individual dialects. 
7.5. MOOD STEMS 

7.5.1. INDICATIVE 

The Indicative expresses the Real Action, in contrast to the other moods, which were specialized in 
opposition to the basic Indicative mood. It appears in the Four verbal Stems. 

7.5.2. IMPERATIVE 

The Imperative had probably in IE II the same basic stem of the Indicative, and was used without 
ending, in a simple Expressive-Impressive function, of Exclamation or Order. They were the equivalent 
in verbal inflection to the vocative in nominal declension. 

Some Late PIE dialects derived from this older scheme another, more complex Imperative system, 
with person, tense and even voice. 

NOTE. In Late PIE, only the person distinctions appear to have been generalized, and we have included only 
these known common forms in this MIE grammar. 

It is also old, beside the use of the pure stem, the use of the Injunctive for the Imperative in the second 
person plural; as, bhere!, carry! (thou), bherete!, carry! (you). 

The Injunctive is defined as the Basic Verb, with Secondary Endings, without Augment. It indicated 
therefore neither the present nor the past, thus easily indicating Intention. It is this form which was 
generally used as the Imperative. 

1. The Basic Stem for the Imperative 2 nd P. Sg. is thus general; 

2. The Injunctive forms the 2 nd P. PL; and 

3. the 3 rd P. Sg. and the 3 rd P. PL show a special ending -tod. 

NOTE. An ending -u, usually *-fu, is also reconstructed (Beekes); the inclusion of that ending within the verbal 
system is, however, difficult. A common IE ending -tod, on the other hand, may obviously be explained as the 

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7. Verbs 



introduction into the verbal conjugation of a secondary Ablative form of the neuter pronoun to, this, a logical 
addition to an Imperative formation, with the sense of 'here', hence 'now', just as the addition of -i, 'here and now' 
to oppose new endings to the older desinences. They were specialized in some dialects as Future Imperatives. 

The Imperative in Modern Indo-European is made with the Present Stem and Secondary Endings, and 
is thus generally divided into two main formations: 

a. The old, athematic Imperatives; as in i!, go!, from ei; or es!, be!; etc. 

NOTE l. In Root Athematic verbs, plural forms show -0 vowel and accent on the ending; as, s-entod!, be they! 

NOTE 2. Some scholars reconstruct for the 2 nd P. Sg. Athematic, along with the general zero-ending, a common 
-dhi ending, which seems to be very old too. 

b. Thematic Imperatives; as bhere!, carry!, or age!, do!, act!, etc. 



Imperat. 


Athem. 


Them. 


sg. 


2. 


-0, (dhi) 


-e 




3- 


-tod 


-etod 


pi. 


2. 


-te 


-ete 




3- 


-ntod 


-ontod 



7-5-3- SUBJUNCTIVE 



1. The Subjunctive is normally Athematic, usually in -a, -e and sometimes -o, and always opposed to 
the Indicative. There are also Subjunctives in -s, probably newer than those in -e, -a. 

NOTE. No subjunctive is found in BS1., which could mean that it was an innovation of Late PIE. 

2. The Subjunctive Stem is made opposing it to the Indicative Stem, usually following these rules: 

a. Indicative Athematic vs. Subjunctive Thematic; as, Ind. esmi, I am, Sub. eso, (if) I be. 

b. Indicative Thematic vs. Subjunctive with Lengthened Thematic Vowel (not root vowel!); as, Ind. 
bheresi, you carry, Sub. bheres, you may carry, (if) you carried. 

3. In Thematic Verbs the Subjunctive is made from the Present Stem, but in Athematic Verbs it is 
usually made from the Basic Stem; as, from jeug-, join, 1 st P.Pres. jungo, Subj. jungom; from kleu-, 
hear, 1 st P.Pres. kluneumi, Subj. klewom, not kluneuom . 

7.5.4. OPTATIVE 

1. The Optative mood is a volitive mood that signals wishing or hoping, as in English I wish I might, or 
I wish you could, etc. 

1) The Athematic Optative has an alternating suffix -ie (-ye after long syllable), usually in the 
singular, and zero-grade -1, usually in the plural. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

2) The Thematic Optative has a regular -oi. (probably the thematic -o- plus the reduced Opt. -i) 

NOTE. Only Albanian, Avestan, Ancient Greek, Sanskrit, and to some extent Old Church Slavonic kept the 
subjunctive and optative fully separate and parallel. In Sanskrit it is only found in the earliest Vedic language, and 
the optative and imperative are in comparison less commonly used. 

2. The Optative is built with Secondary Endings, and usually with zero-grade root vowel. 

3. The Present Optative formations have usually root accent, while the rest show accent on the 
Optative suffix. 

7.6. THE VOICE 

7.6.1. ACTIVE VOICE 

1. The characteristic Primary Endings are -mi, -si, -ti, 3 rd Pi. -nti, while the Secondary don't have the 
final -i, i.e. -m, -s, -t, 3 rd Pi. -nt. 

NOTE. The secondary endings are believed to be older, being originally the only verbal endings available. With 
the addition of a deictic -i, which possibly indicated originally "here and now", the older endings became 
secondary, and the newer formations became the primary endings. 

Compare a similar evolution in Romance languages from Lat. habere, giving common Fr. il y_ a, " there (it) is", or 
Cat. i ha, " there is", while the Spanish language has lost the relationship with such older Lat. i, "there", viz. Spa. 
hay, "there is" (from O.Spa. ha+i), already integrated within the regular verbal conjugation of the verb haber. 

2. These Desinences are used for all verbs, whether Athematic or Thematic; as, esti, he is, or bhereti, 
he carries. However, in the 1 st P. Sg., most Late PIE Thematics end in -o; as, bhero. 

NOTE. These endings in -o are probably remains of the older situation, in which no ending was necessary to 
mark the 1st P.Sg. (that of the speaker), and therefore, even though a desinence -m became general with time, the 
older formations prevailed, in some cases even along with the newer Thematic -o-mi. 



Active 


Athematic 


Thematic 






Primary 


Secondary 


Primary 


Secondary 


sg. 


1. 


-mi 


-m 


-6, -omi 


-om 




2. 


-si 


-s 


-esi 


-es 




3- 


-ti 


-t 


-eti 


-et 


pi. 


1. 


-mes, -mos 


-me, -mo 


-omes, -omos 


-ome, -omo 




2. 


-te 


-ete 




3- 


-nti 


-nt 


-onti 


-ont 



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7. Verbs 



NOTE. The forms of the first person plural are not easily reconstructed (as every Indo-European dialect has 
developed its own endings) but they were usually formed with -me-/ -mo- + 0/Consonant (s, -n or -r). 

7.6.2. MIDDLE VOICE 

1. The Middle Endings are generally those of the Active voice with a characteristic Middle voice -o 
(sometimes -e), in which the Primary Endings have an additional -i. 



Middle 


Primary 


Secondary 


sg. 


1. 


-(m)ai 


-(m)a 




2. 


-soi 


-so 




3- 


-toi 


-to 


pi. 


1. 


-mesdha 


-medha 




2. 


-dhe 


-dhue 




3- 


-ntoi 


-nto 



2. In the Moods, the endings attested in PIE are usually the same, but there were some exceptions; as, 

- Indicative Middle -a- vs. Subjunctive Middle -a, 

- Subjunctive i st P.Sg. -ai (and not -ma). 

7.6.3. PASSIVE VOICE 

1. The Passive voice didn't exist in the attested Proto-Indo-European language; it seems nevertheless 
useful to develop a common modern Indo-European grammatical formation, based on old PIE endings. 

2. The -r ending was usual in the Middle formations of some early Indo-European dialects, and it had 
also a specific impersonal value. The -r has therefore two uses in Indo-European: 

a. The -r After the Stem had usually in PIE an impersonal value, and it was also found lengthened as 
-ro, -roi, -renti, -ronti, -rontoi, etc. 

NOTE. The -r was used in the 3 rd P. Sg. & PL, and it was extended in -nt- when necessary to distinguish the 
plural, giving initially the impersonal forms e.g. 3 rd P.Sg. deiketor, "it is shown", and 3 rd P. PL deikontor, "they 
are shown", with the impersonal ending -r which was later generalized in some dialects, spreading as 
Mediopassives in Hittite, Italic, Celtic, Latin and Tocharian. also, when a Middle form was needed, a Middle 
ending -o was added. The primary marker -i was used apparently with the same aim. 

b. The -r After the Ending was usual in forms related to the so-called PIE Mediopassive Voice, 
attested in Latin, Osco-Umbrian, Celtic and Tocharian, as well as in Germanic, Indo-Iranian and 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Anatolian dialects. In Celtic, Osco-Umbrian and Latin, they replaced the Middle Primary Endings, and 
acquired a Passive value. 

NOTE 1. The oldest traceable meaning of the endings in -r in Proto-Indo-European, taking the Anatolian 
examples, show apparently the same common origin: either an impersonal subject or, at least, a subject separated 
from the action, which is a meaning very closely related to the later dialectally specialized use of a Passive Voice. 

NOTE 2. There are no distinctions of Primary-Secondary Passive Endings, as the Secondary formations are the 
same oldest Medioppasive -o Endings. The newer -i (Middle) and -r (Impersonal) endings were added later and 
spread on a dialect -to-dialect basis, some of them using and/or mixing both of them, all specializing its use. 



Passive 


Athematic 


Thematic 


sg- 


1. 


-mar 


-or, -omar 




2. 


-sor 


-esor 




3- 


-tor 


-etor 


pi. 


1. 


-mosr/-mor 


-omosr / -omor 




2. 


-dhuer 


-edhuer 




3- 


-ntor 


-ontor 



7.7. NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS 



7.7.1. INFINITIVES 



1. The Infinitives are indeclinable nouns with non-personal verbal functions, which can be in some 
dialects as many as inflection, voice, aspect and even time. 

NOTE. Infinitives are, thus, old nouns reinterpreted as forming part of the verbal conjugation. 

2. The older Infinitives are the Verbal Nouns, casual forms inflected as nouns, sometimes included in 
the verbal inflection. A Verbal Noun is a declinable substantive, derived from the root of a verb. 

NOTE. The difference in the syntax is important; the verbal noun is constructed as a substantive, thus - for 
example - with the object in the genitive; as, wiri chenom, the killing of a man, opposed to an infinitive with an 
accusative; as, chentus wirom, to kill (Nom.) a man, v.i. 

3. Verbal Nouns were, thus, the normal way to express the idea of a modern Infinitive in the oldest 
PIE. They were usually formed with the verbal stem and a nominal suffix if Athematic, and is usually 
formed in MIE with the verbal stem plus neuter -om if Thematic; as, bher-om, carrying. 

NOTE. Some IE dialects chose later between limited noun-cases of those verbal nouns for the Infinitive 
formation, generally Ace, Loc, Abl.; compare Lat. -os (sibilant neuter), Gmc. -on-om (thematic neuter), etc. 



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7. Verbs 

4. In Late PIE, two general infinitive suffixes were used, -tu- and -ti-. Such formations convey the 
same meaning as the English infinitive; as, bhertus, carrying. 

NOTE. For generalized IE infinitive -tu-, cf. Lat. (active & passive supine) -turn (ace.) -tu (dat.-loc.) -tui (dat.), 
Gk. -tos (<*-tewos), Skr. -tus, -turn (ace), Av. -tos (gen.), -tave, -tavai (dat.), -turn, Prus. -twei (dat.) -tun, -ton 
(ace), O.Sla. -til (supine), Lith. -tu, etc.; for -ti-, cf. Ved. -taye (dat), BS1., Cel. -ti (loc), Lith. -tie (dat.), etc.; also, 
in -m-en-, cf. Skr. -mane, O.Gk. -men(ai), etc. Also, a common ending -dhuai/ -dhiai (Haudry) added to the 
Basic Verbal Stem (possibly originally related to the forms -tu-, -ti-) is the basic form behind Ved. -dhyai, Gk. 
Middle -oOai, Umb. -fi, Toch. -tsi, as well as Latin gerunds and the for Germanic reconstructed *-dhidi. Other 
forms include -u-, -er/n-, -(e)s-, extended -s-, -u-, -m-, also Gmc. -no- (as Goth. ita-n<*edo-no-), Arm. -lo-, etc. 

7.7.2. PARTICIPLES 

1. The Participles are adjectives which have been assimilated to the verbal system, having thus verbal 
inflection. 

NOTE. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European shows an intense reliance on participles, and thus a certain 
number of participles played a very important role in the language. 

2. Those in -nt are the older ones, and are limited to the Active voice and to the Present, Imperfect 
and Future; as, bheronts/bherents, who carries. 

3. The Perfect active has a suffix -ues, -ues (0-grade -us), or -uet, -uot; as, widuots, widuos, 
eduos, etc. 

NOTE. Both the Present and Perfect participles are indeed inflected following the second declension; as, Nom. - 
nts, -uos, Ace. -ntm, -uosm, Gen. -ntos, -usos, Nom. pi. -ntes, -uoses, etc. 

4. The Middle Participles have a common suffix -meno- / '-meno- / '-m.no- (originally probably 
adjectival) as; alomnos 79 , "who feeds himself, student, (as Lat. alumnus, from al- 79 ), dhemna, "who 
suckles", woman, (as Lat. femina, from dhei- 120 ). 

5. The Participles have been also developed as Passives in some languages, and are also used in static 
passive formations in Modern Indo-European. They are usually formed with the Basic or Preterite Stem 
with the following suffixes: 

a. -to-; as, altos, grown; dhetos, placed; kaptos, taken; etc. 

NOTE. The adjectives in -to imply reference to a Noun. They had usually zero-grade root vowel; as liqtos, left, 
pigtos. painted, and so on. 

b. -no- and its variants; as, bheidhnos, parted, bitten; wrgnos, worked; delanos, made. 
NOTE. Compare with adjectives in -n, as in pl(e)nos (cf. Goth, fulls, Eng. full, Lat. plenus), from pel. 

c. -mo-; as, prwimos, foremost, first (cf. Toch. parwat/parwe, Lith. pirmas, O.C.S. pirvii, etc.). 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE. Latin primus is usually reconstructed as from preismos (cf. Paelignian prismu) or maybe pristmos, in 
any case (as the rest of IE words for 'first') from PIE per-; for its derivation from prwimos, see Adrados. 

d. -16-; see next section. 

NOTE. All these Passive participles follow the first -type adjective declension, i.e. -os, -a, -om. 

7.7.3. GERUNDIVES AND ABSOLUTIVES 

1. Verbal Adjectives are not assimilated to the verbal system of Tense and Voice. Those which indicate 
need or possibility are called Gerundives. 

NOTE. Verbal Adjectives and Adjectives (as Verbal Nouns and Nouns) cannot be easily differentiated. 

2. Whereas the same Passive Participle suffixes are found, i.e. -to-, -no-, -mo-, there are two forms 
especially identified with the Gerundives in Late PIE dialects: 

a. -16- and -ft- are found in Latin, Balto-Slavic, Tocharian and Armenian; as, nbherelos, 
unbearable, ghabhilis, able (as Lat. habilis), etc. 

NOTE. For suffix -lo- as originally a participle suffix, cf. Russ. videlii, Lat. credulus, bibulus, tremulus, etc. 

b. -io- (a common lengthening to differentiate adjectives) is sometimes a gerundive of obligation, as 
well as -tu-, -ti-, -ndho-, etc.; as, dhrsios, visible; gnotinos, that has to be known; seqondhos, 
second, that has to follow; gnaskendhos, that has to be born; and so on. 

c. -mon, with a general meaning of able'; as, mnamon, mindful. 

NOTE. For the "Internal Derivation" (after the German and Austrian schools) of this PIE suffix -mn > -mon, cf. 
Gk. mnema >mn-mn, "reminder" , PIE 11111 a 11111, into Gk. mnemon > mna-mon, "who remembers"; compare 
also Skr. brahman, "prayer", Skr. brahman, "brahman" , etc. 

3. The adverbial, not inflected Verbal Adjectives are called Absolutives or Gerunds. They were usually 
derived from the older Gerundives. 

NOTE. Speakers of Modern Indo-European have to use verbal periphrasis or other resources to express the idea 
of a modern Gerund, as there is no common reconstructible PIE gerund. As the Verbal Nouns for the Infinitives, 
the Verbal Adjectives or Gerundives might be a good starting point to translate a modern IE Gerund. 

A common Future (or Obligation) Passive Absolutive ending, -teu(ij)os, (cf. Gk. -reog, O.Ind. -tavya, 
O.Ir. -the, etc.), may also be used in MIE; as, legteu(ij)os, which has to be said, read or gathered. 

Because of its Passive use, it may be used only with transitive verbs. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



7. Verbs 



7.8. CONJUGATED EXAMPLES 



7.8.1. THEMATIC VERBS 



I. PRESENT STEM 



loutus 176 , to wash 
PRESENT STEM low-o- 
ACTIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


Imperative 


sg. 


lowo 


lowom 


lowoim 


- 




lowesi 


lowes 


lowois 


lowe 




loweti 


lowet 


lowoit 


lowetod 


pi. 


lowomes 


lowome 


lowoime 


- 




lowete 


lowete 


lowoite 


lowete 




lowonti 


lowont 


lowoint 


lowontod 



MIDDLE-PASSIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


lowai 


Iowa 


lowoia 


lowar 




lowesoi 


loweso 


lowoiso 


lowesor 




lowetoi 


loweto 


lowoito 


lowetor 


pi. 


lowomesdha 


lowomedha 


lowoimedha 


lowomor 




lowedhe 


lowedhue 


lowoidhue 


lowedhuer 




lowontoi 


lowonto 


lowojnto 


lowontor 



IMPERFECT 





ACTIVE 


MIDDLE 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


lowom 


Iowa 


lowar 




lowes 


loweso 


lowesor 




lowet 


loweto 


lowetor 


pi. 


lowome 


lowomedha 


lowomor 




lowete 


lowedhue 


lowedhuer 




lowont 


lowonto 


lowontor 



193 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

deiktus, to show 

PRESENT STEM deik-o- 

ACTIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


Imperative 


sg. 


deiko 


deikom 


deikoim 


- 




deikesi 


deikes 


deikois 


deike 




deiketi 


deiket 


deikoit 


deiketod 


pi. 


deikomes 


deikome 


deikoime 


- 




deikete 


deikete 


deikoite 


deikete 




deikonti 


deikont 


deikoint 


deikontod 



MIDDLE-PASSIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


deikai 


deika 


deikoia 


deikar 




deikes oi 


deikeso 


deikois o 


deikesor 




deiketoi 


deiketo 


deikoito 


deiketor 


pi. 


deikomes dha 


deikomedha 


deikoimedha 


deikomor 




deikedhe 


deikedhue 


deikoidhue 


deikedhuer 




deikontoi 


deikonto 


deikojnto 


deikontor 



IMPERFECT 





ACTIVE 


MIDDLE 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


deikom 


deika 


deikdr 




deikes 


deikeso 


deikesor 




deiket 


deiketo 


deiketor 


pi. 


deikome 


deikomedha 


deikomor 




deikete 


deikedhue 


deikedhuer 




deikont 


deikonto 


deikontor 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



7. Verbs 

weistus, to know, see 

PRESENT STEM w(e)id-e-io- (Verba Vocalia) 

ACTIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


Imperative 


sg. 


weideio 


weideiom 


weideioim 


- 




weideiesi 


weideies 


weideiois 


weideie 




weideieti 


weideiet 


weideioit 


weideietod 


pi. 


weideiomes 


weideiome 


weideioime 


- 




weideiete 


weideiete 


weideioite 


weideiete 




weideionti 


weideiont 


weideioint 


weideiontod 



MIDDLE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


weideiai 


weideia 


weideioia 


weideiar 




weideiesoi 


weideieso 


weideioiso 


weideiesor 




weideietoi 


weideieto 


weideioito 


weideietor 


pi. 


weideiomesdha 


weideiomedha 


weideioimedha 


weideiomor 




weideiedhe 


weideiedhue 


weideioidhue 


weideiedhuer 




weideiontoi 


weideionto 


weideiojnto 


weideiontor 



IMPERFECT 





ACTIVE 


MIDDLE 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


weideiom 


weideia 


weideiar 




weideies 


weideieso 


weideiesor 




weideiet 


weideieto 


weideietor 


pi. 


weideiome 


weideiomedha 


weideiomor 




weideiete 


weideiedhue 


weideiedhuer 




weideiont 


weideionto 


weideiontor 



NOTE. Verba Vocalia in -eid, if they are not Causatives, have usually zero-grade, as in this example ivideio; 
cf.Lat. video, stuped, stiideo, etc., as in derivatives in-n- or -io. However, without this sense they have usually full- 
grade, cf. Gk. eiSco, Rus. vizu, and so on. 



195 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



II. AORIST STEM 



loutus, to wash 
AORIST STEM lou-s- (Sigmatic Aorist) 
ACTIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


lousm 


lousom 


lousijem 




lous(s) 


louses 


lousijes 




loust 


louset 


lousijet 


pi. 


lousme 


lousome 


lousime 




louste 


lousete 


lousite 




lousnt 


lousont 


lousijnt 


MIDDLE 




Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


lousma 


lousa 


lousija 




lous(s)o 


louseso 


lousiso 




lousto 


louseto 


lousito 


pi. 


lousmedha 


lousomedha 


lousfmedha 




lousdhue 


lousedhue 


lousidhue 




lousnto 


lousonto 


lousijnto 



deiktus, to show 

AORIST STEM dik-6- (zero-grade) 

ACTIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


dikom 


diko 


dikoim 




dikes 


dikes 


dikois 




diket 


diket 


dikoit 


pi. 


dikome 


dikome 


dikoime 




dikete 


dikete 


dikoite 




dikont 


dikont 


dikoint 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



7. Verbs 



MIDDLE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


dika 


dika 


dikoia 




dikes o 


dikes o 


dikoiso 




diketo 


diketo 


dikoito 


pi. 


dikomedha 


dikomedha 


dikoimedha 




dikedhue 


dikedhue 


dikoidhue 




dikonto 


dikonto 


dikojnto 



weistus, to see, know 
AORIST STEM wid-6- (zero-grade) 



ACTIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


widom 


wido 


widoim 




wides 


wides 


widois 




widet 


widet 


widoit 


pi. 


widome 


widome 


widoime 




widete 


widete 


widoite 




widont 


widont 


widoint 


MIDDLE 




Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


wida 


wida 


widoia 




wideso 


wideso 


widoiso 




wideto 


wideto 


widoito 


pi. 


widomedha 


widomedha 


widoimedha 




widedhue 


widedhue 


widoidhue 




widonto 


widonto 


widojnto 



197 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



III. PERFECT STEM 



loutus, to wash 
PERFECT STEM low/lou- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PAST* 


MIDDLE* 


sg 


Iowa 


lowo 


lowoim 


lowom 


Iowa 




louta 


lowes 


lowois 


lowes 


loweso 




lowe 


lowet 


lowoit 


lowet 


loweto 


Pi 


loume 


lowome 


lowoime 


lowome 


lowomedha 




loute 


lowete 


lowoite 


lowete 


lowedhue 




lowf 


lowont 


lowoint 


lowont 


lowonto 



deiktus, to show 
PERFECT STEM doik/dik- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PAST* 


MIDDLE* 


sg 


doika 


doiko 


doikoim 


doikom 


doika 




doikta 


doikes 


doikois 


doikes 


doikeso 




doike 


doiket 


doikoit 


doiket 


doiketo 


Pi 


dikme 


doikome 


doikoime 


doikome 


doikomedha 




dikte 


doikete 


doikoite 


doikete 


doikedhue 




diker 


doikont 


doikoint 


doikont 


doikonto 



weistus, to see, know 
PERFECT STEM woid/wid- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PAST* 


MIDDLE* 


sg 


woida 


woido 


woidoim 


woidom 


woida 




woista' 


woides 


woidois 


woides 


woideso 




woide 


woidet 


woidoit 


woidet 


woideto 


Pi 


widme 


woidome 


woidoime 


woidome 


woidomedha 




wiste" 


woidete 


woidoite 


woidete 


woidedhue 




wider 


woidont 


woidoint 


woidont 


woidonto 



1 From *ivoidta. fi From *ividte. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



7. Verbs 



IV. FUTURE STEM 



loutus, to wash 
FUTURE STEM lou-s-io- 





Future 


Conditional* 


sg 


lousio 


lousiom 




lousiesi 


lousies 




lousieti 


lousiet 


Pi 


lousiomes 


lousiome 




lousiete 


lousiete 




lousionti 


lousiont 



deiktus, to show 
FUTURE STEM deik-s-o- 





Future 


Conditional* 


sg 


deikso 


deiksom 




deiksesi 


deikses 




deikseti 


deikset 


Pi 


deiksomes 


deiksome 




deiksete 


deiksete 




deiksonti 


deiksont 



weistus, to see, know 
FUTURE STEM weid-s-o- 





Indicative 


Conditional* 


sg 


weidso 


weidsom 




weidsesi 


weidses 




weidseti 


weidset 


Pi 


weidsomes 


weidsome 




weidsete 


weidsete 




weidsonti 


weidsont 



199 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



7.8.2. ATHEMATIC INFLECTION 



I. PRESENT STEM 



estus, to be 
PRESENT STEM es-/s- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


Imperative 


IMPERFECT 


sg. 


esmi 


eso 


siem 


- 


esm 




essi 


eses 


sies 


es (sdhi) 


es(s) 




esti 


eset 


siet 


estod 


est 


pi. 


smes 


esome 


sime 


- 


esme 




ste 


esete 


site 


(e)ste 


este 




senti 


esont 


sijent 


sentod 


esent 


Participle: sonts, sontia, sont 





NOTE. Proto-Indo-European verb es, be, is a copula and verb substantive; it originally built only a durative 
aspect of present, and was therefore supported in some dialects (as Gmc, Sla., Lat.) by the root bheu-, be, exist, 
which helped to build some future and past formations. 

For cognates of the singular forms and the 3 rd person plural, compare Gmc. ezmi, ezzi, esti, senti (cf. Goth, im, is, 
is, sind, O.N. em, est, es, O.E. eora, eart, ist, sind/sint, O.H.G. -,-, ist, sind, Eng. am, art, is, -), Lat. sum (<esomi), 
es(s), est, sunt (<sonti), Gk. sifii, ei^eori, e*7/'(Dor. evri), O.Ind. dsmi, dsi, dsti, sdnti, Av. ahmi (O.Pers. amiy), -, 
asti, hanti, Arm. em, es, e, -, O.Pruss. asmai, assai, est, Lith. esmi, esi, esti, O.C.S.jesmb,jesi,jest?>, SQtT> (<sonti), 
Russ. ecMb, ecu, ecmb, cyrb (<sonti), O.Ir. am, a-t, is, it (cf. O.Welsh hint) Alb. jam,-,-, etc. 

kleutusiError! Marcador no definido., to hear 
PRESENT STEM kluneu/klunu- (with Nasal Infix) 
ACTIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


Imperative 


sg. 


kluneumi 


klewo 


klunuijem 


- 




kluneusi 


klewes 


klunuijes 


kluneu(dhi) 




kluneuti 


klewet 


klunuijet 


kluneutod 


pi. 


klunumes 


klewome 


klunuime 


- 




klunute 


klewete 


klunuite 


kluneute 




klununti 


klewont 


klunuijnt 


klunewntod 



NOTE. Indicative forms may usually be read klunumes, klunute, klununti, as in Vedic. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



7. Verbs 



MIDDLE-PASSIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


kluneumai 


klewa 


klunuima 


kluneuar 




kluneusoi 


kleweso 


klunuiso 


kluneuesor 




kluneutoi 


kleweto 


klunuito 


kluneuetor 


pi. 


kluneumesdha 


klewomedha 


klunufmedha 


kluneuomor 




kluneudhe 


klewedhue 


klunuidhue 


kluneuedhuer 




klunewntoi 


klewonto 


klunuijnto 


kluneuontor 



NOTE. Athematic Optatives form the Present with zero-grade; cf. Lat. siem, duim, Gk. lOTairjv, SiSoiriv, tiOsitjv, 
O.Ind. syaam (asmi), dvisydm (dvesmi), iydm (emi), juhuyam (juhkomi), sunuykam (sunomi), rundhydm 
(runadhmi), kuryam (karomf), krimydm (krindmi), etc. Exceptions are Lat. uelim (not uulim), Goth, (concave) 
wiljau, wileis, etc. 

IMPERFECT 





ACTIVE 


MIDDLE 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


klunewm 


klewa 


klunewar 




kluneus 


kleweso 


klunewesor 




kluneut 


kleweto 


klunewetor 


pi. 


kluneume 


klewomedha 


klunewomor 




kluneute 


klewedhue 


klunewedhuer 




klunewnt 


klewonto 


klunewontor 



status 62 , to stand 

PRESENT STEM (si)sta-/(si)sta- 

ACTIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


Imperative 


sg. 


(si)stami 


staio 


(si)staijem 


- 




(si)stasi 


staies 


(si)staijes 


(si)sta(dhi) 




(si)stati 


staiet 


(si) staijet 


(si)statod 


pi. 


(si)stames 


staiome 


(si)stafme 


- 




(si)state 


staiete 


(si)stafte 


(si)state 




(si)stanti 


staiont 


(si)staijnt 


(si)stanti 



NOTE. Indicative forms may usually be read sistames, sistate, sistanti, as in Vedic. 



201 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



MIDDLE-PASSIVE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


(si)stamai 


staia 


(si)stafma 


(si)stamar 




(si)stasoi 


staieso 


(si)stafso 


(si)stasor 




(si)statoi 


staieto 


(si)stafto 


(si)stator 


pi. 


(si)stamesdha 


staiomedha 


(si)stafmedha 


(si)stamor 




(si)stadhe 


staiedhue 


(si)stafdhue 


(si)stasdhuer 




(si)stantoi 


staionto 


(si)staijnto 


(si)stantor 



IMPERFECT 





ACTIVE 


MIDDLE 


PASSIVE* 


sg. 


(si)stam 


(si)stama 


(si)stamar 




(si)stas 


(si)staso 


(si)stasor 




(si)stat 


(si)stato 


(si)stator 


pi. 


(si)stame 


(si)stamedha 


(si)stamor 




(si)state 


(si)stadhue 


(si)stadhuer 




(si)stant 


(si)stanto 


(si)stantor 



II. AORIST STEM 



estus, to be (only Active) 
AORIST STEM es-/s- 



sg. 


Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 




esm 


esom 


siem 




es(s) 


eses 


sies 




est 


eset 


siet 


pi. 


esme 


esome 


sime 




este 


esete 


site 




esnt 


esont 


sijent 



NOTE. The Aorist was built with the regular Aorist Stem and dialectal Augment, viz. es-(>e+es-), adding 
Secondary Endings. Compare Old Indian Sg. asam, as, as, Pi. asma, asta, asan, Gk. Horn. l. Sg. fia, 2. Sg hom. 
art. fjoBa, 3. Sg. dor. etc. fig, Pi. hom. fiuev, fixe, ?joav,cf. also Lat. erat, Hitt. e-es-ta (esta), Alb. isha. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



7. Verbs 

bheutus, to become, be 
AORISTSTEM bhu- or bhuw- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


bhum 


bhuwom 


bhuwijem 




bhus 


bhuwes 


bhuwijes 




bhut 


bhuwet 


bhuwijet 


pi. 


bhume 


bhuwome 


bhuwime 




bhute 


bhuwete 


bhuwite 




bhunt/bhuwnt 


bhuwont 


bhuwijent 


Pres. Part, bhuwonts, bhuwntia, bhuwont 



NOTE. The Verb es-, be, has been sometimes substituted or mixed in its conjugation (specially in past and 
future forms) by IE bheu-, be, exist, grow, compare Gmc. bu-, "dwell" (cf. Goth, bauan, "live", O.E., O.H.G. buan, 
O.E. beon, in beo, bist, bip, pi. beop, or Ger. bin, bist, Eng. be), Lat.fui, "I was", and futurus, "future", Gk. (pvouai, 
O.Ind. bhavati, bhutis, bhutis, Lith. buti, O.C.S. 6tirau, Russ. 6umb, 6hui, Pol. bye, O.Ir. buith. 1 ^ 

kleutus, to hear 
AORIST STEM klu/kluw- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


klwom 


klwom 


klwijem 




klwes 


klwes 


klwijes 




klwet 


klwet 


klwijet 


pi. 


klwome 


klwome 


klwime 




klwete 


klwete 


klwite 




klwont 


klwont 


klwijent 



MIDDLE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


klwoma 


klwoma 


klwija 




klwes o 


klweso 


kiwis o 




klweto 


klweto 


klwito 


pi. 


klwomesdha 


klwomedha 


klwimedha 




klwedhue 


klwedhuer 


klwidhue 




klwonto 


klwonto 


klwijnto 



203 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

status, to stand 
AORISTSTEM (e-)sta- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


stam 


staio 


staijem 




stas 


staies 


staijes 




stat 


staiet 


staijet 


pi. 


stame 


staiome 


staime 




state 


staiete 


staite 




stant 


staiont 


staijnt 



MIDDLE 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


sg. 


stama 


staia 


staija 




staso 


staieso 


staiso 




stato 


staieto 


staito 


pi. 


stamedha 


staiomedha 


stafmedha 




stadhue 


staiedhue 


staidhue 




stanto 


staionto 


staijnto 



III. PERFECT STEM 



bheutus, to become, be 
PERFECT STEM bhu-i- (Pres. - see Jasanoff 2003) 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PAST* 


MIDDLE* 


sg 


bhtiia 


bhtiio 


bhujijem 


bhuiom 


bhuia 




bhuita 


bhuiowes 


bhujijes 


bhuies 


bhuieso 




bhtiie 


bhuiowet 


bhujijet 


bhuiet 


bhuieto 


Pi 


bhtiime 


bhuiowom 


bhujime 


bhuiome 


bhuiomedha 




bhtiite 


bhuiowete 


bhujite 


bhuiete 


bhuiedhue 




bhtiier 


bhuiowont 


bhujijnt 


bhiiiont 


bhuionto 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



7. Verbs 

kleutus, to hear 
PERFECT STEM ke-klou- 





Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Optative 


PAST* 


MIDDLE* 


sg 


keklowa 


keklowo 


keklowijem 


keklowom 


keklowa 




keklouta 


keklowes 


keklowijes 


keklowes 


kekloweso 




keklowe 


keklowet 


keklowijet 


keklowet 


kekloweto 


Pi 


keklume 


keklowome 


keklowime 


keklowome 


keklowomedha 




keklute 


keklowete 


keklowite 


keklowete 


keklowedhue 




keklwer 


keklowont 


keklowijnt 


keklowont 


keklowonto 



IV. FUTURE STEM 



bheutus, to become, be 
FUTURE STEM bheu-s-o- 





Future 


Conditional* 


sg 


bheuso 


bheusom 




bheusesi 


bheuses 




bheuseti 


bheuset 


Pi 


bheusomes 


bheusome 




bheusete 


bheusete 




bheusonti 


bheusont 



kleutus, to hear 
FUTURE STEM kleu-s-o- 





Future 


Conditional* 


sg 


kleuso 


kleusom 




kleusesi 


kleuses 




kleuseti 


kleuset 


Pi 


kleusomes 


kleusome 




kleusete 


kleusete 




kleusonti 


kleusont 



205 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



7.8.3. OTHER COMMON PIE STEMS 



I. THEMATIC VERBS 
ROOT 

o Present lowo, I wash, Imperfect lowom, Aorist (e)lousm. 

o Present serpo, I crawl, Imperfect serpom, Aorist (e)srpom. 

o Present bhero, I carry, Imperfect bherom., Aorist (e)bherom. 

o Present bheugo, I flee, Imperfect bheugom, Aorist (e)bhugom. 

o Present bheidho, I believe, persuade, Imperfect bheidhom, Aorist (e)bhidhom. 

o Present weqo, I speak, Imperfect weqom, Aorist (Them. Redupl.) (e)weuqom 

o Present tremo, I tremble, Imperfect tremom, Aorist (e)trmom. 

NOTE. A particular sub-class of Thematic Presents without suffix is of the tipe Skr. tudati, which have Present 
Stems with zero-grade root-vowel, as glubho/gleubho, skin. 

REDUPLICATED 

There are many reduplicatd thematic stems, analogous to the athematic ones: 

o Present gigno, I generate, (from gen-), Imperfect gignom, Aorist (e)gnom/(e)genom, Perfect 
gegona, P. Part, gntos (cf. O.Ind.Jatd, Lat. natus). 

NOTE. For gntos, cf. O.Ind. jatds, Av. zata-; Lat. natus, Pael. cnatois, Gaul. f. gnatha "daughter"; O.N. kundr 
"son", also in compound, cf. Goth, -kunds, " be a descendant of", O.E. -kund, O.N. -kunnr. 

o Present pibo, I drink (from *pipo, from poi-) Imperfect pibom. 
o Present mimno, I remember, (from men- 1 ? 8 ), Imperfect mimnom. 

IN -10 

Some of them are causatives. 

o Present spekio, I watch, Imperfect spekiom, Aorist (e)speksm, P. Part, spektos. 

o Present tenio, I stretch, Imperfect tenjom, Aorist (e)tnom/(e)tenom, Perfect tetona, P. Part. 

tntos. 

VERBA VOCALIA 

o Present bhoreio, I make carry, from bher-, carry. 

o Present w(e)ideio, I see, I know, Imperfect w(e)ideiom, Aorist (e)widom, Perfect woida 

P.Part. wistos (<*widtos). 

o Present moneio, I make think, remember, as Lat. moneo, from men, think. 

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7. Verbs 
o Present tromeio, I make tremble, from trem, tremble. 

IN -SKO 

Verbs built with this suffix have usually two main functions in the attested Proto-Indo-European 
verbs: 

■ Durative action, Intensive or Repetitive (i.e., Intensive-Iterative), as attested in Greek; 

■ Incompleted action, with an Inchoative value, indicating that the action is beginning. 

Common examples include: 

o Present prksko, I ask, demand, inquire (cf. Lat. posco, Ger. forschen, v.i.) from prek, ask. 

o Present gnnskai, I am born (cf. Lat. gnascor) from zero-grade gnn-sko-, lit. "I begin to 

generate myself, in turn from reduplicated verb gigno, generate. 

o Present gnosko, gignosko, I begin to know, I learn, from gno-, know. 

WITH NASAL INFIX 
o Present jungo Join (fromjeug-), Imperfect jungom, Aoristjeugsm. 

NOTE. Compare O.H.G. [untar-Jjauhta (as Lat. sub-jugaui), Lat. jungo, -ere, -nxi, -nctus, Gk. £euvvuui, ^eu^ai 
(juyrivai; O.Ind. yundkti (3. Pi. yunjdnti = Lat. jungunt), yunjati, full-grade yojayati (<jeugeieti); Av. yaoj-, yuj-; 
Lit. jung iu, jilngti, etc. For Past Participles (with and without Present infix -11-), compare O.E. geoht, iukt, Lat. 
junctus, Gk. 5eji9n6o, O.Ind. yukta-, Av. yuxta-, Lit. jilngtas, etc. 

II. ATHEMATIC VERBS 
ROOT 

They are the most archaic PIE verbs, and their Present conjugation is of the old type Singular root 
vowel in full-grade, Plural root vowel in zero-grade. 

o Present esmi, lam, vs. Imperfect esm, I was/ have been. 

o Present eimi, I walk, vs. Imperfect eim, I walked/ 'have walked. 

o Present bhami, I speak, vs. Imperfect bham, I spoke/have spoken. 

NOTE. The verb talk is sometimes reconstructed as PIE *ami, I talk, and Imperfect *am, I talked/have talked; 
for evidence of an original ag(h)-id, compare Lat. aid, Gk. nv, Umb. aiu, Arm. asem. Thus, this paradigm would 
rather be Thematic, i.e. Present ag(h)io, / talk, vs. Imperfect ag(h)iom, / talked/have talked. 

o Present edmi, I eat, vs. Imperfect edm, late/have eaten. 

NOTE. Note that its Present Participle donts/dents, "eating", might be used as substantive, meaning "tooth". 



207 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

o Present welmi, I want, vs. Imperfect welm, I wanted/ have wanted. 

REDUPLICATED 

o Present sistami (from sta-, stand), Imperfect (si)stam, Aorist (e)stam, P. Part, statos. 

o Present deidikmi (from deik-, show), Imperfect deidikm, Aorist (e)deiksm, Perfect 

dedoika, P. Part, diktos. 
o Present dhidhemi (from dhe-, do, make), Imperfect dhidhem, Aorist (e)dhem, P. Part. 

dhatos. 
o Present didomi (from do-, give), Imperfect didom, Aorist (e)dom, P. Part, datos. 
o Present jijemi, throw, Imperfect jijem, Aorist (e)jem. 

NOTE. For evidence on an original PIE jijemi, and not *jijami as usually reconstructed, cf. Lat. pret. iecl, a 
form due to its two consecutive laryngeals, while Lat. iacio is a present remade (Julian Gonzalez Fernandez, 1981). 

WITH NASAL INFIX 

o kluneumi, hear (from kleu-), Imperfect klunewm, Aorist (e)klwom, Perfect keklowa, 
P.Part. klutos, meaning "heard" and also "famous". 

NOTE. For zero-grade klu-, and not *fc/-, as usually reconstructed (since Pokorny's Worterbuch), and for a 
suffix -neu, and not a nasal infix -n-, *kl-n-eu-, cf. Buddh. Skr. srun; Av. surunaoiti; Shughni gin; O.Ir. 
cluinethar; Toch. A and B kdln. Therefore, Skr. sRno-/sRnu- < kluneu-fklunu- shows a loss of u analogous to 
the loss of i in tRtiya- 'third' < IE tritijo-. 

o punemi, rot (from pew), Imperfect punem, Aorist (e)pewsm. 



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8. PARTICLES 



8.1. PARTICLES 



8.1.1. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions and Interjections are called Particles. They cannot always 
be distinctly classified, for many adverbs are used also as prepositions and many as conjunctions. 

8.1.2. Strictly speaking, Particles are usually defined as autonomous elements, usually clitics, which 
make modifications in the verb or sentence, but which don't have a precise meaning, and which are 
neither adverbs nor preverbs nor conjunctions. 

8.1.3. Indo-European has some particles (in the strictest sense) which mark certain syntax categories: 

a. Emphatics or Generalizers : they may affect the whole sentence or a single word, usually a 
pronoun, but also a noun or verb. The particle ge/gi, ghe/ghi, usually strengthens the negation, and 
emphasizes different pronouns. 

NOTE 1. The origin of this particle is probably to be found in PIE -qe, acquiring its coordinate value from an 
older use as word-connector, from which this Intensive/ Emphatic use was derived. Compare O.Ind. gha, ha, hi, 
Av. zi, Gk. ge, -gi, ~xU Lith. gu, gi, O.Sla. -go, ze, zi, Also, compare, e.g. for intensive negative neghi, O.E. nek, 
O.Ind. nahi, Bait. negi. 

NOTE 2. Also, if compared with Gk. de, O.Ind. ha, O.Sla. ze, a common PIE particle che might be reconstructed. 

b. Verb Modifiers : 

I. The old -ti had a Middle value, i.e. Reflexive. 

NOTE. This is a very old value, attested in Anatolian, cf. Hitt. za, Pal. -ti, Luw. -ti, Lyd. -(i)t , Lye. -t/di. 

II. The modal -man, associated with the Indicative, expresses Potentiality (when used in Present) 
and Irreality (in the Past). 

NOTE. It is probably the same as the conjunction man, if, and closely related to -ma, but . 

III. The negative particle me, associated with the Indicative or forms indifferent to the Moods. 

c. Sentence categorizers : they indicate the Class of Sentence, whether negative or interrogative. 

I. Absolute Interrogatives were introduced in European dialects by special particles, generally an. 

NOTE. The origin could be the "Non-Declarative Sense" of the sentence, so that it could have been derived 
originally from the negative ne/n. 

II. Negation has usually two particles, etymologically related: 

- Simple negation is made by the particle ne, lengthened in some dialects with -i, -n, -d, etc. 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

- Mood negation or prohibitive is the particle me (also ne). 

NOTE. For PIE me, compare Gk. ur|, O.Ind. ,Av.,O.Pers. ma, Toch. mar/ma, Arm. mi, Alb. mos. In some Proto- 
Indo-European dialects, ne (from ne) fully replace the function of me, cf. Goth, ne, Lat. ne, Ira. ni. It is not clear 
whether Hitt. le is ultimately derived from me or ne. 

d. Sentence Connectives : they introduce independent sentences or connect different sentences, or 
even mark the principal sentence among subordinates. 

I. so and to, which are in the origin of the anaphoric pronoun we studied in § 6.5. 

II. nu, which has an adverbial, temporal-consecutive meaning. 

III. An introductory or connective r, which is possibly the origin of some coordinate conjunctions. 

8.2. ADVERBS 

8.2.1. There is a class of invariable words, able to modify nouns and verbs, adding a specific meaning, 
whether semantical or deictic. They can be independent words (Adverbs), prefixes of verbal stems 
(Preverbs) - originally independent but usually united with it - and also a nexus between a noun and a 
verb (Appositions), expressing a non-grammatical relationship, normally put behind, but sometimes 
coming before the word. 

NOTE. In the oldest PIE the three categories were probably only different uses of the same word class, being 
eventually classified and assigned to only one function and meaning. In fact, Adverbs are generally distinguished 
from the other two categories in the history of Indo-European languages, so that they change due to innovation, 
while Preverbs and Appositions remain the same and normally freeze in their oldest positions. 

8.2.2. Adverbs come usually from old particles which have obtained a specific deictic meaning. 
Traditionally, Adverbs are deemed to be the result of oblique cases of old nouns or verbal roots which 
have frozen in IE dialects, thus loosing inflection. 

8.3. DERIVATION OF ADVERBS 

8.3.1. Adverbs were regularly formed in PIE from Nouns, Pronouns and Adjectives as follows: 
A. From Pronouns: 

I. With a nasal lengthening, added systematically to zero-grade forms, which gives adverbs in -am; 
as, tarn, qam (from Latin), or peram (as Gk. perari) 

NOTE. They are usually interpreted as bein originally Ace. Sg. fem. of independent forms. 

II. An -s lengthening, added to the adverb and not to the basic form, giving sometimes alternating 
adverbs; as, ap/aps, ek/eks, ambhi/ambhis, etc. 

III. An -r lengthening; as, qor, tor, kir, etc. which is added also to other derived adverbs. It is less 
usual than the other two. 

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8. Particles 

NOTE. Compare for such lengthenings Goth, hwar, her, (O.E. where, hier), Lat. cur, O.Ind. kar-hi, tar-hi, Lith. 
kur, Hitt. kuwari. Also, IE qor-i, tor-i, cir-i, etc. may show a final circumstancial -i, probably the same which 
appears in the Oblique cases and in the Primary Verbal Endings, and which originally meant 'here and now'. 

Some older adverbs, derived as the above, were in turn specialized as suffixes for adverb derivation, 
helping to create compound adverbs from two pronoun stems: 

i. From the pronoun de, the nasalized de-m gives adverbs in -dem, -dam; as, idem, qidam, etc. 

ii. From root dhe, put, place, there are two adverbs which give suffixes with local meaning, from 
stems of Pronouns, Nouns, Adverbs and Prepositions: 

a. an Adverb in -m, dhem/dhm; as, endhem, prosdhm, etc. 

b. an Adverb in -i, dhi, as in podhi, autodhi, etc. 

NOTE. Compare from IE de, Lat. idem, quidam, O.Ind. idan-im; from dh(e)m, dhi, Gk. -then, -tha, -thi. 

iii. From PIE root te, there are some adverbial suffixes with mood sense - some with temporal 
sense, derived from the older modal. So ta; as, ita or itadem, ut(a), prota, auta, etc; and t(e)m, 
utm, item, eitm, etc. 

NOTE. Compare from PIE -ta (PIH -th 2 ), Lat. iti-dem, ut(i), ita, Gk. proti, au-ti, O.Ind. iti, prati; from t(e)m, 
Lat. i-tem, Gk. ei-ta, epei-ta, O.Ind. u-td. 

B. From Nouns and Adjectives (usually Neuter Accusatives), frozen as adverbs already in Late PIE. 
The older endings to form Adverbs are the same as those above, i.e. generally -i, -u and -(e)m, which 
are in turn originally Adverbs. Such Adverbs have normally precise, Local meanings, not merely 
Abstract or Deictic, and evolve then usually as Temporals. Endings -r, nasal -n and also -s, as in the 
formation of Pronouns, are also found. 

NOTE 1. It is not uncommon to find adverbs derived from nominal stems which never had inflection, thus 
(probably) early frozen as adverbs in its pure stem. 

NOTE 2. From those adverbs were derived Conjunctions, either with Temporal-Consecutive meaning (cf. Eng. 
then, so) or Contrastive (cf. Eng. on the contrary, instead). 

Adverbs may also end: 

In -d: cf. Lat. probe, Osc. prujed; O.Ind. pascat, adharat, purastat. 

In -nim: cf. Osc. enim, "and", O.Ind. tusnim, "silently", maybe also iddnim is *ida-nim, not *idan-im. 

In -tos: cf. Lat. funditus, diuinitus, publicitus, penitus; O.Ind. vistaratah, "in detail", samksepatah, 
prasangatah, "occasionally", namattah, "namely", vastutah, "actually", mata, "by/for me". 

In -ks: cf. Lat. uix, Gk. mpi^, O.Ind. samyak, "well",prthak, "separately", Hitt. hudak, "directly". 



211 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



8.4. PREPOSITIONS 



8.4.1. Prepositions were not originally distinguished from Adverbs in form or meaning, but have 
become specialized in use. 

They developed comparatively late in the history of language. In the early stages of the Proto-Indo- 
European language the cases alone were probably sufficient to indicate the sense, but, as the force of the 
case-endings weakened, adverbs were used for greater precision. These adverbs, from their common 
association with particular cases, became Prepositions; but many retained also their independent 
function as adverbs. 

8.4.2. Most prepositions are true case-forms: as the comparatives ekstros (cf. external), ndhros (cf. 
inferior), supros, and the accusatives kikrom, koram, etc. 

8.4.3. Prepositions are regularly used either with the Accusative or with the Obliques. 

8.4.4. Some examples of common PIE adverbs/prepositions are: 

ambhi, mbhi, on both sides, around; cf. O.H.G. umbi (as Eng. by, Ger. bei), Lat. am, amb-, Gk. amphi, 
amphis, O.Ind. abhi. 

ana, on, over, above; cf. Goth, ana, Gk. and, and, O.Ind. ana, O.C.S. na. 

anti, opposite, in front; cf. Goth, and, Lat. ante, Gk. anti, O.Ind. anti, atha, Lith. ant; Hitt. hanti. 

apo, po, out, from; cf. Goth, af, lat. ab, abs, Gk. apo, aps, apothen, O.Ind. apa. 

au/we, out, far; cf. Lat. au-, ue-, Gk. au, authi, autdr, O.Ind. dva, vi-, Toe. -/ot-, O.C.S. u. 

ebhi, obhi, bhi, around, from, to, etc.; cf. Lat. ob, "towards, to", O.Ind. abhi, Av. aiwi, Goth, bi, 

en(i)/n, in; cf. Goth, in, Lat. in, Gk. en, eni, O.Ind. ni, nis, Lith. m, O.C.S. on, vil. 

epi, opi, pi, towards here, around, circa; cf. Gmc. ap-, ep-, Lat. ob, op-, -pe, Osc. up-, Gk. em, £m, 6m, m, 
O.Ind. dpi, Av. dipi, Arm. ev, Lith. ap-, O.Ir. iar, ia-, ei-, Alb. epere, etc. 

et(i), oti, also, even; ati, beyond, past; over, on the other side; cf. Goth, ip, Lat. et, Gk. eti, O.Ind. dti, dtah, at, 
O.C.S. otu. 

ndhi, more, over, ndher(i), down; cf. Gmc. under-, Lat. infra, Gk. entha, O.Ind. ddhi, ddhah. 

per, pr, in front, opposite, around; cf. Goth, fra, four , f aura, Lat. pro, prae, per, Gk. peri, para, pros, O.Ind. 
pari, prdti, pra, Lith. per, Ltv. pretf, O.C.S. pre. 

qu, from interrogative-indefinites qi/qo; 

ter, tr, through, cf. Gmc. thurkh (cf. Goth, pairh, O.S. thuru, O.E. purh, O.Fris. thruch, O.H.G. thuruh, M.Du. 
dore, Ger. durch), Lat. trans, O.Ind. tirah, Av. taro, O.Ir. tre, Welsh tra. 

upo, under, down; uper(i), up; cf. Goth, uf ufar (as Eng. up, over, Ger. auf iiber), Lat. sub, super, Gk. upo, 
uper, O.Ind. upa, updri. 

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8. Particles 



ad to, near, 
aneu without 
apoteri behind 
de/do to 
ek/eksi out 
ektos except 
entos even, also 
kamta downward 
kom near 
ni down 

obhi on, over 
olteri beyond 
para next to 
paros ahead 
8.5. CONJUNCTIONS 



perti through, otherwise 

pos/posti/posteri behind 
poti toward 
posteri/postrod behind 
prai in front, ahead 
praiteri along(side) 
pro(d) ahead 
proteri in front of 
prota against 
rodhi because (of) 
ani/santeri separately 
uperi/upsi on, over 
ut/utsi up, out 
wi separately 



8.5.1. Conjunctions, like prepositions, are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of 
nouns, pronouns and adjectives, or obscured phrases: as, qod, an old accusative. Most conjunctions are 
connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case-forms. 

8.5.2. Conjunctions connect words, phrases or sentences. They are divided in two main classes, 
Coordinate and Subordinate: 

a. Coordinates are the oldest ones, which connect coordinated or similar constructions. Most of them 
were usually put behind and were normally used as independent words. They are: 

I. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words: as, 
qe, and; we, or; neqe, nor. 

NOTE. For PIE neqe, compare Lat. ne-que, Gk. oute, Arm. oc, O.Ir. no, nu, Welsh ne-u, O.Bret, no-u, Alb. a-s, 
Lye. ne-u, Luw. napa-wa, and for PIE meqe, in Greek and Indo-Iranian, but also in Toch. ma-k and Alb. mo-s. 
The parallel newe is foun in Anatolian, Indo-Iranian, Italic and Celtic dialects. 

II. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought: as, ma, but. 

NOTE. Adversative conjunctions of certain antiquity are at(i) (cf. Goth, adh-, Lat. at, Gk. atar), (s)ma/(s)me 
(cf. Hitt.,Pal. ma, Lyd. -m, Lye. me, Gk. ma, me, Messap. min), auti (cf. Lat. autem, aut, Gk. aute, authis, autis, 
autar), 6d, "and, but" (cf. O.Ind. ad, Av. (a)at, Lith. o, Sla. a), etc. In general, the oldest IE languages attested use 
the same Copulative pospositive conjunctions as Adversatives, their semantic value ascertained by the context. 



213 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

III. Causal, introducing a cause or reason: as, nam, for. 

IV. Illative, denoting an inference: as, igitur, therefore. 

NOTE. Newer particles usually are usually put before, and some of them are general, as the Copulative eti, and 
(as Lat. et, Gk. eti, nasalized nti in Germanic, as Goth., Eng. and), and Illative 6d, certainly (cf. O.Ind. ad, Lith. o, 
O.Sla. a), or odqe in Latin. Others were not generalized before the first PIE split, but could nevertheless be used 
in Modern Indo-European. 

b. Subordinates connect a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends. They are: 

I. jo, which has general subordinate value, usually Relative, Final or Conditional. 

NOTE. For common derivatives of PIE jo, probably related to the relative pronoun, compare Hitt. -a/-ya, Toch. 
-/yo, and possibly Goth, -ei, Gk. ex, Gaul. -io. It was probably replaced by -qe. 

II. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis; as, man, if, neman, unless. 

III. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition; as, man, as if. 

IV. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission; as, qamqam, although (Lit. however much it 
may be true that, etc.). 

V. Temporal: as, postqam, after. 

VI. Consecutive, expressing result; as, ut(ei), so that. 

VII. Final, expressing purpose; as, ut(ei), in order that; ne, that not. 

VIII. Causal, expressing cause; as, qia, because. 

Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in MIE than in English. 



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9. PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN SYNTAX 



9.1. THE SENTENCE 



A Sentence is a form of words which contains a Statement, a Question, an Exclamation, or a 
Command. 

a. A sentence in the form of a Statement is called a Declarative Sentence: as, the dog runs. 

b. A sentence in the form of a Question is called an Interrogative Sentence: as, does the dog run? 

c. A sentence in the form of an Exclamation is called an Exclamatory Sentence: as, how fast the 
dog runs ! 

d. A sentence in the form of a Command, an Exhortation, or an Entreaty is called an Imperative 
Sentence : as, go, run across the Alps; or let the dog run. 

NOTE. After Lehman (1974), "The fundamental order of sentences in PIE appears to be OV. Support for this 
assumption is evident in the oldest texts of the materials attested earliest in the IE dialects. The fundamental 
order of sentences in these early dialects cannot be determined solely by frequency of sentence patterns. For, like 
other linguistic constructions, sentence patterns manifest marked as well as unmarked order. Marked order is 
expected in literary materials. The documents surviving from the earliest dialects are virtually all in verse or in 
literary forms of prose. Accordingly many of the individual sentences do not have the unmarked order, with 
verb final. For this reason conclusions about the characteristic word order of PIE and the early dialects will be 
based in part on those syntactic patterns that are rarely modified for literary and rhetorical effect: comparative 
constructions, the presence of postpositions and prepositions, and the absence of prefixes, (...)". 

Lehman is criticized by Friedrich (1975) who, like Watkins (1976) and Miller (1975), support a VO prehistoric 
situation, probably SVO (like those found in 'central' IE areas), with non-consistent dialectal SOV findings. In any 
case (viz. Lehman and Miller), an older IE I or IE II OV (VSO for Miller) would have been substituted by a newer 
VO (SOV for Miller, later SVO through a process of verb transposition) - thus, all Indo-European dialects attested 
have evolved (thus probably from a common Late PIE trend) into a modern SVO. 

Modern Indo-European, as a modern IE language, may follow the stricter formal patterns attested in 
the oldest inscriptions, i.e. (S)OV, as in Vedic Sanskrit, Ancient Greek, Old Latin and Avestan. A newer, 
general (S)VO order (found in Greek, Latin, Avestan, Germanic, etc.), which reveals the change from 
OV in Early PIE towards a VO in Late PIE for the spoken language of Europe - and even some forms of 
litterary uses, as e.g. journalism - could be used in non-formal contexts. 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



9.1.1. KINDS OF SENTENCES 



PIE sentences were either Nominal, i.e. formed by nouns, or Verbal, if they included a verb. 

I. A Subject and a Predicate. The Subject of a sentence is the person or thing spoken of. The Predicate 
is that which is said of the Subject. 

a. The Subject is usually a Noun or Pronoun, or some word or group of words used as a Noun. 

b. The Predicate of a sentence may be a Verb (as the dog runs), or it may consist of some form of es 
and a Noun or Adjective which describes or defines the subject (as It is good). Such a noun or adjective 
is called a Predicate Noun or Adjective. 

II. In Proto-Indo-European, simple sentences may be composed of only one word, a noun or a verb; 
as, God!, or (it) rains. 

NOTE 1. Nominal sentences of this type are usually Interjections and Vocatives. Verbal sentences of this type 
include Imperatives (at least of 2 nd P.Sg.) and impersonal verbs, which had never a subject in the oldest dialects 
attested; as, for Eng. (it) rains, cf. Goth, rigneip, Lat. pluit, Gk. uei, Skt. vdrsati. It is believed that when IE 
dialects became SVO in structure, so that a subject was required, the third singular anaphoric pronoun, 
corresponding to it, German es, French il, etc., was introduced as subject in such sentences. Such pronouns were 
introduced because SVO languages must have subjects in sentences, as do intransitive verbs in any OV language. 
Such verbs could be supplemented by substantives in various cases, among them the accusative. These 
constructions are especially prominent for verbs referring to the emotions; as, Lat. miseret, pudet, taedet, Skr. 
kitavdm tatdpa. Compare also Cicero's Lat. edrum nds miseret, or O.H.G. thes gauges thih nirthruzzi. In PIE 
sentences various case forms could be used with verbs. The simplest sentences may consist of verbs accompanied 
by nouns in seven of the eight cases; only the vocative is not so used. The nouns fill the role of objects or, possibly 
better stated, of complements. 

NOTE 2. Besides the simple sentence which consists only of a verb, a simple sentence in the early dialects and in 
PIE could consist of a verb accompanied by a noun or pronoun as complement. A subject however wasn't 
mandatory. Nor were other constructions which may seem to be natural, such as indirect objects with verbs like 
'give'. The root *do- or in its earlier form *deH- had in its simplest sense the meaning 'present' and was often 
unaccompanied by any nominal expression (Lehman). 



9.1.2. NOMINAL SENTENCE 



Nominal sentences, in which a substantive is equated with another substantive, an adjective, or a 
particle, make up one of the simplest type of sentence in PIE. 

NOTE 1. Such a type of sentence is found in almost every IE dialect; cf. Hitt. attas assus, "the father (is) good", 
Skr. tvdm vdruna, "you (are) Varuna", O.Pers. adam Ddrayavaus, "I (am) Darius", Lat. omnia praeclara rara, 
"all the best things (are) rare", etc. In all dialects, however, such sentences were restricted in its use to a especially 
formal use or, on the contrary, they are found more often than originally in PIE. Thus, in Latin and Germanic 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

dialects they are found in proverbs and sayings, as in Old Irish; in Greek it is also found in epic and poetry. 
However, in Balto-Slavic dialects the pure nominal sentence has become the usual type of nominal sentence, even 
when the predicate is an adverb or an adverbial case. However, such a use, which is more extended in modern 
dialects (like Russian) than in the older ones (as Old Slavic), is considered the result of Finno-Ugrian influence. 

NOTE 2. In the course of time a nominal sentence required a verb; this development is in accordance with the 
subjective characteristic of PIE and the endings which came to replace the individual qualifier markers of early 
PIE. The various dialects no longer had a distinct equational sentence type. Verbs might of course be omitted by 
ellipsis. And, remarkably, in Slavic, nominal sentences were reintroduced, as Meillet has demonstrated (1906- 
1908). The reintroduction is probably a result of influence from OV languages, such as the Finno-Ugric. This 
phenomenon illustrates that syntactic constructions and syntactic characteristics must be carefully studied before 
they can be ascribed to inheritance. In North Germanic too an OV characteristic was reintroduced, with the loss of 
prefixes towards the end of the first millennium A.D. (Lehmann 1970). Yet in spite of these subsequent OV 
influences, nominal sentences must be assumed for PIE. 

A. There are traces of Pure Nominal Sentences with a predicate made by an oblique case of a noun or 
a prepositional compound, although they are not common to all Indo-European dialects. 

NOTE. Apart from Balto-Slavic examples (due to Finno-Ugric influence), only some isolated examples are 
found; cf. Skr. havyair Agnir manusa irayadhyai, "Agni must be prayed with the sacrifices of men", Gk. par 
hepoige kai hdlloi oi Are me timesousi, "near me (there are) others who [particle] will praise me" (Mendoza). 

B. In addition to such expansions by means of additional nouns in nonrequired cases, sentences 
could be expanded by means of particles. 

NOTE. For Lehman, three subsets of particles came to be particularly important. One of these is the set of 
preverbs, such as a. Another is the set of sentence connectives, such as Hitt. nu. The third is the set of qualifier 
expressions, e.g., PIE me '(must) not'. An additional subset, conjunctions introducing clauses, will be discussed 
below in the section on compound clauses. 

Preverbs are distinctively characterized by being closely associated with verbs and modifying their meaning. In 
their normal position they stand directly before verbs (Watkins 1964). 

Generally, thus, Concordance governed both members of the Pure Nominal Sentence. 

NOTE. Unlike the personal verb and its complements (governed by inflection), the Nominal Sentence showed a 
strong reliance on Concordance between Subject and Predicate as a definitory feature: both needed the same case, 
and tended to have the same number and gender. 

THE COPULATIVE VERB 

The copulative verb es is only necessary when introducing late categories in the verbal morphology, 
like Time and Mood. Therefore, when the Mood is the Indicative, and the Time is neuter (proverbs 
without timing, or Present with semantic neuter) there is no need to use es. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE 1. The basic form of nominal sentences has, however, been a matter of dispute. Some Indo-Europeanists 
propose that the absence of a verb in nominal sentences is a result of ellipsis and assume an underlying verb es- 
'be' (Benveniste 1950). They support this assumption by pointing to the requirement of such a verb if the nominal 
sentence is in the past tense; cf. Hitt. ABU.IA genzuualas esta, "My father was merciful". On the contrary, Meillet 
(1906-1908), followed by Lehman and Mendoza, thought that nominal sentences did not require a verb but that a 
verb might be included for emphasis. This conclusion may be supported by noting that the qualifiers which were 
found in PIE could be used in nominal sentences without a verb. As an example we ma)' cite a Hittite sentence 
which is negative and imperative, l-as l-edani menahhanda le idalus, "One should not be evil toward another 
one". Yet, if a passage was to be explicit, a form of es could be used, as in Skr. nakir indra tvdd uttaro najyayan 
asti, "No one is higher than you, Indra, nor greater". 

NOTE 2. On the original meaning of es, since Brugmann (1925) meant originally "exist" hence its use as a 
copulative verb through constructions in which the predicate express the existence of the subject, as in Horn. Gk. 
eim Oduseus Laertiades, "I am Odisseus, son of Laertes" (Mendoza). In PIE times there were seemingly other 
verbs (with similar meanings of 'exist'} which could be used as copulatives; compare IE bliii. "exist, become, 
grow" (cf. O.Ind. bhavati, or as supletives in Lat. past/uz, O.Ir. ba, O.Lith. buvo, fut. bus, O.C.S. impf. bease, etc.), 
Germanic wes, 'live, dwell'. 

9T37VERBALSENTENCE 

The most simple structure of the common Indo-European sentence consists of a verb, i.e. the carrying 
out of an action. In it, none of the verbal actors (Subject and Object) must be expressed - the subject is 
usually not obligatory, and the object appears only when it is linked to the lexical nature of the verb. 

NOTE. The oldest morphological categories, even time, were expressed in the PIE through lexical means, and 
many remains are found of such a system; cf. Hitt. -za (reflexive), modal particles in Gk. and O.Ind., modal 
negation in some IE dialects, or the simple change in intonation, which made interrogative or imperative a 
declarative sentence - in fact, the imperative lacks a mark of its own. 

The relationship between the Subject and the Object is expressed through the case. 

There is no clear morphological distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs in Proto-Indo- 
European. 

NOTE. Some Indo-European dialects have specialized some verbal suffixes as transitives (causatives) or 
intransitives, as Gk. -en, Gmc. -io, Lat. -a, etc., while in some others a preverb combined with a verbal root makes 
the basic verb transitive or intransitive. 

When subjects are explicitly expressed, the nominative is the case employed. 

NOTE. Expression of the subject is the most prominent extension of simple sentences to include more than one 
substantival expression. Besides such explicit mention of the subject, predicates may consist of verbs accompanied 
by two or more nouns, in cases which supplement the meanings of the verbs (v.i.). Such constructions must be 
distinguished from the inclusion of additional nouns whose case forms indicate adverbial use. 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

Few verbs are mandatorily accompanied by two nouns. 

1. the use of the dative in addition to the accusative, as in Skr. tabhiam enarn pari dehi, 'Give him over 
to those two'. 

2. the instrumental and ablative, as Skr. dhan vrtrdm ... indro vdjrena, 'Indra killed ... Vrtra with his 
bolt. Skr. Warn ddsyumr okaso agna ajah, 'You drove the enemies from the house, OAgni.' 

NOTE. While the addition to these sentences which is indicated by the nouns in the instrumental and the 
ablative is essential for the meaning of the lines in their context, it does not need to be included in the sentence for 
syntactic reasons. 

3. The causative accompanied by two accusatives, as Skr. devari usatah pay ay a havih, 'Make the 
desiring gods drink the libation'. 

In such sentences the agent-accusative represents the object of the causative element: as Arthur A. Macdonell 
indicated (1916), in a corresponding simple sentence this noun would have been given in the nominative, as Skr. 
devd havih pibanti, 'The gods drink the libation'. 

Accordingly a simple verb in PIE was at the most accompanied by one substantive, unless the 
additional substantive was complementary or adverbial. 

LOCAL CASES: PREDICATES WITH TWO OR MORE SUBSTANTIVES 

Nonmandatory case forms are found in great variety, as may be determined from the studies of 
substantival inflections and their uses. Five groups of adverbial elements are identified: (1) 
circumstance, purpose, or result; (2) time; (3) place; (4) manner; (5) means. 

1) Additional case forms may be used to indicate the Purpose, Result, or Circumstance of an action. 

So e.g. the Instrumental in Skr. mrldya nah suasti, 'Be gracious to us for our well-being'. 

The Dative was commonly used in this sense, as in the infinitival form Skr. prd na ayur jivdse soma 
tarih 'Extend our years, soma, for our living [so that we may live long].', 

NOTE. Cf. Hitt. nu-kan m Nana-Luin kuin DUMU.LUGAL ANA m Nuwanza halukipara nehhun, 'and the prince 
NanaLUis whom I sent to Nuwanza to convey the message' where Hittite dative noun haluki. (Raman 1973). 

When an animate noun is involved, this use of the dative has been labeled the indirect object; as, Skr. 
rindkti krsni rarusaya pdntham, 'Black night gives up the path to the red sun'. 

NOTE. As these examples may indicate, the dative, like the other cases, must be interpreted with reference to the 
lexical properties of the verbal element. 

2) A further adverbial segment in sentences indicates the Time of Occurrence. The cases in question 
are various, as in Skr. diva ndktam sdrum asmdd yuyotam, 'By day and during the night protect us 
from the arrow'. 

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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE. The nominal form diva, which with change of accent is no longer an instrumental but an adverbial form 
outside the paradigm, and the accusative naktam differ in meaning. The instrumental, like the locative, refers to a 
point in time, though the "point" ma)' be extended; the accusative, to an extent of time. Differing cases accordingly 
provide different meanings for nouns marked for the lexical category time. 

3) Nouns indicating Place also differ in meaning according to case form: 

A. The Accusative indicates the goal of an action, as in Lat. Romam ire 'go to Rome', Hitt. tus alkistan 
tamahhe 'and those (birds) I release to the branch' (Otten and Soucek 1969:38 § 37). 

B. The Instrumental indicates the place "over which an action extends" (Macdonell 1916: 306): 
sdrasvatya yanti 'they go along the SarasvatT. 

C. The Ablative indicates the starting point of the action: sd rdthat papata 'he fell from his chariot'; 
and the following example from Hittite (Otten and Soucek 1969): issaz (s)mit lalan AN.BARas [d]ai, 
'He takes the iron tongue out of their mouths.' 

D. The Locative indicates a point in space, e.g., Skt. divi 'in heaven' or the locative kardi in the 
following Hittite example (Otten and Soucek): kardi-smi-ia-at-kdn dahhun, 'And I took away that 
[illness which was] in your heart'. 

Nouns with lexical features for place and for time may be used in the same sentence, as in Skr. dstam 
upa naktam eti, 'He goes during the night to the house'. Although both nouns are in the Accusative, the 
differing lexical features lead to different interpretations of the case. In this way, inflectional markers 
combine with lexical features to yield a wide variety of adverbial elements. 

4) Among the adverbial elements which are most diverse in surface forms are those referring to 
Manner. Various cases are used, as follows. 

A. The Accusative is especially frequent with adjectives, such as Skt. ksiprdm 'quickly', bahu 'greatly', 
nydk 'downward'. 

B. The Instrumental is also used, in the plural, as in Skt. mdhobhih 'mightily', as well as in the 
singular, sdhasa 'suddenly'. 

Similar to the expression of manner is the instrumental used to express the sense of accompaniment: 
Skr. devo devebhir agamat, 'May the god come [in such a way that he is] accompanied by the other 
gods'. 

C. The Ablative is also used to express manner in connection with a restricted number of verbs such as 
those expressing fear': rejante visva krtrimani bhisa, 'All creatures tremble fearfully' . 



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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

5) Adverbial expressions of Means are expressed especially by the instrumental; as, Skr. dhan vrtrdm 
... indro vdjrena, 'Indra killed ... Vrtra with his bolt.' The noun involved frequently refers to an 
instrument; cf. Hitt. kalulupus smus gapinit hulaliemi, 'I wind the thread around their fingers' . 

Animate nouns may also be so used. When they are, they indicate the agent: agnina turvdsam yddurn 
paravdta ugra devam havamahe, 'Through Agni we call from far Turvasa, Yadu, and Ugradeva '. 
This use led to the use of the instrumental as the agent in passive constructions. 

9.2. SENTENCE MODIFIERS 

9^iiTlNTONMTONP^T^NS 

The sentence was characterized in PIE by patterns of Order and by Selection. 

A. Selection classes were determined in part by inflection, in part by lexical categories, most of which 
were covert. 

NOTE. Some lexical categories were characterized at least in part by formal features, such as abstract nouns 
marked by -ti-, nouns in the religious sphere marked by -u- and collectives marked by *-h. 

B. In addition to characterization by means of order and categories of selection, the sentence was 
also delimited by Intonation based on variations in pitch. 

To the extent that the pitch phonemes of PIE have been determined, a high pitch may be posited, 
which could stand on one syllable per word, and a low pitch, which was not so restricted. 

NOTE. The location of the high pitch is determined by Lehman primarily from the evidence in Vedic; the theory 
that this was inherited from PIE received important corroboration from Karl Verner's demonstration of its 
maintenance into Germanic (1875). Thus the often cited correlation between the position of the accent in the 
Vedic perfect and the differing consonants in Germanic provided decisive evidence for reconstruction of the PIE 
pitch accent as well as for Verner's law, as in the perfect (preterite) forms of the root deik-, show. 





PIE 


Vedic 


O.E. 


O.H.G. 


isg. 


dedoika 


didesa 


tah 


zeh 


ipl. 


dedikme 


didisimd 


tigon 


zigum 



Words were characterized on one syllable by a high pitch accent, unless they were enclitic, that is, 
unmarked for accent. 

Accented words could lose their high pitch accent if they were placed at specific positions in sentences. 

A. Vocatives lost their accent if they were medial in a sentence or clause; and finite verbs lost their 
accent unless they stood initially in an independent clause or in any position in a dependent clause in 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Vedic. These same rules may be assumed for PIE. On the basis of the two characteristic patterns of loss 
of accent for verbs, characteristic patterns of intonation may also be posited for the IE sentence. 

Judging on the basis of loss of high pitch accent of verbs in them, independent clauses were 
characterized by final dropping in pitch. For in unmarked order the verb stands finally in the clause. 

Clauses, however, which are marked either to convey emphasis or to indicate subordination, do not 
undergo such lowering. They may be distinguished with final 

NOTE. The intonation pattern indicated by apparently conveyed the notion of an emotional or emphatic 
utterance or one requiring supplementation, as by another clause. These conclusions are supported by the 
patterns found in Germanic alliterative verse. For, as is well known, verbs were frequently placed by poets in the 
fourth, nonalliterating, metrically prominent position in the line: peodcyninga prym gefrunon, of-people's-kings 
glory we-heard-of, 'We heard of the glory of the kings of the people'. This placing of verbs, retained by metrical 
convention in Germanic verse, presumably maintains evidence for the IE intonation pattern. For, by contrast, 
verbs could alliterate when they stood initially in clauses or in subordinate clauses; egsode eorlas, syddan eerest 
weard, he-terrified men since first he-was, 'He terrified men from the time he first was [found]', penden wordum 
weold wine Scyldinga, as-long-as with-words he-ruled the-friend of-the-Scyldings. The patterns of alliteration in 
the oldest Germanic verse accordingly support the conclusions that have been derived from Vedic accentuation 
regarding the intonation of the Indo-European sentence, as do patterns in other dialects. 

Among such patterns is the preference for enclitics in second position in the sentence (Wackernagel 1892). 
Words found in this position are particles, pronouns, and verbs, which have no accent in Vedic texts. This 
observation of Wackernagel supports the conclusion that the intonation of the sentence was characterized by 
initial high pitch, with the voice trailing off at the end. For the enclitic elements were not placed initially, but 
rather they occupied positions in which unaccented portions of words were expected, as in Skr. prdvepd ma 
brhato madayanti, 'The dangling ones of the lofty tree gladden me'. The pronoun ma 'me', like other such 
enclitics, makes up a phrase with the initial word; in this way it is comparable to unaccented syllables of individual 
words, as in Skr. pravateja irine vdrvrtdndh, '[horn] in a windy place, rolling on the dice-hoard' 

A simple sentence then consisted not only of a unit accompanied by an intonation pattern, but also of 
subunits or phrases. These were identified by their accent and also by patterns of permitted finals. 

^^s^rw^/aEi^i^mGv^rvass 

The particles concerned are PIE nu, so, to, all of them introductory particles. 

NOTE. Their homonymity with the adverb nu, nun and the anaphoric pronoun was one of the reasons earlier 
Indo-Europeanists failed to recognize them and their function. Yet Delbriick had already noted the clause- 
introducing function of Skr. sa (1888), as in Skr. tasya tani sirsani pra cicheda. sd yat somapdnam dsa tdtah 
kapinjalah sam abhavat, 'He struck off his heads. From the one that drank soma, the hazel-hen was created'. 
Delbriick identified sa in this and other sentences as a particle and not a pronoun, for it did not agree in gender 
with a noun in the sentence. But it remained for Hittite to clarify the situation. 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

In Hittite texts the introductory use of the particles is unmistakable (J.Friedrich i960); ta and su occur primarily 
in the early texts, nu in the later, as illustrated in the following Old Hittite example (Otten and Soucek 1969): 
GAD-an pesiemi su- us LU-as natta auszi 'I throw a cloth over it and no one will see them'. 

Besides such an introductory function (here as often elsewhere translated 'and'), these particles were 
used as first element in a chain of enclitics, as in n-at-si 'and it to-him', nu-mu-za-kan 'and to-me self 
within' and so on. 

NOTE 1. In Homeric Greek such strings of particles follow different orders, but reflect the IE construction, as in: 
oude nu soi per entrepetai philon etor, Olumpie, 'But your heart doesn't notice, Zeus'. As the translation of per 
here indicates, some particles were used to indicate the relationships between clauses marking the simple 
sentence. 

NOTE 2. Many simple sentences in PIE would then be similar to those in Hittite and Vedic Sanskrit, such as 
those in the charming story taken by Delbriick from the Satapathabrahmana. Among the simplest is Skr. tarn 
indro didvesa, 'Indra hated him'. Presumably tarn is a conflated form of the particle ta and the enclitic accusative 
singular pronoun; the combination is attested in Hittite as ta-an (J. Friedrich i960). Besides the use of sentence- 
delimiting particles, these examples illustrate the simplicity of PIE sentences. Of the fifteen sentences in the story, 
only two have more than one nominal form per verb, and these are adverbial as observed above. Similar examples 
from the other early dialects could be cited, such as the Italic inscription of Praeneste, or the Germanic Gallehus 
inscription: Ek HlewagastiR HoltijaR horna tawido, 'I, Hlewagastir of Holt, made the horn'. In these late texts, 
the subject was mandatory, and accordingly two nominal forms had come to be standard for the sentence. If 
however the subject is not taken into consideration, many sentences contained only one nominal element with 
verbs, in the early dialects as well as in PIE. 

9.3. VERBAL MODIFIERS 

9i3Z^ECLAR^TVESENTENCES 

The Injunctive has long been identified as a form unmarked for mood and marked only for stem and 
person. It may thus be compared with the simplest form of OV languages. 

By contrast the Present indicative indicates "mood". We associate this additional feature with the 
suffix -i, and assume for it declarative meaning. 

NOTE 1. Yet it is also clear that, by the time of Vedic Sanskrit and, we assume, Late PIE, the injunctive no longer 
contrasted directly with the present indicative. We must therefore conclude that the declarative qualifier was 
expressed by other means in the sentence. We assume that the means of expression was an intonation pattern. 
For, in normal unmarked simple sentences, finite unaccented verbs stood finally in their clause, as did the 
predicative elements of nominal sentences; Delbriick's repeatedly used example may be cited once again to 
illustrate the typical pattern: visah ksatriyaya balim haranti, 'The villagers pay tribute to the prince'. Since the 
verb haranti was unaccented, i.e., had no high pitch, we may posit for the normal sentence an intonation pattern 
in which the final elements in the sentence were accompanied by low pitch. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

NOTE 2. Lehman supports this assumption by noting that a distinctive suprasegmental was used in Vedic to 
distinguish a contrasting feature, interrogation or request (Wackernagel 1896). This marker, called pluti by native 
grammarians, consisted of extra length, as in agna3i 'O fire' (3 indicates extra length). But a more direct contrast 
with the intonation of simple sentences may be exemplified by the accentuation of subordinate clauses. These 
have accented verbs, as in the following line from the Rigveda: antas ca praga aditir bhavdsi, 'If you have 
entered inside, you will be Aditf. As the pitch accent on dgd indicates, verbs in subordinate clauses maintained 
high pitch, in contrast with verbs of independent clauses like bhavdsi. We may conclude that this high pitch was 
an element in an intonation pattern which indicated incompleteness, somewhat like the pattern of contemporary 
English. 

Evidence from other dialects supports the conclusion that, in late PIE, Declarative sentences were 
indicated by means of an intonation pattern with a drop in accentuation at the end of the clause. 

NOTE. In Germanic verse, verbs of unmarked declarative sentences tend to occupy unaccented positions in the 
line, notably the final position (Lehmann 1956). Although the surface expression of accentuation patterns in 
Germanic is stress, rather than the pitch of Vedic and PIE, the coincidence of accentuation pattern supports our 
conclusions concerning PIE intonation. 

9i3i2TlNTORROGAlTVESENTENCES 

The Interrogation was apparently also indicated by means of Intonation, for some questions in our 
early texts have no surface segmental indication distinguishing them from statements, for example, 
Plautus Aulularia 213, aetatem meam scis, 'Do you know my age?' 

NOTE. Only the context indicates to us that this utterance was a question; we may assume that the spoken form 
included means of expressing Int., and in view of expressions in the later dialects we can only conclude that these 
means were an intonation pattern. 

Questions are generally classified into two groups: 

A. Those framed to obtain clarification (Verdeutlichungsfragen), and 

B. Those framed to obtain confirmation (Bestatigungsfrageri). This feature accompanies statements 
in which a speaker sets out to elicit information from the hearer. 

NOTE. It may be indicated by an intonation pattern, as noted above, or by an affix or a particle, or by 
characteristic patterns of order, as in German 1st er da? 'Is he here?' When the Interrogative sentence is so 
expressed, the surface marker commonly occupies second position among the question elements, if the entire 
clause is questioned. Such means of expression for Int. are found in IE languages, as Lat. -ne, which, according to 
Minton Warren "occurs about 1100 times in Plautus and over 40 times in Terence" (1881). Besides expressions 
like Lat. egone 'Me?', sentences like the following occur (Plautus Asinaria 884): Audin quid ait? Artemona: 
Audio. 'Did you hear what he is saying? Artemona: yes' 



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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

Other evidence for a postponed particle for expressing Int. is found in Avestan, in which -na is suffixed to some 
interrogatives, as in Av. kas-nd 'who (then)?'; and in Germanic, where na is found finally in some questions in Old 
High German. Old Church Slavic is more consistent in the use of such a particle than are these dialects, as in 
chostesi li 'Do you wish to?' This particle is also used in contemporary Russian. 

The particle used to express Interrogation in Latin, Avestan, and Germanic is homophonous with the 
particle for expressing negation, PIE ne. 

NOTE. It is not unlikely that PIE ne of questions is the same particle as that used for the negative. As the 
interrogative particle, however, it has been lost in most dialects. After Lehman (1974), its loss is one of the 
indications that late PIE was not a consistent OV language. After Mendoza, the fact that such Interrogatives of a 
yes/no-answer are introduced by different particles in the oldest attested dialects means that no single particle 
was generalized by Late PIE; cf. Goth, u, Lat. -ne, nonne, num Gk. n, vu , Skr. nu, Sla. li. However, the common 
findings of Hittite, Indo-Iranian, Germanic and Latin are similar if not the same. In any case, for most linguists, 
rather than a postposed particle, 1) Intonation was used to express the Interrogatives, as well as 2) Particles that 
were placed early in clauses, often Initially. 

The partial Interrogative sentences are those which expect an aclaratory answer; they are introduced 
in PIE by pronominal or adverbial forms derived from interrogative qi/qo, always placed initially but 
for marked sentences, where a change in position is admited to emphasize it. 

NOTE. In some languages, Interrogatives may be strengthened by the addition of posposed particles with 
interrogative sense, as in Av. kas-na. Such forms introduce indirect interrogatives when they ask about a part of 
the sentence. Indirect interrogatives in the form of Total interrogatives (i.e., not of yes/no-answer) are introduces 
by particles derived from direct interrogative particles (when there are) or by conditional conjunctions; as Hitt. 
man. 

9i3i3TNEGAlTVESENTENraS 

Indications of Negation, by which the speaker negates the verbal means of expression, commonly 
occupies third position in the hierarchy of sentence elements. 

We can only posit the particles ne and me, neither of which is normally postposed after verbs. 

NOTE 1. For prohibitive particle me, compare Gk. un, O.Ind.,Av.,O.Pers. ma, Toch. mar/ma, Arm. mi, Alb. mos. 
In other IE dialects it was substituted by ne, cf. Goth, ne, Lat. ne (also as modal negation), Ira. ni. It is not clear 
whether Hitt. le is ultimately derived from me or ne. PIE ne is found as Goth.,O.H.G. ni, Lat. ne- (e.g. in nequis) 
O.Ind. na, O.Sla. ne, etc. Sometimes it is found in lengthened or strengthened forms as Hitt. natta, Lat. non, Skr. 
ned, etc. A common PIE lengthened form is nei, which appears in Lat. ni, Lith. nei, Sla. ni, etc., and which may 
also ultimately be related to Proto-Uralic negative *ei- (Kortlandt, v.s.). 

NOTE 2. In the oldest languages, negation seems to have been preverbal; Vedic nakis, Gk. ou tis, me tis, Lat. 
nemo, OHG nioman 'no one', and so on. The negative element ne was not used in compounding in PIE 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

(Brugmann 1904); n- had this function. Moreover, there is evidence for proposing that other particles were placed 
postverbally in PIE (Delbriick 1897). Delbriick has classified these in a special group, which he labels particles. 
They have been maintained postpositively primarily in frozen expressions: e in Gk. egone, ge in egoge T 
(Schwyzer 1939). But they are also frequent in Vedic and early Greek; Delbriick (1897) discusses at length the use 
of Skt. gha, Gk. ge, and Skt. sma, Gk. men, after pronouns, nouns, particles, and verbs, cf. Lat. nolo < ne volo, 
Goth, nist < ni ist, and also, negative forms of the indefinite pronoun as O.Ind. ma-kis, nd-kis, Lat. ne-quis, etc. 
which may indicate an old initial absolute position, which could be also supported by the development of 
corrleative forms like Lat. neque, etc., which combine negation and coordination. Lehman, on the contrary, 
believes in an older posposed order, characteristic of OV languages (i.e. a situation in IE II), because of the usually 
attributed value of emphasis to the initial position of negation, postverbal negation examples (even absolute final 
position in Hittite and Greek), the old existence of the form nei, as well as innovative forms like Lat. ne-quis or 
Gk. ou-tis. 

NOTE 3. In Modern Indo-European, thus, negation should usually be preverbal, as in modern Romance 
languages (cf. Fr. n'est, Spa. no es, etc.), but it can be postponed in emphatic contexts, as it is usual in modern 
Germanic languages (cf. Eng. zs not, Ger. ist nicht, etc.), as well as in very formal texts, thus imitating some of the 
most archaic findings of early PIE dialects. 

9.4. NOMINAL MODIFIERS 

94TADJECTT^^DGENmVEC0NSTOUCTT0^ 

1. Proto-Indo-European Attributive Adjectives were normally preposed. 

NOTE. Delbriick summarizes the findings for Vedic, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, and Germanic, giving examples 
like the following from Vedic: svetah parvatah, 'white mountains' (1900). Lehman (1974) adds an example of 
Hitt. suppi watar, 'pure water'. 

In marked constructions Adjectives might be postposed, as in dsvah svetah, 'a white horse, a gray'. 

2. The position of the Attributive Genitive is the same as that of the Attributive Adjective. 

NOTE. A striking example is given from the Old English legal language (Delbriick 1900): odres mannes huses 
dura, 'the door of the house of the other man'. 

Like the adjective construction, the attributive-genitive construction may have the modifier postposed 
for marked effect, as is somasya in SB 3.9.4.15 (Delbriick 1878): kirn nas tatah syad iti? 
prathamabhakssd evd somasyara jna iti, 'What might then happen for us?' 'The first enjoyment of 
[Prince] Soma'. 

NOTE 1. The relatively frequent marked use of the genitive may be the cause for the apparently free position of 
the genitive in Greek and Latin. The ambivalent order may also have resulted from the change of these languages 
toward a VO order. But, as Delbriick indicates, the preposed order is well attested in the majority of dialects. This 
order is also characteristic of Hittite (J. Friedrich i960). We may therefore assume it for PIE. 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

NOTE 2. In accordance with Lehman's views on syntactic structure, the attributive genitive, like the attributive 
adjective, must be derived from an embedded sentence. The sentence would have a noun phrase equivalent with 
that in the matrix sentence and would be a predicate nominal sentence. Such independent sentences are attested 
in the older dialects. Delbriick gives a number of examples, among them: astau ha vai putrd adites, 'Aditi had 
eight sons', ahar devanam astt, 'Day belonged to the gods'. These sentences accordingly illustrate that the 
genitive was used in predicate nominative sentences to convey what Calvert Watkins has labeled its primary 
syntactic function: the sense "of belonging". When such a sentence was embedded in another with an equivalent 
NP, the NP was deleted, and the typical genitive construction resulted. Hittite also uses s as a genitive as well as a 
nominative marker. For "genitives" like hassannassas '(one) of his race' can be further inflected, as in the 
accusative hassannas-san '(to one) of his race' (J. Friedrich). 

94i2TC0MP0UNDSi 

1. In the derivation of compounds special compounding rules apply. 

The verbal compounds in a language observe the basic order patterns, For PIE we would expect an 
older OV order in compounds, as e.g. Skt. agnidh- 'priest' < agni 'fire' + idh 'kindle.' 

NOTE. A direct relationship between compounds and basic syntactic patterns is found only when the 
compounds are primary and productive. After a specific type of compound becomes established in a language, 
further compounds may be constructed on the basis of analogy, for example Gk. hippagros 'wild horse', in 
contrast with the standard productive Greek compounds in which the adjectival element precedes the modified, as 
in agriokhoiros 'wild swine' (Risch 1944-1949). Here we will consider the primary and productive kinds of 
compounds in PIE. 

2. Two large classes and other minor types are found: 

A. the Synthetics (noun+noun), which make up the majority of the PIE compounds, 

a. Pure Synthetics, i.e. noun+noun. 

b. Sinthetics in which the first element is adverbial, i.e. adverb+noun. 

B. The Bahuvrihis. 

C. Adjective + Nouns, apparently not so productive in PIE as in its dialects. 

D. A small number of additive compounds. 

SYNTHETICS 

Synthetics consist of a nominal element preceding a verbal, in their unmarked forms, as in Skt. 
agnidh-, 'priest'. As in this compound, the relation of the nominal element to the verbal is that of 
target. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

The particular relationship of nominal and verbal elements was determined by the lexical properties of 
the verb; accordingly, the primary relationship for most PIE verbs was that of target. But other nominal 
categories could also be used with verbs. 

3. Kinds of Relationships: 

1) The Receptor relationship, as Skr. devahedana, 'angering the gods'. 

2) The Instrument or Means relationship; as Skr. ddrijuta, 'speeded by the stones', 
The compound rtaja of this passage may illustrate the Time relationship. 

3) The Source relationship, as Skr. aiihomuc, 'freeing from trouble'. 

4) The Place relationship, as Skr. drusdd, 'sitting in a tree'. 

5) The Manner relationship; as, Skr. isanakft, 'acting like a ruler'. 

These compounds exhibit the various relationships of nominal constituents with verbal elements, as in 
Skr. tva-datta, 'given by you'. 

NOTE. Synthetics attested in the Rigveda accordingly illustrate all the nominal relationships determinable from 
sentences. Synthetics are frequently comparable to relative constructions, as in the following sentence: agnir 
agdmi bhdrato vrtraha purucetanah, 'Agni, the god of the Bharatas, was approached, he who killed Vrtra, who 
is seen by many'. 

Besides the large number of synthetics of the NV pattern, others are attested with the pattern VN. 
These are largely names and epithets, such as pusti-gu, a name meaning 'one who raises cattle' (RV 
8.51.1.), and sandd-rayi 'dispensing riches'. 

BAHUVRIHIS 

The second large group of PIE compounds, Bahuvrihis, are derived in accordance with the sentence 
pattern expressing Possession. This pattern is well known from the Latin mihi est construction (Bennett 
1914; Brugmann 1911): nulli est homini perpetuom bonum, "No man has perpetual blessings". 

Lehman accounts for the derivation of bahuvrihis, like Lat. magnanimus 'great-hearted', by assuming 
that an equational sentence with a noun phrase as subject and a noun in the receptor category 
indicating possession is embedded with an equivalent noun, as in the following example ('great spirit is 
to man' = 'the man has great spirit*): 

On deletion of the equivalent NP (homini) in the embedded sentence, a bahuvrihi compound 
magnanimus 'greathearted' is generated. This pattern of compounding ceased to be primary and 
productive when the dialects developed verbal patterns for expressing possession, such as Lat. habeo 'I 
have'. 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

Bahuvrihis may be adjectival in use, or nominal, as in the vocative use of sunari 'having good 
strength' (made up of su 'good' and *xner- '(magical) strength*) in Sir. visvasya hi prananarn jivanam 
We, vi yid uchdsi sunari, 'For the breath and life of everything is in you, when you light up the skies, 
you who have good strength'. The Greek cognate may illustrate the adjectival use: pheron d' euenora 
khalkon 'They carried on board the bronze of good strength'. The bahuvrihis are accordingly similar to 
synthetics in being comparable to relative clauses. 

NOTE. Although the bahuvrihis were no longer primary and productive in the later dialects, their pattern 
remained remarkably persistent, as we may note from the various philo- compounds in Greek, such as 
philosophos, 'one who holds wisdom dear', philoinos, 'one who likes wine', and many more. Apart from the loss of 
the underlying syntactic pattern, the introduction of different accentual patterns removed the basis for bahuvrihis. 
As Risch pointed out, Greek eupator could either be a bahuvrihi 'having a good father' or a tatpurusha 'a noble 
father'. In the period before the position of the accent was determined by the quantity of final syllables, the 
bahuvrihi would have had the accent on the prior syllable, like rdja-putra 'having kings as sons', RV 2.27.7, in 
contrast with the tatpurusha rdja-putra 'king's son', RV 10.40.3. The bahuvrihis in time, then, were far less 
frequent than tatpurushas, of which only a few are to be posited for late PIE. An example is Gk. propator 
forefather'. If the disputed etymology of Latin proprius 'own' is accepted, *pro-p(a)trios 'from the forefathers' , 
there is evidence for assuming a PIE etymon; Wackernagel (1905) derives Sanskrit compounds like pra-pada 'tip 
of foot' from PIE. Yet the small number of such compounds in the early dialects indicates that they were formed in 
the late stage of PIE (Risch). 

NOTE 2. Dvandvas, such as indrdvis ' nu and a few other patterns, like the teens, were not highly productive in 
PIE, if they are to be assumed at all. Their lack of productiveness may reflect poorly developed coordination 
constructions in PIE (Lehmann 1969). Besides the expansion of tatpurushas and dvandvas in the dialects, we 
must note also the use of expanded root forms. Thematic forms of noun stems and derived forms of verbal roots 
are used, as in Skt. deva-krta, 'made by the gods'. Such extended constituents become more and more prominent 
and eventually are characteristic elements of compounds, as the connecting vowel -o- in Greek and in early 
Germanic; Gk. Apollo-doros 'gift of Apollo' (an n- stem) and Goth, guma-kunds 'of male sex' (also an n- stem). 
Yet the relationships between the constituents remain unchanged by such morphological innovations. The large 
number of tatpurushas in the dialects reflects the prominence of embedded-modifier constructions, as the earlier 
synthetics and bahuvrihis reflected the embedding of sentences, often to empty noun nodes. As noted above, they 
accordingly have given us valuable information about PIE sentence types and their internal relationships. 
gi^/DKTE^^E^lNNOMLNM/PHR^ES. 

Nouns are generally unaccompanied by modifiers, as characteristic passages from an Archaic hymn of 
the Rigveda and from an Old Hittite text may indicate. 

Demonstratives are infrequent; nouns which might be considered definite have no accompanying 
determinative marker unless they are to be stressed. The Demonstrative then precedes. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

The relationship between such Demonstratives and accompanying Nouns has been assumed to be 
Appositional; it may be preferable to label the relationship a loose one, as of pronoun or noun plus 
noun, rather than adjective or article plus noun. 

NOTE. In Homer too the "article" is generally an anaphoric pronoun, differing from demonstratives by its lack of 
deictic meaning referring to location (Munro). Nominal phrases as found in Classical Greek or in later dialects are 
subsequent developments; the relationship between syntactic elements related by congruence, such as adjectives, 
or even by case, such as genitives, can often be taken as similar to an appositional relationship (Meillet 1937). 

To illustrate nominal phrases, cf. Vedic esam marutam, "of -them of-Maruts" . The nominal phrase which may 
seem to consist of a demonstrative preceding a noun, esam marutam, is divided by the end of the line; 
accordingly esam must be interpreted as pronominal rather than adjectival. 

The following Hittite passage from a ritual illustrates a similar asyndetic relationship between the elements of 
nominal phrases (Otten and Soucek 1969): harkanzi- ma -an d Hantasepes anduhsas harsa[(r)] -a 9™SUKUR hia , 
But the Hantasepa-gods hold heads of men as well as lances. In this sentence the nouns for 'heads' and 'lances' 
supplement 'if. Moreover, while the meaning of the last word is uncertain, its relationship to the preceding 
elements is imprecise, for it is a nominative plural, not an accusative. Virtually any line of Homer might be cited to 
illustrate the absence of close relationships between the members of nominal phrases; cf. Odyssey neifs de moi 
hed' hesteken ep' agrounosphi poleos, en limeni Rheithroi hupo Neioi huleenti, 'My ship is berthed yonder in the 
country away from the city, in a harbor called Rheithron below Neion, which is wooded'. The nouns have no 
determiners even when, like neus, they are definite; and the modifiers with limeni and Neioi seem to be loosely 
related epithets rather than closely linked descriptive adjectives. 

The conclusions about the lack of closely related nominal phrases may be supported by the status of 
compounds in PIE. The compounds consisting of Descriptive Adjectives + Noun are later; the most 
productive are reduced verbal rather than nominal constructions. And the bahuvrihis, which indicate a 
descriptive relationship between the first element and the second, support the conclusion that the 
relationship is relatively general; rajd-putra, for example, means 'having sons who are kings' rather 
than 'having royal sons'; go-vapus means 'having a shape like a cow', said of rainclouds, for which the 
epithet denotes the fructifying quality rather than the physical shape. 

Accordingly, closely related nominal expressions are to be assumed only for the dialects, not for PIE. 
Definiteness was not indicated for nouns. The primary relationship between nominal elements, whether 
nouns or adjectives, was appositional. 

The syntactic patterns assumed for late PIE may be illustrated by narrative passages from the early 
dialects. The following passage tells of King Harischandra, who has been childless but has a son after 
promising Varuna that he will sacrifice any son to him. After the birth of the son, however, the king asks 
Varuna to put off the time of the sacrifice, until finally the son escapes to the forest; a few lines suffice to 
illustrate the simple syntactic patterns. 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 



AB 7.14. 



atliainam 


uvaca 


varunam 


rajanam 


upadhava 


putro 


then -him 


he-told 


Varuna 


king 


you-go-to 


son 


Ace. sg. 


Perf. 3 sg. 


Ace. sg. 


Ace. sg. 


Imper. 2 sg. 


Nom. sg. 



me jayatam 


tena tva y a J a 


to-me let-him-be-born 


with- you I-worship 




Imper. 3 sg. 


Inst. sg. Ace. sg. Mid. Pres. 


1 


iti. tatheti. 


sa varunam 




end-quotation indeed-end 


'he' Varuna 




(<tatha iti) 


3 sg. Nom. 





rajanam 

king 



tva yaja 



upasasara putro me jayatam 

went-to son to-me let-him-be-born 

Perf. 3 sg. 

iti. tatheti. 



tena 

with-him 



you I-worship end-quotation indeed-end-quotation 



rohito nama. 

Rohita name 



te 


vai 


putro 


to-you 


indeed 


son 




Ptc. 





sa 



tasya ha putro jajne 

his, of-him now son he-was-born 

Gen. sg. m. Ptc. Mid. Perf. 3 sg. 

tarn hovacajani 

him Ptc.-he-told-he-was born 

Ace. sg. Aor. Pass. 3 sg. Ptc. 

yajasva maneneti. 

you-worship me-with-him-end-quotation 'he' 

Mid. Imper. 2 sg. Ace. sg.-Inst. sg. 

hovaca yada vai pasur nirdaso 

Ptc. -he-told when indeed animal above-ten 

Conj. Ptc. Nom. sg. m. Nom. sg. m. 

hhavatyatha sa medhyo bhavati. nirdaso 

he-becomes-then he strong he-becomes above-ten 

Pres. 3 sg.-Ptc. Nom. sg. m. 

'nvastvatha tva yaja iti. 

Ptc.-let-him-be-then you I-worship end-quotation 

Imper. 2 sg. Ace. sg. 

tatheti. sa ha nirdasa asa 

indeed-end-quotation he now above-ten he-was 

Perf. 3 sg. 

Then he [the Rishi Narada] told him [Harischandra] : "Go to King Varuna. [Tell him]: 'Let a son be born to me. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

With him I will worship you [=1 will sacrifice him to you] .'" 

"Fine," [he said]. 

He went to King Varuna [saying]: "Let a son be born to me. I will sacrifice him to you." 

"Fine," [he said] 

Now his son was born. Rohita [was his] name. 

[Varuna] spoke to him. "A son has indeed been born to you. Sacrifice him to me." 

He said thereupon: "When an animal gets to be ten [days old], then he becomes strong [= fit for sacrifice]. Let 
him be ten days old; then I will worship you." 



"Fine," he said. 

He now became ten. 

As this passage illustrates, nouns have few modifiers. Even the sequence: tasya haputro, which might 
be interpreted as a nominal phrase corresponding to 'his son', consists of distinct components, and 
these should be taken as meaning: "Of him a son [was born]". As in the poetic passage cited above, 
nouns and pronouns are individual items in the sentence and when accompanied by modifiers have 
only a loose relationship with them, as to epithets. 

944TAPP0Sm0N 

Apposition is traditionally "when paratactically joined forms are grammatically, but not in meaning, 
equivalent". 

NOTE. Because of the relationship between nouns and modifiers, and also because subjects of verbs were only 
explicit expressions for the subjective elements in verb forms, Meillet (1937) considered apposition a basic 
characteristic of Indo-European syntax. As in the previous passage, subjects were included only when a specific 
meaning was to be expressed, such as putra 'son'. The element sa may still be taken as an introductory particle, a 
sentence connective, much as iff of tathd iff, etc., is a sentence-final particle. And the only contiguous nouns in the 
same case, varunam rajanam, are clearly appositional. 

A distinction is made between Appositional and Attributive (Delbriick); an appositional relationship 
between two or more words is not indicated by any formal expression, whereas an attributive 
relationship generally is. 

NOTE. Thus the relationships in the following line of the Odyssey are attributive: arnumenos hen te psukhen kai 
noston hetairon, lit. "striving-for his Ptc. life and return of-companions" . The relationship between hen and 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

psukhen is indicated by the concordance in endings; that between noston and hetairon by the genitive. On the 
other hand the relationship between the two vocatives in the following line is appositional, because there is no 
mark indicating the relationship: ton hamothen ge, thed, thugater Dios, eipe kai hemin, 'Tell us of these things, 
beginning at any point you like, goddess, daughter of Zeus'. Both vocatives can be taken independently, as can 
any appositional elements. 

Asyndetic constructions which are not appositive are frequently attested, as Skr. te vo hrde mdnase 
santu yajna, 'These sacrifices should be in accordance with your heart, your mind'. Coordinate as well 
as appositive constructions could thus be without a specific coordinating marker. 

Comparable to appositional constructions are titles, for, like appositions, the two or more nouns 
involved refer to one person. 

NOTE. In OV languages titles are postposed in contrast with the preposing in VO languages; compare Japanese 
Tanaka-san with Mr. Middlefield. The title 'king' with Varuna and similarly in the Odyssey, Poseiddoni dnakti, 
when dnaks is used as a title. But, as Lehman himself admits, even in the early texts, titles often precede names, in 
keeping with the change toward a VO structure. 

Appositions normally follow, when nouns and noun groups are contiguous, as in the frequent 
descriptive epithets of Homer: Ton d' emeibet' epeita thed, glaukopis Athene, 'Him then answered the 
goddess, owl-eyed Athene' . 

To indicate a marked relationship, however, they may precede (Schwyzer 1950). But the early PIE 
position is clear from the cognates: Skt. dyauspita, Gk. Zeu pater, Lat. Jupiter. 

9. 5. MODIFIED FORMS OF PIE SIMPLE SENTENCES 

^SZCOORDINOTON. 

While coordination is prominent in the earliest texts, it is generally implicit. 

The oldest surviving texts consist largely of paratactic sentences, often with no connecting particles. 

New sentences may be introduced with particles, or relationships may be indicated with pronominal 
elements; but these are fewer than in subsequent texts. 

Similar patterns of paratactic sentences are found in Hittite, with no overt marker of coordination or 
of subordination. J. Friedrich states that "purpose and result" clauses are not found in Hittite (i960), 
but that coordinate sentences are simply arranged side by side with the particle nu, as in the Hittite 
Laws. Conditional relationships too are found in Hittite with no indication of subordination (J. 
Friedrich i960). 

NOTE. The subordinate relationships that are indicated, however, have elements that are related to relative 
particles. Accordingly the subordination found in the early dialects is a type of relative construction. As such 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

examples and these references indicate, no characteristic patterns of order, or of verb forms, distinguish 
subordinate from coordinate clauses in PIE and the early dialects. Hermann therefore concluded in his celebrated 
article that there were no subordinate clauses in PIE (1895). For Lehman (1974), the paratactic arrangement 
which he assumed for PIE, however, is characteristic of OV languages. Hypotaxis in OV languages is often 
expressed by nonfinite verb forms and by postposed particles. 

The arrangement of sentences in sequence is a typical pattern of PIE syntax, whether for hypotactic or 
for paratactic relationships. 

Expressions for coordination were used largely for elements within clauses and sentences. When used 
to link sentences, conjunctions were often accompanied by initial particles indicating the beginning of a 
new clause and also indicating a variety of possible relationships with neighboring clauses. 

NOTE. Sentence-connecting particles are, however, infrequent in Vedic and relatively infrequent in the earliest 
Hittite texts; Lehman concludes that formal markers of sentence coordination were not mandatory in PIE. 

The normal coordinating particle in most of the dialects is a reflex of PIE -qe. 

This is postposed to the second of two conjoined elements, or to both. 

NOTE. Hittite -a, -ia is used similarly, as in attas annas a 'father and mother' (J. Friedrich i960). 

The disjunctive particle PIE -we is also postposed 

NOTE 1. In Hittite, however, besides the postposed disjunctive particles -ku ... -ku 'or', there was the disjunctive 
particle nasma, which stood between nouns rather than after the last. This pattern of conjunction placement came 
to be increasingly frequent in the dialects; it indicates that the conjunction patterns of VO structure have come to 
be typical already by IE II. 

NOTE 2. With the change in coordinating constructions, new particles were introduced; some of these, for 
example, Lat. et, Goth, jah, OE and, have a generally accepted etymology; others, like Gk. kai, are obscure in 
etymology. Syntactically the shift in the construction rather than the source of the particles is of primary interest, 
though, as noted above, the introduction of new markers for the new VO patterns provides welcome lexical 
evidence of a shift. The syntactic shift also brought with it patterns of coordination reduction (Ersparung) which 
have been well described for some dialects (Behaghel). Such constructions are notable especially in SVO 
languages, in which sequences with equivalent verbs (S, V, O, Conj., S 2 , Vi, 2 ) delete the second occurrence of the 
verb , as M.H.G. daz einer einez will und ein ander ein anderz, 'that one one-thing wants and another an other . 

Reduction of equivalent nouns in either S or O position is also standard, as in Beowulf. 

NOTE. But in the paratactic structures characteristic of Hittite, such reduction is often avoided. In an SVO 
language the second memiias would probably not have been explicitly stated, as in: 'now my speech came to he 
halting and was uttered slowly'. The lack of such reduction, often a characteristic of OV languages, gives an 
impression of paratactic syntax. Another pattern seeming to be paratactic is the preposing of "subordinate 
clauses," either with no mark of subordination or with a kind of relative particle, as in the concluding passage of 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

Mursilis Sprachldhmung (Gotze and Pedersen 1934). The second from last clause has no mark to indicate 
subordination; the earlier clauses contain a form of relative particle. 

ISTU GlS BANSUR-ma-za-kan kuizza azikinun 

from table-but-Refl.-Ptc. from-which I-was-accustomed-to-eat 

ISTU GAL-ia-kan kuizza akkuskinun 

from beaker-and-Ptc. from-which I-was-accustomed-to-drink 



sasti-ia-za-kan kuedani seskeskinun ISTU 

in-bed-and-Refl.-Ptc. in-which I-was-accustomed-to-sit from 

URUD DU 10 xA-ia-za-kan kuizza arreskinun 

basin-and-Refl.-Ptc. from-which I-was-accustomed-to-wash 



kuit-ia imma 


UNUTU 


anda 


ueriian 


esta nu UL 


what-and else 


utensil 


Adv.-Ptc. 


mentioned 


it-was now not 




kuitki dattat 


ISTU 


DINGIR LI 


QATAMMA 


SIxDI-at 


any it-was-taken 


from 


god 


likewise 


it-was-determined 



'The god also determined that nothing more should be used of the table from which I was accustomed to eat, of 
the beaker from which I was accustomed to drink, of the bed in which I was accustomed to sleep, of the basin in 
which I was accustomed to wash, and of whatever other article was mentioned' 

In an SVO language like English, the principal clause, which stands last in Hittite, would be placed first. The 
interpretation of the preceding clause as a result clause is taken from Gotze and Pedersen. The initial clauses 
contain relative particles which indicate the relationship to kuitki of the second-from-last clause; they also contain 
coordinating particles: a, ia. In this passage the clauses, whether coordinate or subordinate from our point of 
view, are simply arrayed in sequence. Each concludes with a finite verb which provides no evidence of hypotaxis. 
The sentence connectives which occur— repeated instances of a/ia— heighten the impression of coordination. 

The absence in Hittite of verb forms - which are cognates of the Vedic and Greek optative and 
subjunctive - which came to be used largely to indicate subordination is highly consistent in its OV 
patterning, as such verb forms were not required. 

Hittite however did not forego another device, which is used to indicate subordinate relationship in 
OV as well as VO languages, the so-called nonfinite verb forms. These are used for less explicit kinds of 
complementation, much the way relative constructions are used for more explicit kinds. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



9.5.2. COMPLEMENTATION. 



Compound sentences may result from the embedding of nominal modifiers. 

NOTE. In VO languages embedded nominal modifiers follow nouns, whereas in OV languages they precede 
nouns. This observation has led to an understanding of the Hittite and the reconstructed PIE relative 
constructions, if we follow the standard assumption that in relative constructions a second sentence containing an 
NP equivalent to an NP in the matrix sentence is embedded in that matrix sentence, we may expect that either 
sentence may be modified. A sentence may also be embedded with a dummy noun; the verb forms of such 
embedded sentences are commonly expressed with nominal forms of the verb, variously called infinitives, 
supines, or participles. In OV languages these, as well as relative constructions, precede the verb of the matrix 
sentence. 

An example with participles in the IE languages is Skr. vdsanah in the last lines of the following 
Strophic hymn: rusad vdsanah sudrsikarupah, "brightly dressing -himself beautifully -hued". 

It may also have "a final or consequential sense", as in the following Strophic hymn: tvdm indra 
srdvitava apds kah, 'You, O Indra, make the waters to flow.' Also in the poetic texts such infinitives 
may follow the main verb, as in dbodhi hota yajdthaya devan, lit. "he-woke-up priest for-sacrificing 
gods", 'The priest has awakened to sacrifice to the gods'. 

NOTE. The postposed order may result from stylistic or poetic rearrangement; yet it is also a reflection of the 
shift to VO order, a shift which is reflected in the normal position for infinitives in the other IE dialects. In the 
Brahmanas still, infinitives normally stand directly before the verb, except in interrogative and negative sentences 
(Delbriick). On the basis of the Brahmanic order we may assume that in PIE nonfinite verbs used as complements 
to principal verbs preceded them in the sentence. Hittite provides examples of preposed complementary 
participles and infinitives to support this assumption (J. Friedrich). Participles were used particularly with har(k)- 
'have' and es- 'be', as in ueriian esta 'was mentioned'; the pattern is used to indicate state. 

INFINITIVES 

1. Infinitives could indicate result, with or without an object (J. Friedrich i960): l-as l-an kunanna le 
sanhanzi, lit. "one one to-kill not he-tries", i.e. 'One should not try to kill another'. 

2. Infinitives could be used to express purpose, as in the following example, which pairs an infinitive 
with a noun (J. Friedrich): tuk-ma kiuttar SA-ta siianna ishiull-a esdu, lit. "to-you-however this word 
in-heart for-laying instruction-and it-should-be" , i.e. 'But for you this word should be for taking to 
heart and for instruction'. 

3. The Infinitive could be loosely related to its object, as in examples cited by Friedrich, such as apas- 
ma-mu harkanna san(a)hta, lit. "he-however-me for-deteriorating he-sought' , i.e. 'But he sought to 
destroy me'. 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

4. The complementary infinitive indicates the purpose of the action; as Friedrich points out, it is 
attached to the verb sanhta plus its object mu in a construction quite different from that in subsequent 
dialects. 

NOTE. These uses are paralleled by uses in Vedic, as maybe noted in the work of Macdonell (1916), from which 
some examples are taken in Lehman (1974). On the basis of such examples in Vedic and in Hittite, he assumes 
that infinitive constructions were used to indicate a variety of complements in PIE. 

Hittite and Sanskrit also provide examples of Participles functioning appositionally or as adjectives 
indicating state (J. Friedrich i960): ammuk-uar-an akkantan IQ.BI, lit. to-me-Pte.-indicating- 
quotation-him dying he-described, i.e. 'He told me that one had died.' 

NOTE. This pattern had been noted by Delbriick for the Rigveda, with various examples (1900:327), as sisihi ma 
sisayam tva srnomi, 'Strengthen me; I hear that you are strong.' The adjective sisayd 'strengthening' is an 
adjective derived from the same root as sisihi. Delbriick also noted that such "appositives" are indicated in Greek 
by means of clauses. Greek represents for Lehman accordingly a further stage in the development of the IE 
languages to a VO order. Yet Greek still maintained preposed participles having the same subject as does the 
principal verb, as in: ten men idon gethese, lit. "itPtc. seeing he-rejoiced' 

This pattern permits the use of two verbs with only one indicating mood and person; the nonfinite 
verb takes these categories from the finite. 

Participles were thus used in the older period for a great variety of relationships, though also without 
indicating some of the verbal categories. 

Dependent clauses are more flexible in indicating such relationships, and more precise, especially 
when complementary participles and infinitives follow the principal verb. 

oisiiTsUBORDINATOCLAUSES. 

Indo-Europeanists have long recognized the relationship between the Subordinating Particles and the 
stem from which Relative Pronouns were derived in Indo-Iranian and Greek. 

NOTE. Thus Delbriick has pointed out in detail how the neuter accusative form of PIE jo- was the basis of the 
conjunction jod in its various meanings: (1) Temporal, (2) Temporal-Causal, (3) Temporal-Conditional, (4) 
Purpose. He also recognized the source of conjunctional use in sentences like Skr. ydj jdyathas tad ahar asya 
kame 'lisoh piyu ' sam apibo giristham, 'On the day you were born you drank the mountain milk out of desire for 
the plant'. 

1) Relative clauses must have stood Before the Main Clause originally and 

2) The earliest type of subordinate jo- clauses must have been the Preposed Relative constructions. 

NOTE. This conclusion from Vedic receives striking support from Hittite, for in it we find the same syntactic 
relationship between relative clauses and other subordinate clauses as is found in Vedic, Greek, and other early 

237 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

dialects. But the marker for both types of clauses differs. In Hittite it is based on IE qid rather than jod; thus, 
Hittite too uses the relative particle for indicating subordination. The remarkable parallelism between the 
syntactic constructions, though they have different surface markers, must be ascribed to typological reasons; we 
assume that Hittite as well as Indo-Aryan and Greek was developing a lexical marker to indicate subordination. As 
does yad in Vedic, Hitt. kuit signals a "loose" relationship between clauses which must be appropriately 
interpreted. 

As J. Friedrich has stated (i960), kuit never stands initially in its clause. Sentences in which it is used are then 
scarcely more specifically interconnected than are conjoined sentences with no specific relating word, as in 
examples cited by Friedrich (ibid.): nu taskupai nu URU-as dapiianzi isdammaszi, lit. Ptc. you-shout Ptc. city 
whole it-hears, 'Now cry out [so that] the whole city hears'. Like this example, both clauses in a kuit construction 
generally are introduced with nu (J. Friedrich i960). We ma)' assume that kuit became a subordinating particle 
when such connections were omitted, as in Friedrich's example. These examples illustrate that both yad and kuit 
introduce causal clauses, though they do not contain indications of the origin of this use. 

It is therefore generally believed that Subordinates originated in Relative sentences, as Vedic, Old 
Irish, Avestan and Old Persian illustrate. Proverbs and maxims are a particularly conservative field in 
all languages, and even etymologically there are two series which especially often; namely, qo-...to-, 
andjo-...to-. 

NOTE 1. For IE qo-..to-, cf. Lat. cum. ..turn, qualis... talis, quam...tam, or Lith. kas...tas, kdks...tds, kaip...taip, 
kiek...tiek, etc., and for jo-. ..to-, Ved. yas...sd tad, yatha...tatha, yavat...tavat, Gk. oios...toios, 6sos...tosos, 
O.Pers. haya (a compound from so+jo, with the same inverse compound as Lat. tamquam, from two 
correlatives), etc. 

NOTE 2. For Haudry this correlative structure is the base for subordination in all Indo-European languages. 
Proto-Indo-European would therefore show an intermediate syntax between parataxis and hypotaxis, as the 
correlative structure is between a loose' syntax and a locked' one. 

Lehman assumes that the use of Skr. yad, Hitt. kuit, and other relative particles to express a causal 
relationship arose from subordination of clauses introduced by them to an Ablative; cf. Skr. dcittl ydt 
tdva dhdrmd yuyopimd (lit. unknowing that, because your law, order we-have-disturbed), ma nas 
tdsmad enaso deva ririsah (lit. not us because-of-that because-of-sin O-god you-harm), 'Do not harm 
us, god, because of that sin [that] because unknowingly we have disturbed your law'. 

As such relationships with ablatives expressing Cause were not specific, more precise particles or 
conjunctions came to be used. In Sanskrit the ablatival yasmat specifies the meaning 'because'. 

Further, yada and ydtxa specify the meaning 'when'. In Hittite, man came to be used for temporal 
relationships, possibly after combined use with kuit; kuitman expressed a temporal relationship even in 
Late Hittite, corresponding to 'while, until', though mahhan has replaced man (J. Friedrich i960 gives 
further details). The conjunction man itself specifies the meanings 'if and 'although' in standard 

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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

Hittite. In both Hittite and Vedic then, the "loose" relative-construction relationship between 
subordinate clauses and principal clauses is gradually replaced by special conjunctions for the various 
types of hypotactic relationship: Causal, Temporal, Conditional, Concessive. 

Just as the Causal relationship developed from an Ablative modified by a Relative construction, so the 
Temporal and Conditional relationship developed from a clause modifying an underlying Time node. 

The less differentiated and less precisely related subordinate clauses are often still evident, however, 
as in ydd clauses of the Archaic hymn, Rigveda 1.167. For conciseness, only yad clauses will be cited 
here, with Hoffmann's interpretation of each; the entire stanzas and their translations are given by 
Hoffmann (1967). 

RV 1.167.5. josad yad im asurya sacadhyai 

she-desires when them Asuryan to-follow 

'when the Asuryan will desire to follow them' 

RV arko yad vo maruto havisman 

song-of-praise whenever, for-you Maruts accompanied-by-libations 
'if the song of praise accompanied by libations is designed for you, Maruts' 

RV saca yad im vrsamana aharhyu 

1.167.7. together because them manly-minded proud 

sthira cij janir vahate subhagah 

rigid though women she-drives well-favored 

'because the manly minded, proud, yet stubborn [Rodasi] brings along other favored women' 

In these three stanzas yad introduces subordinate clauses with three different relationships: 
Temporal, Conditional, Causal. Such multiple uses of yad belong particularly to the archaic style; 
subsequently they are less frequent, being replaced by more specific conjunctions. 

In addition to the greater specificity of subordinate relationship indicated by particles, the early, 
relatively free hypotactic constructions come to be modified by the dominant subjective quality of the 
principal verb. The effect may be illustrated by passages like the following from a Strophic hymn, in 
which the verb of the principal clause is an optative: 



239 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



RV 1.38.4. 


yad 


yuyam prsnimataro 




if, when 


you having-Prsni-as-mother 










martasah 


syatana 




mortals 


you-would-be 










stota 


vo amrfah syat 




singer 


your immortal he-would-be 



'Your singer would be immortal if[= in a situation when] you Maruts were mortals.' (That is, if our 
roles were reversed, and you were mortals, then you would wish me to be immortal.) 

This passage illustrates how the use of the Optative in the principal clause brings about a Conditional 
relationship in the Subordinate clause (see also Delbriick 1900). Through its expression of uncertainty 
the Optative conveys a Conditional rather than a Temporal meaning in the yad clause. 

NOTE. Lacking verb forms expressing uncertainty, Hittite indicates conditional relationships simply by means 
of Particles (J. Friedrich i960). Although several particles are used in Hittite to indicate various types of 
conditional clauses— man ... man for Contrary-to-Fact, takku and man for Simple Conditionals— Hittite did not 
develop the variety of patterns found in other dialects. These patterns, as well described in the handbooks, are 
brought about not only by differing particles but also by the uses of the various tense and mood forms. 
Constructions in the dialects which have developed farthest from those of PIE are those in which the tense, mood, 
or person is modified in accordance with rules based on the verb form of the principal clause. Such shifts are 
among the most far-reaching results of the subjective quality of the Indo-European verb (Delbriick 1900). 

Differences between the constructions in the various dialects reflect the changes as well as the earlier 
situation. In Homer, statements may be reported with a shift of mood and person, as in: 



Odyssey 


lissesthai 


de 


min 


autos, 


hopos 


nemertea 


eipei 




request 


Ptc. 


him 


self 


that 


true-things 


he-may-say 



'You yourself ask him so that he tells the truth.' 

The form eipei is a third-person aorist subjunctive. If the statement were in direct discourse, the verb 
would be eipe, second-person imperative, and the clause would read: eipe nemertea 'tell the truth'. 
Such shifts in person and mood would not be expected in an OV language; in Vedic, for example, 
statements are repeated and indicated with a postposed iti. The shifts in the other dialects, as they 
changed more and more to VO structure, led to intricate expression of subordinate relationships, 
through shifts in person, in mood, and in tense, as well as through specific particles indicating the kind 



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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

of subordination. The syntactic constructions of these dialects then came to differ considerably from 
that even in Vedic. 

The earliest poems of the Vedas are transparent in syntax, as may be illustrated by Stanzas 9 and 10 of 
Hymn 1.167: 

RV 1.167.9. 



nahi nu 


vo maruto anty 


asme 


never Ptc. 


your Maruts near 


from-us 




arattac cic 


chavaso antam 


apuh 


from-far or 


of-strength end 


they-reached 




te dhrsnuna 


savasa susuvanso 




they bold 


power strengthened 






'rno na 


dveso dhrsata pari 


sthuh 


flood like 


enmity bold against they-stand 



'Never have they reached the limit of your strength, Maruts, whether near or far from us. 
Strengthened by bold power they boldly oppose enmity like a flood.' 



RV I.167.IO. 


vayam 


adyendrasya prestha 


vayam 






we 


today-Indra's most-favored we 
















svo 


vocemahi 


samarye 






tomorrow we-wish-to-be-called 


in-battle 
















vayam 


pura mahi ca 


no anu 


dyiin 




we 


formerly great and 


us through 


days 














tan 


na rbhuksa naram anu 


syat 






that 


us chief of-men to 


may-he-be 





'PVe today, we tomorrow, want to be called Indra's favorites in battle. We were formerly . And great 
things will be for us through the days; may the chief of men give that to us'. 

Although the hymn offers problems of interpretation because of religious and poetic difficulties, the 
syntax of these two stanzas is straightforward; the verbs in general are independent of one another, in 
this way indicating a succession of individual sentences. Such syntactic patterns, though more 
complicated than those of prose passages, lack the complexity of Classical Greek and Latin, or even 
Homeric Greek. These early Vedic texts, like those of Old Hittite, include many of the syntactic 
categories found in the dialects, but the patterns of order and relationship between clauses had already 
changed considerably from the OV patterns of Middle PIE. 

241 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



9.6. SINTACTIC CATEGORIES 



9.6.1. PARTICLES AS SYNTACTIC MEANS OF EXPRESSION 

Noninflected words of various functions were used in indicating relationships between other words in 
the sentence or between sentences. 

1. Some were used for modifying Nouns, often indicating the relationships of nouns to verbs. Although 
these were generally placed after nouns and accordingly were Postpositions, they have often been called 
Prepositions by reason of their function rather than their position with regard to nouns (Delbriick). 

2. Others were used for modifying Verbs, often specifying more precisely the meanings of verbs; these 
then maybe called Preverbs. 

3. Others, commonly referred to as Sentence Connectives, were used primarily to indicate the 
relationships between Clauses or Sentences (Watkins 1964; Lehmann 1969). 

9.6.1.1. POSTPOSITIONS. 

Postpositions in the various dialects are found with specific cases, in accordance with their meanings. 

Yet in the Old Hittite texts, the Genitive rather than such a specific case is prominent with 
Postpositions derived from Nouns, such as piran '(in) front' (Neu 1970): 



kuis LUGAL-ua-as piran eszi 

who king's front he-sits 

'whoever sits before the king' 
Such postpositions came to be frozen in form, whether unidentifiable as to etymology; derived from 
nouns, like piran; or derived from verbs, like Skr. tirds (viz. Lehman). Further, as the language came to 
be VO, they were placed before nouns. 

As case forms were less clearly marked, they not only "governed" cases but also took over the 
meanings of case categories. The preposition tirds (tiro), derived from the root *tr- 'cross', illustrates 
both the etymological meaning of the form and its eventual development as preposition: 



RV 8.82.9. 


yam te 


syenah 


padabharat 




what for-you 


eagle 


with-foot-he-bore 












tiro 


rajansy 


asprtam 




crossing, through 


skies 


not-relinquishing 












pibed [<piba id] 


asya 


tvam isise 




you-drink-indeed 


of-it 


you you-are-master (for-your-benefit) 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

'What the eagle brought for you in his claws, not dropping it [as he flew] through the skies, of that 
drink. You control [it for your own benefit]'. 

The syntactic use of such particles with nouns is accordingly clear. 

9.6.1.2. PREVERBS. 

1. Rather than having the close relationships to nouns illustrated above, particles could instead be 
associated primarily with Verbs, often the same particles which were used as Postpositions. 

2. Such combinations of particles and verbs came to be treated as units and are found repeatedly in 
specific uses (Delbruck 1888). 

A. Preverbs might occupy various positions: 

1. If unmarked, they are placed before the verb; 

2. If marked, they are placed initially in clauses (Watkins 1964). 

NOTE. In the course of time the Preverbs in unmarked position came to be combined with their verbs, though 
the identity of each element is long apparent in many of the dialects. Thus, in Modern German the primary accent 
is still maintained on some verbal roots, and in contrast with cognate nouns the prefix carries weak stress: erteilen 
'distribute', IJrteil 'judgment'. The steps toward the combination of preverb and verbal root have been described 
for the dialects, for example, Greek, in which uncombined forms as well as combined forms are attested during the 
period of our texts. 

B. In the attested IE dialects: 

a. Preverbs which remained uncombined came to be treated as Adverbs. 

b. Combinations of Preverbs plus Verbs, on the other hand, eventually came to function like unitary 
elements. 

The two different positions of preverbs in early texts led eventually to different word classes. 

9.6.1.3. SENTENCE PARTICLES. 



1. Particles were 


also used to relate sentences and clauses (J. Friedrich 1959:18, 


§11): 


takku 


LU.ULU LU -an 


EL.LUM 


QA.AZ.ZU 


nasma 


GIR-SU 


kuiski 


if 


man 




free 


his-hand 


or 


his-foot 


someone 



tuuarnizzi 


nusse 


20 


GIN 


KUBABBAR 


paai 


he-breaks 


Ptc.-to-him 


20 


shekels 


silver 


he-gives 



'If anyone breaks the hand or foot of a freeman, then he must give him twenty shekels of silver. 



243 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Particles like the initial word in this example indicate the kind of clause that will follow and have long 
been well described. The function of particles like nu is not, however, equally clear. 

NOTE. Dillon and Gotze related nu and the use of sentence connectives to similar particles in Old Irish (Dillon 
1947). Such particles introduce many sentences in Old Irish and have led to compound verb forms in this VSO 
language. Delbriick had also noted their presence in Vedic (1888) 

Since introductory su and ta were more frequent than was nu in the older Hittite texts, scholars 
assumed that sentences in IE were regularly introduced by these sentence connectives. And Sturtevant 
proposed, as etymology for the anaphoric pronoun, combinations of so- and to- with enclitic pronouns, 
as in the well-known Hittite sequence ta-at, cf. IE tod, and so on (see Otten and Soucek 1969 for the 
use of such particles in one text). 

It is clear that sentence connectives were used in Hittite to indicate continued treatment of a given 
topic (Raman 1973). It is also found with Hittite relative constructions, a function which may also be 
ascribed to Vedic sd and tad. 

NOTE. For Lehman (1974), since this use may be accounted for through post-PIE influences, sentence 
connectives may have had a minor role in PIE. 

2. Other particles, like Hitt. takku 'if, probably had their counterparts in PIE, even if the surface forms 
were completely unrelated. This is also true for Emphatic Particles like Skr. id; they were used after 
nouns as well as imperatives. Such emphatic particles combined with imperatives suggest the presence 
of Interjections, which cannot usually be directly reconstructed for PIE but are well attested in the 
several dialects. 

3. A coordinate sentence connective -qe can clearly be reconstructed on the basis of Goth. u(h), Skr. 
ca, Gk. te, Lat. que, and so on. But its primary function is the coordination of elements in the sentence 
rather than clauses or sentences. 

NOTE. Moreover, when ca is used to connect verbs in the Vedic materials, they are parallel (Delbriick 1888); 
Delbriick finds only one possible exception. In an OV language the relating of successive verbs is carried out by 
means of nonfinite verbs placed before finite. We may then expect that coordinating particles had their primary 
use in PIE as connectors for sentence elements rather than for sentences. 

Another such particle is -we 'or'. Like -qe, the particle indicating disjunctive 'or' was postposed, in 
retention of the original pattern as late as Classical Latin. 



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9. Proto-Indo-European Syntax 

4. Particles in PIE may also have corresponded to verbal qualifiers. 

a. The most notable of these is me, which carried a negative modal meaning. 

b. There is indication of such uses of particles in other patterns, for example, of Vedic pura 'earlier' 
to indicate the past, as apparently Brugmann was the first to point out (Deibriick 1888), and also 
Vedic sma, to indicate repeated action in the past (Hoffmann 1967). It is curious that sma is also 
found after ma in Vedic (Hoffmann 1967). 

NOTE. Lehman suggested that such mood- and tense-carrying particles may have been transported from a 
postverbal to a preverbal position. Some particles may accordingly have been equivalent in an earlier stage of PIE 
to elements used after verbs to indicate verbal categories. 

9i6i2TMARIffiDORDERlN^ENTONCES! 

1. Elements in sentences can be emphasized, by Marking; the chief device for such emphasis is Initial 
Position. 

Other sentence elements may also be placed in initial position for marking. 

2. In unmarked position the preverb directly precedes the verb. Changes in normal order thus provide 
one of the devices for conveying emphasis. 

Other devices have to do with Selection, notably particles which are postposed after a marked element. 

3. Emphasis can also be indicated by lexical selection. 

4. Presumably other modifications might also be made, as in Intonation. 

The various syntactic devices accordingly provided means to introduce marking in sentences. 

(MTiTroPICAUZATioi^ 

Like emphasis, Topicalization is carried out by patterns of arrangement, but the arrangement is 
applied to coequal elements rather than elements which are moved from their normal order. 

Topicalization by arrangement is well known in the study of the early languages, as in the initial lines 
of the Homeric poems. The Iliad begins with the noun menin 'wrath', the Odyssey with the noun dndra 
'man'. These, to be sure, are the only possible nouns in the syntactically simple sentences opening both 
poems: menin deide 'Sing of the wrath' and dndra moi ennepe 'Tell me of the man'. Yet the very 
arrangement of moi and other enclitics occupying second position in the sentence, in accordance with 
Wackernagel's law, indicates the use of initial placement among nominal elements for topicalization. 



245 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

The use of topicalization may be illustrated by a more complex set of sentences, such as the first 
address of Zeus in the Odyssey. Only the first lines of this will be quoted; but these indicate a shift in 
topic from the 'gods' to 'men', then to a particular man, Aegisthus, then to Agamemnon, and 
subsequently to Orestes (Lehman 1974). 

(Jpopoi, hoion denu theoiis brotoi aitioontai; eks hemeon gar phasi kdk' emmenai, hoi de kai autoi, 
spheisin atasthalieisin huper moron dlge' ekhousin, hos kai nun Aigisthos huper moron Atreidao, gem' 
dlokhon mnesten, ton d'ektane nostesanta, 

'Alas, how the mortals are now blaming the gods. For they say evils come from us, but they 
themselves have woes beyond what's fated by their own stupidities. Thus Aegisthus beyond what was 
fated has now married the wedded wife of Agamemnon, and killed him on his return.' 

As this passage and many others that might be cited illustrate, the basic sentence patterns could be 
rearranged by stylistic rules, both for emphasis and for topicalization. In this way the relatively strict 
arrangement of simple sentences could be modified to bring about variety and flexibility. 



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Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



APPENDIX I: INDO-EUROPEAN IN USE 



I.i. TEXTS TRANSLATED INTO MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

These texts have been translated into PIE by Indo-Europeanist Fernando Lopez-Menchero, and 
modified to fit the Modern Indo-European grammatical rules. 

NOTE. Additions, corrections and deletions are listed and changed files published at 
<http://dnghu.org/en/indo-european-bible-translation/>. 



1.1.1. PATER NSERE (LORD'S PRAYER) 



English 


Latine 


EXXnvncd 


Europaiom 


Our Father, who art in 
heaven, 


Pater noster, qui es in 
caelis: 


nmxp niJwv 6 £v tok; 
oupavoTc;- 


Pater Nsere, kemeloisi 
jos essi, 


Hallowed be thy Name. 


sanctificetur Nomen 
Tuum; 


aYiaaOryrw to 6vo[jd 
aou- 


Nomn sqenetoru tewe. 


Thy kingdom come. 


adveniat Regnum 
Tuum; 


eAOetw n paaiAda aou- 


Regnom cemietod 
tewe. 


Thy will be done, 


fiat voluntas Tua, 


Y£vi"|SnTU) to 9eAr|u.a 
aou, 


dhidhetoru wolia 
Tewija, 


On earth as it is in 
heaven. 


sicut in caelo, et in 
terra. 


tog £v oupavw Kai im 


ita kernel eij ota 
pltewijai. 


Give us this day our 
daily bread. 


Panem nostrum 
cotidianum da nobis 
hodie; 


tov apTOv ni-iwv TOV 
£"mouaiov boq n^v 
anu.£pov- 


Qaqodjutenom 
bharsiom nserom edjeu 
dasdhi-nos 


And forgive us our 
trespasses, 


et dimitte nobis debita 
nostra, 


Kai acpec; nu-TvTa 
6q)£iAri|jaTa riM^v, 


joqe dhaleglams 
nserams parke, 


As we forgive those who 
trespass against us. 


Sicut et nos dimittimus 
debitoribus nostris; 


ihq Kai nuxTc; acpi£[j£v idiq 
6cp£iA£Taig hijwv- 


swai skeletbhos 
parkomos. 


And lead us not into 
temptation, 


et ne nos inducas in 
tentationem; 


Kai [jri £ia£V£YKr|C ni^ag 
z\q TT£ipaa[j6v, 


Enim me noms peritloi 
enke prod, 


But deliver us from evil. 
Amen 


sed libera nos a Malo. 
Amen 


aAAa puaai r)u.ac; otto 
tou TTOvnpou. a[jriv. 


mo upeled noseie nos. 
Estod. 



247 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



1.1.2. SLWEIE MARIJA (HAIL MARY) 



English 


Latine 


E^AnviKd 


Europaiom 


Hail Mary, full of grace, 


Ave Maria, gratia plena, 


©£OTOK£ I1ap9£v£, 
XCUp£, K£XCipiTW[J£Vr| 

Mapia, 


Slweie Marija, cratia 
plena tvi, 


the Lord is with thee; 


Dominus tecum. 


6 Kupioc; [j£Ta aou. 


Arjos twoio esti; 


blessed art thou among 
women, 


Benedicta tu in 
mulieribus, 


£uAoYn|J£vr| au £v 
yuvai^i, 


suwoqna cenaisi essi, 


and blessed is the fruit 
of thy womb, Jesus. 


et benedictus fructus 
ventris tui, Iesus. 


zuhoyr\\Aiyoq 6 Kaprroc; 
ir\q KOiAiac; aou, oti 
ZwTripa £T£K£c; twv 
ijjuxcjjv r)u.a)v 


suwoqnos-qe uderosio 
two bhreugs estod, 
Jesus. 


Holy Mary, Mother of 
God, 


Sancta Maria, Mater 
Dei, 




Noibha Marija, 
Deiwosio Mater, 


pray for us sinners, 


ora pro nobis 
peccatoribus, 




nosbhos oraie 
ageswntbhos, 


now and at the hour of 
our death. Amen. 


nunc et in hora mortis 
nostrae. Amen. 




nviqe mrtios-qe nos 
daitei. Estod. 



L1.3. KREDDHEMI (NICENE CREED) 



English 


Latine 


EMnvncd 


Europaiom 


We believe in one God, 


Credo in unum Deo, 


l~liaT£uou.£v z\q £va 0£ov 


Oinom kreddhemi 
Deiwom, 


the Father Almighty, 


Patrem omnipotentem, 


nmxpa rravTOKpaTopa, 


Paterm 
solwomaghmonm, 


Maker of heaven and 
earth, 


factorem caeli et terrae, 


Troirrrnv oupavou Kai 


dj ewepltewidhotm, 


and of all things visible 
and invisible. 


visibilium omnium et 
invisibilium; 


6paTU)V T£ TTdVTWV KOI 

aopdTwv. 


drkniom solwosom 
ndrkniom-qe dhetor; 


And in one Lord Jesus 
Christ, 


Et in unum Dominum 
Iesum Christum, 


Kai z\q Sva Kupiov 
1r|Cfouv XpiaTOv, 


Arjom-qe Jesum 
Ghristom oinom, 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



the only-begotten Son 


Filium Dei unigenitum, 


TOV uiOV TOU 9£0U TOV 


Deiwosio Sunum 


of God, 




[jovoYEvrj, 


oinognatom, 


begotten of the Father 


et ex Patre natum ante 


tov £K tou TTcnpoc; 


Patros-jos gnatos aiwed 


before all worlds 


omnia saecula: 


Y£vvi"|9£VTa Trpo ttovtuv 


prai sol wed, 


(aeons), 




to)v aiwvwv, 




Light of Light, very God 


Deum de Deo, lumen de 


(pug £K (pWTOC;, 9£OV 


Deiwos Dei wed, 


of very God, 


lumine, Deum verum de 


aAr|9iv6v £K 9£oO 


leuksmn leuksmene, 




Deo vero, 


aAi"|9ivoO, 


werom Deiwom wered 
Deiwed, 


begotten, not made, 


genitum non factum, 


Y£vvi"|S£VTa ou 
TTOir|S£VTa, 


gentos, ne dhatos, 


being of one substance 


consubstantialem Patri, 


6u.oouaiov tu) TTcnpi- 


Patrei kombhoutis, 


with the Father; 








by whom all things were 


per quern omnia facta 


5l" OU TO TTdVTa £Y£V£TO" 


josod solwa dhakta 


made; 


sunt; 




senti; 


who for us men, and for 


qui propter nos 


tov 5i" niJag Toug 


qos nosbhis rodhi 


our salvation, came 


homines et propter 


av9pioTTOuc; Kai 5ia thv 


dhghomnbhis 


down from heaven, 


nostram salutem 


r||J£T£pav awTnpiav 


kemelobhes kidet, 




descendit de caelis; 


KaT£A96vTa 




and was incarnate by 


et incarnatus est de 


ek Twv oupavwv Kai 


enim memsom Noibhed 


the Holy Ghost of the 


Spiritu Sancto ex Maria 


aapKU)9£VTa ek 


Anmed Wewrtei 


Virgin Mary, and was 


Virgine et homo factus 


Trv£U[jaTog ayiou Kai 


Marijad eksi andhesad, 


made man; 


est; 


Mapiac; Trjg Trap9£vou 


enim dhghomon 






Kai £vav9pwTrr|aavTa, 


geneto; 


he was crucified for us 


crucifixus etiam pro 


aTaupw9£VTa te uttep 


eti krukidhetos nosbhis 


under Pontius Pilate, 


nobis sub Pontio Pilato, 


r||JU)V £TTi IIOVTiOU 


prod Pontiei upo 


and suffered, and was 


passus et sepultus est; 


riiAdTOu, Kai Tra96vTa 


Pilatei, pastos sepelitos- 


buried, 




Kai Taq>£VTa, 


qe esti, 


and the third day he 


et resurrexit tertia die 


Kai avaaTdvTa Tfj TpiTfl 


joqe ati tritiei stete djwi, 


rose again, according to 


secundum Scripturas; 


r||J£pa koto Tag YP a( P a C 


skreibhmona ad 


the Scriptures, and 


et ascendit in caelum, 


Kai av£A96vTa z\q Toug 


kemelom-qe skanduos, 


ascended into heaven, 


sedet ad dexter am 


oupavoug, Kai 


Patri deksijai sedeleti; 


and sitteth on the right 


Patris; 


Ka9£^6u.£vov £K 5£c;ia)v 




hand of the Father; 




tou TTOTpoc; 





249 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



from thence he shall 


et iterum venturus est 


Kai TrdAiv £px6[j£vov 


joqe dwonim klewose 


come again, with glory, 


cum gloria iudicare 


[j£Ta 56£i"|C KpTvai 


cemiest ciwoms 


to judge the quick and 


vivos et mortuos; 


^wvTac; Kai vEKpouc;- 


mrtoms-qe 


the dead; 






komdhenqos; 


whose kingdom shall 


cuius regni non erit 


ou Trjg paaiAdac; ouk 


qosio regnom ne 


have no end. 


finis; 


ecrrai ithoq. 


antjom bhewseti. 


And in the Holy Ghost, 


Et in Spiritum Sanctum, 


Kai dq to nv£U[ja to 


joqe Noibhom Anmom, 


the Lord and Giver of 


Dominum et 


Ayiov, to Kupiov, (Kai) 


potim etrodhotm-qe, 


life, who proceedeth 


vivificantem: qui ex 


TO ^WOTTOIOV, TO £K TOU 


Patre Sunewe-qe 


from the Father, 


Patre Filioque procedit; 


TTaTpOg £KTTOp£UO[J£VOV, 


proilom, 


who with the Father 


qui cum Patre et Filio 


to auv TraTpi Kai uiw 


qei Patre Sunuwe-qe 


and the Son together is 


simul adoratur et 


aU[JTTpOaKUVOU[J£VOV 


semli aidetor enim 


worshiped and 


conglorificatur; qui 


Kai auv5o^a^6[j£vov, to 


magtaietor bhatos-jos 


glorified, who spake by 


locutus est per 


AaArjaav 5ia twv 


probhatms terqe esti. 


the prophets. 


Prophetas; 


TrpocpnTwv. 




In one holy catholic and 


Et in unam sanctam 


z\q [jiav, ayiav, 


joqe oinam, noibham, 


apostolic Church; 


catholicam et 


koOoAikhv Kai 


kmtisolwam 




apostolicam Ecclesiam. 


aTToaToAiKnv £KKAr|aiav- 


apostoleiam ekkletijam. 


we acknowledge one 


Confiteor unum 


6[J0A0Y0U[J£V £V 


Oinom bhateiai 


baptism for the 


baptisma in 


(3dTTTia[ja z\q aq>£aiv 


agesupomoukom 


remission of sins; 


remissionem 
peccatorum 


6[japTia)v- 


cadhmn; 


we look for the 


et exspecto 


Trpoa5oKoO|j£v 


saitlom-qe cejtam 


resurrection of the 


resurrectionem 


avdaTaaiv v£Kpwv, Kai 


cemionqom. Estod 


dead, and the life of the 


mortuorum et vitam 


^wriv tou [jeAAovto^ 




world to come. Amen. 


venturi saeculi. Amen. 


aiwvog. A[jr|v. 





Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



I.14. NOUDOS SUNUS (PARABLE OF THE PRODIGAL SON) 





English 


Latine 


E^AnviKd 


Europaiom 


11 


"A certain man had 


Homo quidam habuit 


'AvBpwTTOc; tic; £?xev 5uo 


Dhghomon enis 




two sons. 


duos filios: 


uiouc;. 


sunuwe eiket. 


12 


And the younger of 


et dixit adolescentior 


KOi £?TT£V 6 V£COT£pOg 


Joqe jowisteros patrei 




them said to his 


ex illis patri: Pater, da 


auTwv tu) TraTpi, l~laT£p, 


weuqet : Pater, rijos 




father, 'Father, give 


mihi portionem 


56c; [joi to £TTi(3aAAov 


dasdhi moi aitim qai 




me the portion of 


substantiae, quae me 


yiipoq ir\q ouaiac;. 6 5e 


meghei aineti, joqe 




goods that falls to 


contingit. Et divisit illis 


5i£?A£v ciutoTc; tov (3iov. 


reim ibhom widhet. 




me.' So he divided to 


substantiam. 








them his livelihood. 








13 


And not many days 


Et non post multos 


Kai [jet' ou TToAAag 


Enim ne peluwams 




after, the younger son 


dies, congregatis 


n|j£pag auvayaYOJv 


dinams pos, solwa 




gathered all together, 


omnibus, adolescentior 


Travra 6 v£ioT£poc; uioc; 


garlos, jowisteros 




journeyed to afar 


Alius peregre profectus 


aTT£5r|[-in CT£v Z K X^PQv 


siinus reu porsotenom 




country, and there 


est in regionem 


[JOKpaV, KOI £K£I 


oigheto londhom, 




wasted his 


longinquam, et ibi 


5i£aK6p"ma£v Tiiv 


idhei-qe reim nudet 




possessions with 


dissipavit substantiam 


ouaiav outou ^wv 


sewe ghloidotos 




prodigal living. 


suam vivendo 
luxuriose. 


aawTwc;. 


ceiwents. 


14 


But when he had 


Et postquam omnia 


5aTravr|aavTog Si 


Enim itapo solwa 




spent all, there arose 


consummasset, facta 


auTOu Travra eyeveto 


cosisset kom, 




a severe famine in 


est fames valida in 


Aijjog iaxupa Kara thv 


dhrghtos molet 




that land, and he 


regione ilia, et ipse 


Xcopav £K£i'vr|v, Kai 


ghredhus londhei 




began to be in want. 


ccepit egere. 


auTog npc;aTO 
uaT£p£?a9ai. 


olnosmei, joqe egetum 
sepe bhwije. 


15 


Then he went and 


Et abiit, et adhaesit uni 


Kai Trop£u9£ig £KoAAr|9r| 


Itaqe calos, qismei 




joined himself to a 


civium regionis illius: 


£Vi TU)V ttoAitwv jr\q 


jugeto keiwijom 




citizen of that 


et misit ilium in villam 


Xwpag £K£i'vr|C. KQ i 


olnosio londhi, im-qe 




country, and he sent 


suam ut pasceret 


£tt£[jhj£v auTOv £ig touc; 


sontiet porkoms 




him into his fields to 


porcos. 


aypoug auTOu (36aK£iv 


pasksi. 




feed swine. 




XOipoug: 




16 


And he would gladly 


Et cupiebat implere 


KOi £TT£9U[J£I 


Atqe uderom skaliqais 




have filled his 


ventrem suum de 


Xopraa9rjvai ek twv 


plenatum gherijeto 




stomach with the 


siliquis, quas porci 


K£paTi'wv tov na9iov oi 


porkos edent-jams 




pods that the swine 


manducabant: et nemo 


XoTpoi, Kai ou5ac; 


atqe neqis ismei dot. 



251 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 





ate, and no one gave 


illi dabat. 


£5i5ou auTto. 






him anything. 








17 


"But when he came to 


In se autem reversus, 


z\q eoutov bi eAOojv 


Swei poti wrtomnos, 




himself, he said, 'How 


dixit: Quanti 


£(pi"l, rioaoi [jiaOioi tou 


egt: qotioi patros 




many of my father's 


mercenarii in domo 


TTcnpoc; [jou 


domei misdhotes 




hired servants have 


patris mei abundant 


TTepiaaeuovTai apTwv, 


pasknis spreigonti, kei 




bread enough and to 


panibus, ego autem hie 


eyto 5e Aiu.w (l)5e 


ego au dhami mrijai! 




spare, and I perish 


famepereo! 


aTr6AAu[jai. 






with hunger! 








18 


I will arise and go to 


surgam, et ibo ad 


avacrrac; Trop£uaou.ai 


arisomnos paterm 




my father, and will 


patrem meum, et 


"rrpoc; tov TTcnrpa [jou 


eiso meneadjoqe 




say to him, "Father, I 


dicam ei: Pater, 


Kai £pw auTw, l~laT£p, 


ismei sekso : Pater, 




have sinned against 


peccavi in caelum, et 


fi[japT0v £l£ TOV 


kemelom proti 




heaven and before 


coram te: 


oupavov Kai evcottiov 


tewom-qe anti 




you, 




aou, 


memlai, 


19 


and I am no longer 


jam non sum dignus 


ouketi £i[ji a^ioc; 


jami ne deknos ego, 




worthy to be called 


vocari filius tuus: fac 


KAnSrjvai uioc; aou: 


svinus tewijos 




your son. Make me 


me sicut unum de 


TToinaov u.£ ihq £va twv 


kluwetum: dhasdhi- 




like one of your hired 


mercenariis tuis. 


u.ia9iwv aou. 


me swai qimqim 




servants."' 






misdhotom tewe. 


20 


"And he arose and 


Et surgens venit ad 


Kai avaaTac; fjA0£v 


Ita aritos paterm 




came to his father. 


patrem suum. Cum 


Trpoc; tov TraT£pa 


ludhet sewe. Eti jom 




But when he was still 


autem adhuc longe 


eauTOu. cti 5e outou 


qeli bhiilo, em pater 




a great way off, his 


esset, vidit ilium pater 


[JOKpaV OTTEXOVTOg 


tosiopedrketjoqe 




father saw him and 


ipsius, et misericordia 


£?5£V aUTOV 6 TraTnp 


ana krsents komqeilio 




had compassion, and 
ran and fell on his 
neck and kissed him. 


motus est, et accurrens 
cecidit super collum 
ejus, et osculatus est 
eum. 


auTOu Kai 
£aTrAaYXvia9r| Kai 

5paU.0JV £TT£TT£a£V £TTi 

tov Tpaxn^ ov auTOu Kai 
KaT£(piAr|a£v outov. 


krvitos esti enim 
qolsom petlos em 
bhusaiet. 


21 


And the son said to 


Dixit que ei filius: 


eIttev 5£ 6 uiog aUTU), 


Wedet oisosmoi 




him, 'Father, I have 


Pater, peccavi in 


riaT£p, n[japT0v z\q tov 


sunus: Pater, 




sinned against heaven 


caelum, et coram te: 


oupavov Kai evojttiov 


kemelom proti 




and in your sight, and 


jam non sum dignus 


aou, ouketi du.i a^iog 


tewom-qe anti 




am no longer worthy 


vocari filius tuus. 


KAnSrjvai u\6q aou. 


memlai: jami ne 




to be called your son.' 






deknos ego, svinus 
tewijos nomnadhiom 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



22 


"But the father said to 


Dixit autem pater ad 


£?tt£v bz 6 TTarnp Trpoc; 


nvi misdhatbhos bhato 




his servants, 'Bring 


servos suos: Cito 


touc; 5ouAouc; auTOu, 


pater sewe; bhersi: 




out the best robe and 


proferte stolam 


Taxu £^£V£yko:t£ crroAnv 


prismam dhraghete 




put it on him, and put 


primam, et induite 


THV TTpiOTI"|V Kai 


togamjoqetom 




a ring on his hand 


ilium, et date annulum 


£v5uaaT£ outov, Kai 


westijete, anom tosio 




and sandals on his 
feet. 


in manum ejus, et 
calceamenta in pedes 
ejus: 


56t£ 5oktuAiov z\q jf)v 
X£Tpa auTOu Kai 
uTTo5ri|jaTa z\q touc; 
Tr65ac;, 


gheseni kerpioms-qe 
esio daste pedsi: 


23 


And bring the fatted 


et adducite vitulum 


Kai q)£p£T£ TOV U.OCJXOV 


kom piwonm-qe 




calf here and kill it, 


saginatum, et occidite, 


tov aiT£UT6v, 9uaaT£ 


bherete loigom joqe 




and let us eat and be 


et manducemus, et 


Kai cpayovTEc; 


chenete, joqe edamos, 




merry; 


epulemur: 


£U(ppav9cou.£v, 


joqe wldam terpamos, 


24 


for this my son was 


quia hie filius meus 


oti outoc; 6 uioc; u.ou 


jodqid kei svinus mene 




dead and is alive 


mortuus erat, et 


v£Kpoc; fjv Kai avz£,r\ozv, 


dhedhuwos est atqe 




again; he was lost and 


revixit: perierat, et 


fjv aTToAcoAtoc; Kai 


coje ati: skombnos est, 




is found.' And they 


inventus est. Et 


£upe9r|. Kai np^avro 


atqe wretai. Enim 




began to be merry. 


cceperunt epulari. 


£ucppaiv£a9ai. 


wldam bhwijont. 


25 


"Now his older son 


Erat autem filius ejus 


r|v 5e 6 uioc; auTOu 6 


Agrei au senisteros est 




was in the field. And 


senior in agro: et cum 


Trp£a(3uT£poc; £v aypw: 


svinus: joqe jom 




as he came and drew 


veniret, et 


Kai coc; £pxou.£voc; 


cemset enim domom 




near to the house, he 


appropinquaret domui, 


r|YY |CT£v T fi okia, 


nediset, komkantum 




heard music and 


audivit symphoniam et 


r|KOua£v au[jcpcoviac; Kai 


leigm-qe kluwet. 




dancing. 


chorum: 


xopcov, 




26 


So he called one of 


et vocavit unum de 


Kai TrpoaKaA£aau.£voc; 


Joqe neqom 




the servants and 


servis, et interrogavit 


£va tcov Trai5cov 


moghuwom ghawlos 




asked what these 


quid haec essent. 


£TTUV9aV£T0 Tl' 6v £i'n 


prket qid ghai-ke 




things meant. 




TauTa. 


bhowsent. 


27 


And he said to him, 


Is que dixit illi: Frater 


6 5£ eIttev auTto oti '0 


Isqe sqet: bhrater 




'Your brother has 


tuus venit, et occidit 


abzhyoc, aou rJKei, Kai 


tewe ceme enim 




come, and because he 


pater tuus vitulum 


£9uaev 6 TraTnp aou 


piwonm pater two 




has received him safe 


saginatum, quia 


tov [joaxov TOV 


chone loigom, jodqid 




and sound, your 
father has killed the 


salvum ilium recepit. 


aiT£UT6v, oti uyiaivovTa 
auTOv aTT£Aa(3£v. 


torn ciwom sol worn 
ghode. 




fatted calf.' 









253 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



28 


"But he was angry 


Indignatus est autem, 


wpYi'cjSn 5e Kai ouk 


krditos autim esti, 




and would not go in. 


et nolebat introire. 


r|9£A£v da£A9£Tv. 6 5£ 


joqe ne en eitum 




Therefore his father 


Pater ergo illius 


rraTrip auTOu £^£A9d)v 


weluat. Ar pater ejos 




came out and pleaded 


egressus, ccepit rogare 


Trap£KaA£i aCuov. 


eksodlos, bhwijet im 




with him. 


ilium. 




chestum. 


29 


So he answered and 


At ille respondens, 


6 5£ arroKpiBdc; eIttev 


Atqe se protiweqents, 




said to his father, 'Lo, 


dixit patri suo: Ecce tot 


tu) TTarpi auTOu, 15ou 


patrei bhato sewe: 




these many years I 


annis servio tibi, et 


ToaauTa £Ti"| SouAeuw 


edke totioms atnoms 




have been serving 


numquam mandatum 


aOI KOi 0U5£TT0T£ 


sistami twei upo, joqe 




you; I never 


tuum praeterivi: et 


£VToAriv aou TraprjAOov, 


neqom dikam tewe 




transgressed your 


numquam dedisti mihi 


Kai £U.OJ 0U5£TT0T£ 


kleuso dus, atqe 




commandment at any 


haedum ut cum amicis 


eSwkoc; Spicpov Tva u.£Ta 


neqom meghei 




time; and yet you 


meis epularer. 


Twv cpi'Awv |JOU 


ghaidom desta wldai 




never gave me a 




£U(ppav9w: 


amikis senuteuijai. 




young goat, that I 










might make merry 










with my friends. 








30 


But as soon as this 


Sed postquam filius 


6t£ 5e 6 uioc; aou outoc; 


Mo ita torn siinus tewe 




son of yours came, 


tuus hie, qui devoravit 


6 KaTacpaytov aou tov 


kei, reim loutsais 




who has devoured 


substantiam suam cum 


(3l'0V U.ETO TTopvwv 


cralos ceme, olnosmoi 




your livelihood with 


meretricibus, venit, 


fjA9£v, £9uaac; auTtu 


peiwonm loigom 




harlots, you killed the 


occidisti illi vitulum 


tov aiT£UT6v [joaxov. 


chonta. 




fatted calf for him.' 


saginatum. 






31 


"And he said to him, 


At ipse dixit illi: Fili, tu 


6 bi eIttev auTW, 


Atqe oise tosmoi 




'Son, you are always 


semper mecum es, et 


Tekvov, au TravTOTE [jet' 


weuqet: suneu, tu 




with me, and all that I 


omnia mea tua sunt: 


£[jou eI, Kai TravTa to 


aiwesi moio essi, enim 




have is yours. 




£[ja aa eotiv: 


solwa menia tewija 
sonti. 


32 


It was right that we 


epulari autem, et 


£U(ppav9r|vai 5e Kai 


Wldam autim 




should make merry 


gaudere oportebat, 


xaprjvai e5ei, oti 6 


terptumjoqe 




and be glad, for your 


quia frater tuus hie 


a5£Acp6g aou ouTog 


gaudhetum opos est, 




brother was dead and 


mortuus erat, et 


v£Kpog rjv Kai £^r|Cf£v, 


jodqid bhrater tewe 




is alive again, and was 


revixit; perierat, et 


Kai ottoAwAojc; Kai 


kei dhedhuwos est 




lost and is found.'" 


inventus est. 


£up£9r|. 


atqe coje ati: 
skombnos est, atqe 
wretai. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



L1.5. NEWOS BHOIDA (NEW TESTAMENT) - JOHANES, 1, 1-14 





English 


Latine 


EXXnviKd 


Europaiom 


1 


In the beginning was 


in principio erat 


'Ev apxfi H v ° ^oyoq, 


Pariei Wrdhom 




the Word, and the 


Verbum et Verbum 


Kai 6 Aoyoc; fjv npoc; 


bhewet, joqe Wrdhom 




Word was with God, 


erat apud Deum et 


tov 0£ov, Kai 9e6c; fjv 6 


Deiwei est ensi, joqe 




and the Word was 


Deus erat Verbum 


Aoyog. 


Deiwos Wrdhom est. 




God. 








2 


He was in the 


hoc erat in principio 


ouTog fjv £v a PXfi fTP ? 


Ensi id pariei Deiwei 




beginning with God. 


apud Deum 


TOV 9£OV. 


est. 


3 


All things were made 


omnia per ipsum facta 


TTavra 5i" aCuou 


Eisod solwa gegner 




through Him, and 


sunt et sine ipso 


£Y£V£to, Kai x^pi? 


enim id aneu neqid 




without Him nothing 


factum est nihil quod 


aUTOU £Y£V£TO 0U5£ £V. 


gegnisset josio gegone. 




was made that was 


factum est 


6 yiyovzv 






made. 








4 


In Him was life, and 


in ipso vita erat et vita 


£v auTw £wfi fjv, Kai f) 


Ismi ceita bhewet, joqe 




the life was the light of 


erat lux hominum 


£(jjf| fjv TO (pug TU)V 


ceita est dhghomonom 




men. 




av9pioTTa)v: 


leuks. 


5 


And the light shines in 


et lux in tenebris lucet 


Kai to cpwg £V Tfj 


Itaqe leuks skotei 




the darkness, and the 


et tenebrae earn non 


aKOTi'a cpafvEi, Kai f) 


skejetijoqeoisam 




darkness did not 


conprehenderunt 


aKcm'a auTO ou 


skotos ne twret. 




comprehend it 




KOT£Aa(3£V. 




6 


There was a man sent 


fuit homo missus a 


'Eyeveto av9pwTrog 


Gnatos esti wiros 




from God, whose name 


Deo cui nomen erat 


aTT£aTaA[j£vog Trapa 


Deiwo sontonos 




was John. 


Iohannes 


9£ou, 6vo[ja auTw 
Iwavvn^: 


Johanes nomntos. 


7 


This man came for a 


hie venit in 


ouTog fjA9£v dq 


Tristimonioi ludhet se, 




witness, to bear 


testimonium ut 


[japTupiav, Tva 


leukbhi tristidhents, 




witness of the Light, 


testimonium 


[japTupf|CJn TTepi tou 


ei solwoi ijo 




that all through him 


perhiberet de lumine 


(pWTOg, Tva TTOVTE5 


kreddhesent. 




might believe. 


ut omnes crederent 
per ilium 


TTiaT£uawaiv 5i' outou. 




8 


He was not that Light, 


non erat ille lux sed ut 


OUK fjv £K£?VOg TO (pw^, 


Ne olne leuks, imrao, 




but was sent to bear 


testimonium 


aAA' Tva (japTupf|Cfr| 


leukbhi tristidhents. 




witness of that Light. 


perhiberet de lumine 


TTepi tou epwToe;. 





255 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



9 


That was the true Light 


erat lux vera quae 


r|v to cpwc; to aAr|Siv6v, 


Leuks werom est, 




which gives light to 


inluminat omnem 


6 (pwTi'^£i TravTa 


solwom bhanuti 




every man coming into 


hominem venientem 


av9pwTT0v, epx6[j£vov 


dhghomonm, 




the world. 


in mundum 


z\q tov kocj[jov. 


dhoubnom kod ludhll. 


10 


He was in the world, 


in mundo erat et 


ev tu) kocj[ju) fjv, Kai 6 


Dhoubnei est, enim ijo 




and the world was 


mundus per ipsum 


K0O\A0Q 5l" aUTOU 


dhoubnom gegner, 




made through Him, 


factus est et mundus 


£Y£V£to, Kai 6 Koau.oc; 


atqe ne im dhoubnom 




and the world did not 


eum non cognovit 


aUTOV OUK £YVW. 


gnot. 




know Him. 








11 


He came to His own, 


in propria venit et sui 


z\q to i'5ia fjA9£v, Kai oi 


Somobhos ludhet, atqe 




and His own did not 


eum non receperunt 


T5ioi auTOv ou 


im somoi ghadont nei 




receive Him. 




Trap£Aa(3ov. 


ad. 


12 


But as many as 


quotquot autem 


oaoi 5£ £Aa(3ov outov, 


Jotioi im ghadont, 




received Him, to them 


receperunt eum dedit 


£5wk£v auToTg 


maghtim tobhos 




He gave the right to 


eis potestatem filios 


E^ouaiav tekvo Oeou 


genoni dot Diwoputla, 




become children of 


Dei fieri his qui 


Y£vea9ai, tok; 


esio nomn 




God, to those who 


credunt in nomine 


"mcrreuouaiv z\q to 


kreddhentbhos, 




believe in His name: 


eius 


6vo[ja auTOu, 




13 


who were born, not of 


qui non ex 


o? ouk £^ aiu.aTwv ou5£ 


joi ne esenos, neqe 




blood, nor of the will of 


sanguinibus neque ex 


ek 0£Ar||jaTog aapKog 


memsi wolias, neqe 




the flesh, nor of the 


voluntate carnis neque 


0U5£ £K 9£Ar||JaTog 


wiri immo Deiwosio 




will of man, but of 


ex voluntate viri sed ex 


av5pog aAA' £K 9£oO 


gnatos sonti. 




God. 


Deo nati sunt 


£Y£vvr|Sncfav. 




14 


And the Word became 


et Verbum caro factum 


Kai 6 Aoyoc; aap^ 


Joqe Wrdhom 




flesh and dwelt among 


est et habitavit in 


£Y£V£to Kai £aKr|va)a£v 


memsom wrstos esti, 




us, and we beheld His 


nobis et vidimus 


£v r|[jTv, Kai 


enim pltomom nossi 




glory, the glory as of 


gloriam eius gloriam 


£0£aaa[j£9a thv 56^av 


dheke eni, enim ejos 




the only begotten of 


quasi unigeniti a Patre 


auTOu, 56^av ihq 


qedos drkomes, qedos 




the Father, full of grace 


plenum gratiae et 


[jovoY£voug Trapa 


swai oinognateiom 




and truth. 


veritatis 


TraTpog, TrAripnC 
xapiTog Kai aAnSdac;. 


Patros werotio cratia- 
qe plenom. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



1.2 KOMTLOQIOM (CONVERSATION) 



Common expressions in MIE include: 


English 


Europaiom 


hello 


ala / gheuse 


dear Peter: 


qeime Perte: 


welcome 


cratos / sucmtos tu 


good day 


latom asum 


good morning 


wesrom asum 


good afternoon / 
evening 


wesprom asum 


good night 


noqtim asum 


how are you? 


qota waleiesi? 


I am fine 


waleio su 


what is your name? 
[how are you heard?] 


qota kluweiesi? 


what is your name? 


qid esti tebhei nomn? 


my name is Peter [J 
am heard Peter] 


kluweio Pertos 


my name is Peter 


meghei Pertos nomn 


pleased to meet you 


gaudheio tewe gnotim 


please [I ask you] 


chedho 


thanks 


meitimoms / 
moitmom 


thanks (I give you) 


prijesna / prosediom 
(tebhei ago) 


I thank you 


prijeio tewom 


you are welcome, sir 


esti su, potei 


excuse me 


ngnodhi 


sorry/pardon me 


parke 


I am sorry 


kesdo 



don't worry 


me koisaie 


good bye, darling 


slwej', prijotma 


good luck 


kobom asum 


yes 


da/jai/ne-(ghi) 


indeed 


nem-pe / ita tod 


no 


ne / nei 


alright 


tagtei 


attention 


probhoudhos 


where is the door 


qodhei dhweris? 


here is what I asked 


kei esti jod prkskom 


what is this? 


qid (esti) tod? 


this is food 


pitus tod (esti) 


what time is it? 


qid esti daitis? 


it is true 


werom tod 


very good / the best 


bhodistom / 
bhodsmom 


everything is alright 


solwa su (agontor) 


how old are you? 


qotobhos atnobhos 
tu? 


I am ten years old 
[ten born I am] 


dekm gnatos esmi 


do you speak 
European? 


bhasoi (bhasoi) an 
Europaiom? 


I speak a little 


paukolom bhamoi 


I don't understand 
you 


ne tewom peumi 


tell me what you 
think 


seqe-moi qid knseiasi 


I don't know 


ne woida 


shut up 


takej' (takeie) 


sit down 


sisde (sg.) / sisdete 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 





(pl.) 


come here 


cemj' (cemie) kom-ke 


I'm going right now 


nvi ghengho kom 


what do you do or 
study? 


qoterom ghlendhesi 
an draiesi? 


are they married? 


esti lacheionti? 


I love women 


lubheio pelii 
dhemonams / cenams 


write here your 
address 


deikom skreibhe kei 
tewe 


I live in the Main 
Street 


Stoighei Magnei 
ceiwo / trebho 


Lucrecia and I are 
friends 


Lukretia ego -qe 
ameikes smes / 
ameike swes 


the cat mews in the 
garden 


katta ghortei mijaluti 


the dog bites the cat 


kattam mordeieti 
kwon 


the woman walks 
with the cat 


katta dhemona 
alaietoi 


I see the head of the 
cat 


kattas drko ghebhlam 


Where is the train? 


qodhei esti douknom? 


the train is here 


douknom (esti) kei 


I want to eat fish 


welmi piskim 
ghostum 


do you want to sleep 
with me? 


welsi mojo sweptum? 


yes, I wish for it 


jai, moksi gherijai 


no, you stink / smell 
bad 


ne, smerdesi / 
bhragraiesi dus 


it is hot! [how hot is 


qam kaleieti! 



it!] 




it is cold! [how cold is 
it!] 


qam sngeieti! 


I go swimming to the 
lake everyday 


laqom eimi dhochei 
snatum qaqei 


can I smoke? 


magho (an) 
smeughtum? 


may I smoke? [is it 
possible (for me) to 
smoke?] 


maghniom meghei 
an smeughtum (esti)? 

esti moi smeughtum? 


smoking prohibited 


smeughtum wetanom 


happy new year 


ghoilom newom 
atnom 



NOTE. About the sentence "is it possible to 
smoke?", constructed with the verb esti, compare 
Lat. est in Ovid (Metamorphoses Book III, 479) 
quod tangere non est, "as it is not possible to touch"; 
also Virgil est cernere, "it can be seen"; also, for 
Gk. esti(n), "it is possible", compare Lucian (The 
Parliament of the Gods, 12) "Eotiv, d) Epufj, "is it 
possible, Hermes". 

MIE language lessons with common vocabulary 
and sentences are freely available at 
<http://dnghu.org/indo-european-language/>. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



1.3 LATE PIE LEXICON 



This lexicon, from <http://dnghu.org/en/proto- 
indo-european -language/ > (available online with 
detailed etymological information), uses a phonetic 
writing; therefore, syllables from roots in [ew] are 
written ew, but otherwise appear as eu. 

Some MIE writing rules do not apply. A schwa (0) 
has been left in syllables with zero-vocalism, when 
articulation needs make it better to have a vowel, so 
that people are able to articulate them; as, wdldhejo, 
not *woldhejo, kerdsrom not *keresrom. The same 
articulatory schwa is used in some syllables, as 
nouns in -mdn, or negation in dn- so that non-expert 
readers see there is a syllable. This way, it is nearer 
to voices with negation like Lat. iniustus or Gk. 
aekon, which add a syllable in metrics. 

Apart from the articulatory schwa, another 
etymological schwa appears, representing an 
older PIH laryngeal, which in Late PIE is 
pronounced differently in each dialect. Laryngeal 
schwa is omitted if it is word-initial and appears 
alone, as in PIH H 3 bhruH, or if the preceding 
syllable has full vocalism, as in klamros, but it is 
written elsewhere, as in pdter. 

Another schwa case is resonans cum laryngale 

occlusa, i.e. a sequence XSHX, where S = sonant, X 
= consonant or sonant, H = laryngeal, and the group 
has zero vocalism. To distinguish the laryngeal tone 
and be able to separate pairs like full and leveled, the 
writing is the same as if it had full vocalism 

The output is then the same as in Italic and Celtic, 
where long quantity is preserved (as in Old Indian), 
metrically equivalent to the two syllables that would 
be in Greek. So, for example, we have mlakos and 
prawos. This rule hasn't been applied if the first 
sonant is preceded by w or j, as in wdlna. 



The Latin meaning and Syntax further define the 
English meaning and proper use of the PIE word. 



English 


Latin 


PIE 


Syn 


abandoned 


solus 


ermos 


adl 


abound 


abundo 


spreigo 


den 


about 


per 


per(i), per(ti) 


ind 


above 


supra 


upsi 


ind 


absent 


absens 


apowesentis 


adll 


abundant 


abundans 


chonos 


adl 


abuse 


abutor 


dhebho 


intr 


acarian 


acarus 


koris 


fern 


accelerate 


accelero 


spreudo 


intr 


acorn 


glans 


celSndis 


fern 


acorn 


glans 


medjom 


neu 


acquire 


potior 


potijomoi 


inc 


activate 


do 


kjejo 


cau 


active 


strenuus 


strenwos 


adl 


Adam's apple 


adami malum 


croghos 


mas 


address 


directio 


deikos 


mas 


adhere 


adhaero 


gleibho 


tr 


adjust 


adapto 


ararjo 


tr 


administrate 


administro 


mednumi 


tr 


adorn 


orno 


mondo 


tr 


adorn 


orno 


peiko 


tr 


advantage 


praesto 


(si)stami 
anti/prai 


den 


advise 


suadeo 


plakejo 


cau 


affirm 


aid 


Ogjo 


intr 


afflict 


affligo 


aghnumi 


tr 


after 


post 


pos(ti) 


ind 


afterwards 


postea 


posteri 


ind 


again 


re(d) 


ati 


ind 


against 


contra 


komtrod 


ind 


against 


contra 


proti 


ind 


aggravate 


exulceror 


odaugjomoi 


intr 


agitate 


agito 


dhunumi 


tr 


agitate 


permoueo 


kreuto 


tr 



259 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



agitated 


agitatus 


kighros 


mas 


agnus castus 


uitex 


weiteks 


mas 


agonise 


praepatior 


cOlnami 


intr 


agreement 


pacta 


koima 


fern 


agreement 


contractus 


meitrom 




air 


aer 


pora 


fern 


alas 


uae 


troughi 


ind 


alas 


uae 


wai 


ind 


alder 


alnus 


alesnos 


fern 


alder 


betullla 


werna 


fern 


alife 


UlUUS 


cejwos 


adl 


alike 


quasi 


jota sei 


ind 


allergy 


allergia 


dedrus 


mas 


alleyway 


angustiae 


smoughos 


mas 


along 


praeter 


praiteri 


ind 


already 


iam 


jami 


ind 


also 


quoque 


toqe 


ind 


altar 


ara 


asa 


fern 


always 


semper 


aiw(es)i 


ind 


ancestor 


abauus 


strutjos 


mas 


and 


ac 


atqe 




and 


et 


enim 


ind 


and 


que 


qe 


ind 


and 


et 


joqe 


ind 


and also 


itaque 


itaqe 


ind 


and not 


neque 


neqe 


ind 


angelica 


angelica 


kwondhros 


fern 


angle 


angulus 


qedos 


mas 


animal 


bestiola 


bhugos 


mas 


animal 


animal 


cejwotos 


mas 


animal 


animal 


smalos 


mas 


ankle 


talus 


spflros 




announce 


nuntio 


karkarjo 




annoy 


molesto 


peigo 


tr 


annoyance 


molestia 


oghlos 


mas 


annoying 


molestus 


molestos 


adl 



annoying 


molestus 


trudsmos 


adl 


anorak 


peplum 


kroknos 


mas 


another 


alius 


onjos 


adll 


another 


alius 


aljos 


lois 


anounce 


nuntio 


mfllgajo 


tr 


ant 


formica 


mflrmeika 


fern 


antique 


antiqus 


antijos 


adl 


anus 


anus 


ghodos 


mas 


apart 


separatim 


s9ni 


ind 


apparent 


appararens 


windos 


adl 


appear 


appareo 


mlosko 


intr 


appease 


lito 


litajo 




appendix 


appendix 


pligha 


fern 


apple 


malum 


abelos 


mas 


arch 


incuruo 


weito 


cau 


arch 


flecto 


weko 


intr 


ardour 


ardor 


aisdhom 


neu 


arid 


aridus 


kseros 


adl 


arm 


armus 


armos 


mas 


arm 


bracchium 


bhaghus 


mas 


arm 


braccium 


dousontos 


mas 


armour 


armatura 


twakos 


neu 


army 


exercitus 


korjos 


neu 


army 


exercitus 


strOtos 




around 


circum 


ambhi 


ind 


arrangement 


institutio 


stamfln 


neu 


arrival 


aduentus 


ghetis 


fern 


arrive 


peruenio 


ghemi 


intr 


arrow 


sagitta 


kelom 


neu 


art 


ars 


artis 


fern 


article 


articulus 


inelmSn 


neu 


articulation 


rotula 


anglos 


mas 


articulation 


artus 


k9nksos 


mas 


as 


quam 


qam 


ind 


ash 


cinis 


kines 


fern 


ashtree 


fraxinus 


bh9rksnos 


fern 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



ashtree 


ornus 


osonos 


fern 


ask 


posed 


p9rksko 


tr 


asp 


populus 
tremula 


apsa 


fern 


aspect 


species 


spekjes 


fern 


aspire 


appeto 


weenamoi 


tr 


ass 


cuius 


kulos 


mas 


asunder- 
legged 


udrus 


waros 


mas 


at 


ad 


ad 


ind 


at hand 


praesto 


praighesto 


ind 


at least 


quidem 


ge 


ind 


at that point 


tarn 


tain 


ind 


ate 


edi 


ghosom 


tr 


atribute 


addico 


bhago 


cau 


attack 


impetus 


wQrgos 




attack 


oppugno 


wendho 


intr 


attack (to be 
in) 


urged 


wflrgejo 


den 


attention 


audientia 


kleutis 


fern 


auger 


terebra 


teredhrom 


neu 


augur 


augurium 


kailom 


neu 


aument 


augeo 


augejo 


cau 


aunt 


amita 


ameta 


fem 


aunt 


matertera 


matertera 


fern 


autumn 


autumnus 


osen 


mas 


avanced 


prouectus 


prokos 


adl 


avoid 


uito 


leino 


tr 


awaken 


expergefacio 


bhoudhejo 


cau 


axe 


ascia 


aksija 


fem 


axe 


securis 


sekuris 


fem 


axe 


securis 


teksla 


fem 


axle 


axis 


aksis 


mas 


babble 


locutio sine 

sensu 


bata 


fem 


babble 


garrio 


plabrajomoi 


intr 


babble 


blatero 


lalajo 


intr 


baby 


lactans 


dheljos 


mas 


back 


retro 


awou 


ind 



back 


dorsum 


gurnos 


mas 


back 


retro 


retrod 


ind 


backbone 


spina 


w9raghm8n 


neu 


backwards 


retro 


postrod 


ind 


bad 


male 


dus 


ind 


bad 


malus 


upelos 


adl 


badger 


meles 


brokos 


mas 


bag 


follis 


bholghis 


mas 


bag 


saccus 


korukos 


mas 


bald 


glaber 


kalwos 


adl 


ball 


pila 


ghroudos 


mas 


ball 


globus 


guga 


fem 


ball 


pila 


orghis 


fem 


ball 


pila 


qeqlom 


9m 


band 


uitta 


seima 


fem 


bandy-legged 


ualgus 


walgos 


adl 


barbaric 


barbarus 


balbalos 


and 


barefoot 


planipes 


bhosos 


adll 


bargain 


negotior 


wesnejo 


tr 


bark 


latro 


baubajomoi 


intr 


barley 


hordeum 


ghordejom 


neu 


barley 


hordeum 


jewom 


neu 


barrel 


dolium 


doljom 


mas 


basin 


uallis 


wfllghis 


fem 


basket 


cista 


kista 


fem 


basket 


cista 


qasjos 


mas 


basket 


sporta 


sporta 


fem 


basket 


uidulus 


woidlos 


mas 


bast 


liber 


lubhros 


mas 


bath 


labrum 


lowtrom 


neu 


be 


sum 


esmi/somi/bh 
ewmi 


dur 


be 


sum 


bhewmi 


dur 


be 


sum 


esmi 


dur 


be afraid 


metuo 


timejo 


tr 


be allowed 


licet 


likejo 


tr 


be angry 


irdscor 


eisaskomoi 


inc 



261 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



be annoying 


molestus 

(esse) 


pigejo 


den 


be bitter 


aciitus sum 


geigo 


den 


be born 


nascor 


gnaskomoi 


inc 


be bright 


splendeo 


splOndejo 


den 


be cold 


algeo 


alghejo 


den 


be cold 


frigeo 


srigejo 


den 


be concealed 


lateo 


lOtejo 


den 


be curved 


uieo 


wijejo 


den 


be dekayed 


moror 


stQntejo 




be 
experienced 


called 


kaldejo 


den 


befit 


ualeo 


wQlejo 


den 


be flat 


planus sum 


19pej6 


den 


be followed 


secutus uenio 


swemor 


dur 


be free 


uacus sum 


ghSrejo 


den 


be high 


excello 


kelso 


intr 


be hot 


caled 


kOlejo 


den 


be necessary 


opportet 


opos esti 


intr 


be pregnant 


grauidus sum 


kuwejo 


den 


be proper 


decet 


dekejo 


intr 


be rotten 


puteo 


putejo 


cau 


be sad 


lugeo 


lugejo 


den 


be scratched 


carred 


kflrsejo 


den 


be situated 


sum 


esmoi 


intr 


be strong 


uegeo 


wego 


dur 


be strong 


uigeo 


wigejo 


den 


be swollen 


turned 


oidejo 


den 


be swollen 


turned 


tumejo 


den 


be thirsty 


sitio 


tdrsejo 


den 


be used 


cold 


euko 


tr 


be wet 


maded 


m9dejo 


den 


be withered 


marced 


m9rkej6 


den 


beacause 


quia 


jod qid 


ind 


beak 


rostrum 


rostrom 


neu 


beak 


rostrum 


srokna 


fern 


beam 


tignum 


tegnom 


neu 


beam 


trabs 


trabhis 


fern 



bean 


faba 


bhabha 


fern 


bear 


ursus 


Ortkos 


mas 


bear 


bherd 


bhermi 
(bhero) 


tr 


beard 


barba 


bhardha 


fern 


bearing 


portatid 


bh9rtis 


fem 


beast 


fera 


chera 


fern 


beast of 
burden 


iumentum 


jougsmSntom 


mas 


beastly 


ferinus 


cherinos 




beat 


uerberd 


wflleiso 


tr 


beat up 


contundd 


orgajo 


tr 


beautiful 


pulcher 


chaisos 


adl 


beautiful 


pulcher 


wemos 


adl 


beaver 


fiber 


bhebhros 


mas 


become 
accustomed 


suescd 


swedhsko 


inc 


become 
vigorous 


uigescd 


kfikumi 


intr 


bed 


lectus 


spondha 


fem 


bee 


apes 


bheikla 


fem 


beech 


fag us 


bhagos 


fem 


beer 


ceruisia 


alumdn 


neu 


beer 


ceruisia 


kremom 


neu 


beer 


zythum 


sudhjom 


mas 


before 


ante 


anti 


ind 


before 


prae 


p9ros 


ind 


before 


prae 


prai 


ind 


before dawn 


antelucid 


anksi 


ind 


beget 


gignd 


gigno 


cau 


begird 


cingd (to) 


josnumi 


tr 


beguile 


decipid 


dreugho 


cau 


behind 


post 


apoteri 


ind 


belch 


ructd 


reugo 


intr 


believe 


credo 


kreddomi 


tr 


belly 


uenter 


tarsos 


mas 


belong 


pertined 


aino 


den 


belt (for 
safety) 


cinctus 


wervuios 


mas 


bend 


curud 


greugo 


intr 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



bending 


plecamentum 


nflmtos 


mas 


beneficial 


benignus 


sislawos 


adl 


benefit 


fruor 


lawo 




benefit 


lucrum 


lawtlom 




bent 


tortus 


kambos 


adl 


bent 


pandus 


pandos 


mas 


berry 


morum 


morom 


neu 


beseech 


precor 


preko 


tr 


besides 


praeterea 


perom 


ind 


betrothed 


sponsus 


sponstos 


mas 


better 


melius 


bhodjos 


adl 


between 


inter 


enteri 


ind 


beware 


caueo 


kOwejo 


den 


beyond 


praeter 


ektos 


ind 


biceps 


biceps 


kiska 


fern 


big 


grossus 


grots os 


adl 


big 


magnus 


mOgnos 


adl 


bile 


fel 


cheldi 


neu 


bilge out 


excupdre 


semjo 


tr 


bind 


necto 


nedsko 


tr 


bind 


ligo 


bhendho 


tr 


bind 


necto 


kikajo 


tr 


bind 


ligo 


ligajo 


tr 


bind 


alligo 


reigo 


tr 


bind 


ligo 


seinumi 


tr 


biped 


bipes 


dwipods 


adll 


birch 


betulla 


bherags 


fern 


bird 


auis 


awis 


fern 


bite 


admordeo 


denko 


tr 


bite 


mordeo 


mordejo 


tr 


black 


dter 


atros 


adl 


black 


dter 


dhoubhus 


adl 


black 


dter 


kOrsnos 




blackbird 


merula 


mesla 


fern 


blade 


acies 


akjes 


fern 


blame 


culpo 


onejo 


tr 



blaze 


flagro 


sweido 




bleach 


aqua lixiuiae 


kormnos 


mas 


bleat 


bebo 


bebajo 


intr 


bleat 


bebo 


blekajo 


intr 


blind 


caecus 


andlios 




blind 


caecus 


kaikos 


adl 


blister 


callus 


kaldos 


mas 


blister 


uensica 


wenseika 


fern 


block 


inctercludo 


merso 


tr 


blood 


sanguis 


esflr 


neu 


blood 


cruor 


kruwos 


mas 


bloom 


floreo 


bhlosejo 


den 


blow 


exhalo 


(i)wemi 


tr 


blow 


spiro 


bhesmi 


intr 


blow 


flo 


bhlami 


tr 


blow out 


emungo 


munko 


tr 


blue 


caeruleus 


ghlastos 


adl 


boar 


aper 


apros 


mas 


board 


tabula 


ploutos 


mas 


boast 


glorior 


bhledo 


intr 


boast 


glorior 


ghelbo 


intr 


bodkin 


cuspis 


ela 




body 


corpus 


k9rpos 


neu 


boil 


feruo 


bherwo 


inc 


boil 


ferueo 


seuto 


den 


bold 


audax 


dliflrsus 


adl 


boldness 


audacia 


dhflrstis 


fem 


bone 


ossum 


ostis 


mas 


border 


limes 


kreqa 


fem 


bore 


ford 


bhorajo 


tr 


both 


ambo 


ambhou 


lois 


boundary 


margo 


margon 


mas 


bow 


arcus 


arqos 


mas 


bowels 


intestinum 


gudom 




bowl 


testa 


teksta 




box 


capsa 


kt)psa 


fem 



263 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



boy 


ephebus 


kelots 


mas 


boy 


ephebus 


maqos 


mas 


boy 


puer 


poweros 


mas 


brain 


cerebrum 


ker9srom 


neu 


bramble 


dumus 


dristos 


mas 


bran 


furfur 


tolkos 


mas 


branch 


ramulus 


kankus 


mas 


branch 


ramus 


osdos 


mas 


branches 


foliamen 


cespis 


fern 


brass 


aes 


ajos 


neu 


brassy 


aereus 


ajesnos 


adll 


brave 


audax 


tregsnos 


mas 


breach 


fissura 


bherna 




bread 


pdnis 


bharsjom 


neu 


break 


frango 


bhrQngo 


tr 


break 


defringo 


bhrusnami 


tr 


break 


rumpo 


rumpo 


tr 


breast 


pectus 


bhrusos 


mas 


breath 


animus 


an9mos 


mas 


breath 


halitus 


spoisna 


fern 


breathe 


respiro 


eto 


intr 


breathe 


anhelo 


pneuso 


intr 


breeze 


aura 


awela 


fern 


brew 


concoquo 


bhrewo 


tr 


briar 


sentis 


ksentis 


fern 


bridge 


pons 


bhrewa 


fern 


bright 


lucidus 


bhanus 


adl 


bright 


lucens 


leukos 


adl 


brilliant 


splendidus 


argos 


adl 


bring out 


promo 


dhragho 


tr 


broad 


latus 


platus 


adl 


brooch 


fibula 


bharkos 


mas 


brooch 


fibula 


dheicodhla 




brood 


proles 


agla 


fern 


brook 


amnis 


apuis 


fern 


brook 


riuus 


reiwos 


mas 



broom 


genista 


aksteinos 


fern 


broom 


everriculum 


swoplom 


neu 


broth 


ius 


jeus 


neu 


brother 


frater 


bhrater 


mas 


brother-in- 
law 


leuir 


daiwer 


mas 


brotherly 


fraternus 


bhratrijos 


adll 


brother's son 


sobrinus 


bhratreinos 


mas 


brown 


castaneus 


bhrounos 


adl 


bud 


geniculum 


gnoubhos 


mas 


bug 


cimex 


keimex 


mas 


building 


aedes 


aidhis 


fern 


building 


aedes 


demos 


neu 


building place 


locus operum 


dSmpedom 


neu 


bull 


bouuculus 


porsis 


mas 


bull 


taurus 


tauros 


mas 


bulrush 


iuncus 


bhrughnos 


fern 


bulrush 


iuncus 


joinkos 


mas 


bumblebee 


crabro 


krasron 


mas 


bundle 


fascis 


bhaskis 


mas 


bundle 


fascis 


dhrighsos 


mas 


burglar 


fur 


tajots 


mas 


burn 


ardeo 


aidlio 


intr 


burn 


uro 


smelo 


dur 


burn 


areo 


asejo 


den 


burn 


ardeo 


dhecho 


dur 


burn 


uro 


euso 


intr 


burn 


comburo 


konkejo 


cau 


burn 


cremo 


kremajo 


cau 


burnt 


ustus 


ustos 


adl 


burst in 


irrumpo 


skeko 


intr 


bury 


inhumo 


ghrebho 


tr 


bury 


sepelio 


sepelijo 


tr 


bush 


frutex 


bhruteks 


mas 


bush 


dumus 


dousmos 


mas 


bush 


arbustus 


q9rsnos 


mas 


but 


sed 


mo 


ind 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



butter 


aruina 


arwa 


fern 


butter 


butyrum 


ghertom 


neu 


butterfly 


papilio 


papeljos 


mas 


buttock 


clunis 


klounis 


fern 


buttocks 


puga 


pouga 


fern 


buy 


emo 


qrinami 




buy 


emo 


selo 


tr 


buzz 


susurro 


susajo 


intr 


cabbage 


caulis 


kaulis 


fern 


cable 


mitra 


sneurom 


neu 


cable 


cable 


winis 


fern 


cackle 


gracillo 


grakijo 


intr 


cackle 


cacillo 


kaklajo 


intr 


calculate 


calculo 


deljo 


tr 


calf 


uitulus 


loigos 


mas 


calf 


uitulus 


wetlos 


mas 


call 


uoco 


ghawo 


tr 


calm 


calmosus 


seknis 


adl 


camp 


castra 


kastra 


neu 


can 


possum 


magho 


tr 


cancer 


cancer 


ghSndhus 


mas 


cannabis 


cannabis 


worgjoin 


neu 


canopy 


umbraculum 


skostrom 


neu 


captive 


captus 


kOptos 




car 


uehiculum 


woghnos 


mas 


carbon 


carbo 


kflrdhon 


mas 


caress 


mulceo 


ghenumi 


tr 


carrot 


carota 


m9rka 




carry 


porto 


portajo 


tr 


carry 


ueho 


wegho 


tr 


cart 


currus 


kflrsus 


mas 


carve 


scalpo 


skalpo 


tr 


carve 


caelo 


skreido 


tr 


carve 


caelo 


smeidho 


tr 


castle 


castellum 


kasterlom 


neu 


castrate 


castro 


skerdo 





cat 


feles 


katta 


fern 


catch 


capio 


k9pjo 


tr 


cattle 


armentum 


armflntom 


neu 


cattle 


pecu 


peku 


neu 


cauldron 


catinus 


qorjom 


neu 


cause 


causo 


winso 


cau 


caution 


uas 


wadhis 


mas 


cave 


tugurium 


antrom 


neu 


cave 


specus 


speqos 


mas 


cavern 


cauerna 


kow9r 


neu 


cavity 


cauitas 


celom 




cedar 


cedrus 


bhrosdhos 


fem 


ceiling 


tectum 


tegtom 


neu 


cellar 


pitheus 


gupa 


fem 


cereal 


cereale 


dliona 


fem 


cereal 


cereale 


jewornjom 


fem 


cerebellum 


cerebelum 


mosgom 


neu 


certain 


certo 


sma 


ind 


certain 


quidam 


enis 


adll 


certainly 


certo 


da 


ind 


certainly 


certo 


ghi 


ind 


certainly 


sic 


ka 


ind 


certainly 


profecto 


toi 


ind 


chain 


catena 


katesna 


fem 


chain 


catena 


seinus 


mas 


chalk 


creta 


kreta 


fem 


chamber 


cella 


kela 


fem 


chance 


uicis 


wikis 


fem 


change 


muto 


mejno 


inc 


character 


ingenium 


mos 


mas 


charge 


naulus 


merkeds 


fem 


charioteer 


auriga 


9rots 


mas 


chatter 


blatero 


blatsajo 


intr 


cheap 


uilis 


wesolis 


adl 


cheat 


deludo 


meugo 


intr 


cheer 


ouo 


owajo 


tr 



265 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



cheese 


caseus 


qatsos 


mas 


cheese 


caseus 


turos 


mas 


cherry tree 


cornus 


kornos 




chest 


pectus 


pegtos 


neu 


chew 


mando 


gjewo 


tr 


chew 


mando 


mando 


tr 


child 


pupus 


pupos 


mas 


child 


infans 


putlom 


neu 


chin 


mentum 


mdntom 


neu 


chin 


mentum 


smeksla 


fern 


chirp 


frigo 


bhrigijo 


intr 


chirp 


titio 


titijo 


intr 


choke 


suffoco 


bhleuso 


tr 


choose 


eligo 


opjo 


tr 


circle 


circus 


kirkos 


mas 


circuit 


circuitus 


ambhinom 


neu 


circulate 


uersor 


qelo 


dur 


citizen 


ciuis 


keiwis 


and 


city 


urbs 


polls 


fern 


ciurve 


incuruo 


qelpo 


tr 


civil 


ciuilis 


keiwijos 


adll 


clack 


glocio 


glokijo 


intr 


claim 


uindico 


qeinumoi 


tr 


clang 


clango 


klagjd 


intr 


classical 


classicus 


antitjos 




clean 


mundus 


mudnos 




clean 


purgo 


pewo 


tr 


cleanse 


puto 


sQrpijo 




clear 


cldrus 


aiskros 


kour 


clear 


candidus 


bhlaidos 


adl 


cleave 


findo 


bhindo 


cau 


close 


claudo 


klawdo 


tr 


close 


claudo 


w9rijo 


tr 


closed 


clausus 


klawstos 


adl 


cloth 


uestis 


westis 


fern 


cloud 


nubes 


nebhis 


fern 



clown 


scurrd 


skoirsas 


adll 


club 


baculum 


baktlom 




club 


uirga 


lorgos 


mas 


club 


fustis 


seika 


fern 


club 


uirga 


wisoga 


fern 


coal 


carbo 


angelos 


mas 


coast 


litus 


mola 


fern 


coat 


sagum 


pOltom 




cockoo 


cuculus 


kukulos 


mas 


cockoo 


cucufacere 


kukulajo 


intr 


cockroach 


blatta 


blakta 


fern 


cold 


frigidus 


ougros 


adl 


cold 


frig us 


srigos 


neu 


collapse 


ruo 


rewo 


inc / 
tr 


collar 


morale 


monlli 


neu 


collect 


carpo 


karpo 


tr 


collect 


lego 


lego 


tr 


collection 


collectio 


komaglom 


neu 


collection 


collectioo 


qejtis 


fern 


colony 


colonia 


apowoiks 


mas 


colorant 


colorans 


keimos 


neu 


colour 


color 


kiwos 


mas 


colour 


color 


wornos 


mas 


coloured 


uarius 


pflrqos 


adl 


colt 


equulus 


kankestos 


mas 


comb 


pecto 


keso 


tr 


comb 


pecto 


peko 


tr 


comb 


pecten 


pekten 


mas 


comb 


pecto 


pekto 


tr 


come 


uenio 


cemjo 


intr 


come back 


reded 


ghighejo 


intr 


come out 


pared 


parejo 




command 


iubeo 


judhejo 


tr 


commit 


mando 


m9nd6mi 


tr 


common 


communis 


kommoiiiis 


adll 


communicate 


communico 


mesgo 


tr 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



community 


communitas 


kommoinitats 


fern 


compasses 


circinus 


kirknos 


mas 


compete 


certo 


sperdho 


tr 


complain 


queror 


kwesomoi 


intr 


complete 


completus 


komplenos 


adll 


complexed (to 
be) 


tortus sum 


wSnghejo 


den 


compose 


compono 


qejo 


tr 


comprehend 


teneo 


tflnejo 


den 
tr 


conceive 


concipere 


desami 


tr 


concubine 


paelex 


pareika 


fern 


condense 


spisso 


stejo 


inc 


condition 


habitus 


dhemOn 


neu 


conducted 


gessi 


elom 


tr 


conflagration 


incendium 


dawetus 


mas 


connect 


sero 


sero 


tr 


conscience 


conscientia 


komwoistis 


fern 


consider 


opinor 


m9njo 


den 


consideration 


considerdtio 


qeistis 


fern 


consort 


coniux 


komjugs 


epi 


conspiracy 


coniurdtid 


jalos 


mas 


conspirator 


conspirator 


joros 


mas 


conspire 


coniuro 


janumi 


tr 


contain 


arced 


Orkejo 


den 
tr 


contend 


litigo 


bhogajo 


intr 


contend 


certo 


wikjo 


dur 


contrive 


machinor 


smudhno 


intr 


convex 


conuexus 


weksos 


adl 


cook 


coquo 


peqo 


tr 


coot 


fulica 


bheleks 


fern 


copy 


imitor 


aimnumi 




core 


nucleus 


puros 


mas 


corn 


granum 


niktis 


fern 


corner 


angulus 


bh9rstis 


fern 


cornice 


corona 


ghrendha 


fern 


corruption 


tabes 


tadhis 


fem 


couch 


solium 


stolos 


mas 



cough 


tussis 


qosta 


fem 


cough 


tussio 


tustijo 


intr 


coughing 


tussis 


tustis 


fem 


courage 


audacia 


nantis 


fem 


course 


cursus 


drewa 


fem 


course 


cursus 


kflrstus 


mas 


court 


curia 


komwoirj om 


neu 


courtyard 


forum 


dhworom 


neu 


cousin 


cognatus 


j enter 


mas 


cover 


uelo 


skemo 


tr 


cover 


obruo 


skeumo 


tr 


cover 


operio 


skeuto 


tr 


cover 


tego 


tego 


tr 


cow 


bos 


cows 


and 


cow 


bos 


lapos 


mas 


cow 


uacca 


wakka 


fem 


crab 


cancer 


karkros 




crackle 


crepo 


krepami 


intr 


cradle 


cunae 


gretlom 




crane 


grus 


gSrtis 


fem 


crawl 


repo 


repo 


intr 


crawl 


serpo 


serpo 


intr 


crazy 


insdnus 


dhwolnos 


adl 


create 


genero 


genesajo 


cau 


create 


creo 


kremi 


tr 


creature 


cratura 


teknom 


neu 


creep 


repo 


snOghjo 


intr 


crest 


crista 


krista 


fem 


crime 


crimen 


kreimSn 


neu 


crime 


delictus 


loba 


fem 


crimpy hair 


turbido 


gouros 


mas 


crook 


amnis 


bhogjos 


mas 


crop 


messis 


sasjom 


neu 


cross 


crux 


kreuks 


fem 


cross 


transeo 


ternumi 


tr 


crossbeam 


patibulum 


ghlaghos 


mas 



267 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



crow 


comix 


korneiks 


fern 


crowd 


multitudo 


pledhwis 


fern 


crowd 


multitudo 


slougos 


mas 


crown 


corona 


grendjom 




crumb 


grumus 


groumos 


mas 


crumb 


mica 


smeika 


neu 


crumble 


frio 


bhrijajo 


tr 


crush 


contero 


mSrtajo 


tr 


crush 


pinso 


pinso 


tr 


cry 


drenso 


dhrensajo 


intr 


cry 


uagio 


waghijo 


intr 


cry 


gemo 


kreugo 


intr 


cry 


clamor 


kriga 




cry 


rudo 


reudo 


intr 


crying 


ploratus 


roudos 


mas 


cudge 


dolo 


dolajo 


tr 


cuirass 


lorica 


bhrusnja 


fem 


cup 


calix 


kaleiks 


mas 


cup 


cupa 


koupa 


fem 


curb 


arcuo 


bhego 


cau 


curd cheese 


lac passum 


grutis 


fem 


curly 


crispus 


kripsos 


adl 


curtail 


deminuo 


sneito 


tr 


curve 


curua 


witjom 


neu 


curve 


curuo 


keubo 


cau 


curved 


camur 


k9mros 




curved 


curuus 


kflrwos 


adl 


cushion 


culcita 


qolka 


fem 


custom 


mos 


swedhus 


fem 


cut 


caedo 


kaido 


cau 


cut 


exseco 


kreto 


tr 


cut 


seed 


sekami 


tr 


cut 


seed 


tmami 


tr 


cutoff 


amputo 


snadho 


tr 


cutoff 


separo 


spflltajo 


tr 


cut open 


incido 


bhdrijo 


cau 



cut out 


abscindo 


drepo 




cut out 


abscindo 


treuko 


tr 


dace 


phoxinus 


menis 


mas 


dad 


pappa 


appas 


mas 


dad 


atta 


attas 


mas 


dad 


pappa 


tata 


neu 


damage 


clades 


kladis 


mas 


damage 


detrimentum 


pem9n 


neu 


damage 


pernicies 


wolsom 


neu 


damage 


damnum 


dapnom 


neu 


damp 


imbuo 


bewo 


tr 


dare 


audeo 


dh9rso 


tr 


dark 


fuscus 


dhoncelos 


adl 


dark 


obscurus 


dhoncos 


adl 


dark 


fuscus 


dhuskos 


adl 


dark 


obscurus 


keiros 


adl 


dark 


mulleus 


mfllnejos 


adl 


dark 


obscurus 


morcos 




dark 


obscurus 


skeuros 


adl 


darkness 


tenebrae 


recos 


mas 


darkness 


tenebrae 


temesras 


fem 


dart 


acumen 


golbhon 


mas 


daughter 


filia 


dhugter 


fem 


daughter-in- 
law 


norus 


snusos 


fem 


dawn 


aurora 


ausosa 


fem 


dawn 


illucesco 


aussketi 


intr 


day 


dies 


dhochos 


mas 


day 


dies 


djews 


mas 


day 


dies 


djnom 


neu 


day 


dies 


latom 


mas 


dead 


mortuus 


m9rtos 


adll 


dead 


mortuus 


mflrwos 


adll 


deaf 


surdus 


bodhros 


adl 


deaf 


surdus 


dlioubhos 


adl 


dear 


cdrus 


prijos 


adl 


death 


nex 


chentis 


fem 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



death 


funus 


dheunos 


neu 


death 


mors 


m9rtis 


fern 


death 


nex 


neks 


mas 


debt 


debitum 


dh91egla 


fern 


deceive 


fallo 


ch91no 


tr 


deceive 


defraudo 


dhwero 


tr 


deceive 


mentior 


melso 


tr 


decide 


decerno 


skidjo 


tr 


decline 


decado 


sterbho 


intr 


decree 


consultus 


dhedhmos 


mas 


deer 


ceruus 


kerwos 


mas 


defame 


difamo 


kfllwijo 


tr 


defecate 


iunifico 


ghedo 


tr 


defecate 


caco 


kakkajo 


intr 


defect 


mendum 


smeros 


neu 


defect 


defectus 


wolnos 


neu 


defective 


mancus 


m9nkos 


adl 


defend 


defendo 


maghnumi 


tr 


deflect 


deflecto 


skelnumi 




delay 


mora 


mora 


fern 


delight 


fruor 


bhreucomoi 


tr 


demand 


exigo 


kupjo 


tr 


demon 


diabolus 


dhwosos 


mas 


dense 


creber 


t9nkros 


adl 


dense 


creber 


tegus 


adl 


densifiy 


stipo 


stoipejo 


cau 


depart 


proficiscor 


oighomoi 


intr 


departure 


profectio 


proitis 


fern 


deposit 


depositus 


loghos 


mas 


depressed 


depressus 


neiwos 


adl 


desert 


desertum 


teusqa 


neu 


desert 


desertum 


jelom 


neu 


deserve 


mereo 


m9rej6 


den 


designate 


designo 


matejo 


tr 


desire 


desiderium 


aisska 


fern 


desire 


desidero 


gherijomoi 


tr 



desire 


desidero 


awejo 


tr 


desire 


desidero 


chelo 


tr 


desire 


cupio 


smego 


tr 


desire 


desidero 


wekmi 


tr 


desire 


concupisco 


weno 


dur 


desire eagerly 


aueo 


j9nto 


tr 


destroy 


contero 


dheuko 


cau 


destroy 


deleo 


nokejo 


cau 


destroy 


aboleo 


olejo 




detergent 


detersmum 


mudlom 


neu 


devotion 


deuotio 


krobhtus 


mas 


devour 


uoro 


sleugo 


tr 


devour 


uoro 


c9rajo 


tr 


devour 


uoro 


cerbho 




dew 


ros 


dolghos 




diarrhea 


diarhea 


dhorja 


fem 


dick 


crassus 


bh9nghus 


adl 


die 


morior 


m9rijomoi 


intr 


died 


mortus est 


walom 


intr 


difference 


differentia 


kritis 


fem 


different 


differens 


iteros 




dig 


fodio 


bhodhjS 


tr 


dig 


fodio 


kanami 


tr 


dig out 


effodio 


teuko 




dimension 


dimensio 


metis 


fem 


dinner 


cena 


kersna 


fem 


dip 


bronca 


w9ronka 


fem 


direct 


directus 


dh9nghus 


adl 


direct 


rego 


rego 


tr 


dirt 


immunditia 


koqros 


mas 


dirt 


excrementum 


kwoinom 


mas 


dirty 


immundus 


coudhros 


adl 


dirty 


immundus 


saltis 


adl 


dirty 


mancillo 


keqo 


tr 


dis- 


re(d) 


red/re 


ind 


disabled 


murcus 


m9rkos 


adl 



269 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



disgrace 


labes 


ghalerom 


neu 


disguise 


uestio 


mengo 


tr 


dishonour 


dedecus 


stuprom 


neu 


disk 


orbis 


orbhis 


mas 


dismantle 


dismonto 


dhruslijo 


tr 


dispersed 


rdrus 


raros 


adl 


dispossession 


spolium 


spoljom 


neu 


distaff 


colus 


qolus 


fern 


distribute 


distribuo 


nemo 


tr 


dive 


immergo 


cadho 


intr 


divide 


diuido 


kaijo 


tr 


divide 


diuido 


weidho 


tr 


divide up 


distribuo 


daimoi 


tr 


do 


facio 


dhidhemi- 
dhdkjo 


tr 


do harm 


damno 


ghudjo 




do harm 


infenso 


kepo 


tr 


do military 
service 


milito 


dhreugho 


den 


do not? 


nonne 


nom ne 


ind 


docile 


infirmus 


glegos 


adl 


doctor 


medicus 


medodiks 


epic 


dog 


canis 


kolignos 


mas 


dog 


canis 


kwon 


mas 


door 


foris 


dhweris 


fern 


door 


fores 


wer 


neu 


double 


duplus 


dwoplos 


adll 


doubt 


dubito 


okejo 


den 


dough 


pasta 


reughmSn 


neu 


dough 


massa 


taismos 


mas 


dove 


columba 


dhombhos 


mas 


dove 


columba 


kolumbhos 


mas 


down 


sub 


ni 


ind 


dowry 


dos 


dotis 


fern 


drag 


duco 


deviko 


tr 


drag 


traho 


tragho 


tr 


drag 


uerro 


werso 




drag away 


abstraho 


tengho 


tr 



drapery 


drappus 


drappos 


mas 


draw 


string o 


streigo 


tr 


draw tight 


string o 


stringo 


tr 


dream 


somnus 


onerjos 


mas 


dream 


somnium 


swep9r 


neu 


dream 


somnium 


swopnjom 


neu 


dream 


somnio 


swopnjajo 


intr 


dregs 


colluuies 


sulja 


fern 


dress 


uestio 


westijo 


tr 


drink 


potio 


potis 


fern 


drink 


bibo 


pibo 


tr 


drinking 


potus 


ponom 


neu 


drip 


eggutto 


seilo 


intr 


drive 


conduco 


enko pro 


tr 


drizzle 


irroratio 


aghlows 


fern 


drone 


fucus 


bhouqos 


mas 


drop 


gutta 


bflndus 


mas 


drop 


stilla 


druptis 


fern 


drop 


gutta 


leibs 


mas 


drop 


gutta 


spakos 


mas 


drum 


bombus 


bambalos 




drunken 


ebrius 


chSrnos 


adl 


drunken 


ebrius 


temos 


mas 


dry 


siccus 


kseros 


adl 


dry 


siccus 


sisqos 


adl 


dry 


siccus 


susdos 


mas 


dry 


siccus 


tOrstos 


adl 


dry 


siccus 


t9rsus 


adl 


dry 


torreo 


torsejo 


cau 


dry skin 


pellis sicca 


sterbhnjom 


neu 


duck 


anas 


an9ts 


mas 

/ 
fern 


dust 


puluis 


pelwos 


neu 


duty 
(religious) 


fas 


dhas 


neu 


dwell 


habito 


trebho 


den 


dwelling 


domicilium 


westus 


mas 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



eagle 


aquila 


eroros 


mas 


eagle owl 


bubo 


bughon 


mas 


ear 


auris 


ousis 


fern 


early 


mane 


ajeri 


ind 


earth 


humus 


dhghQmos 


mas 


earth 


terra 


p91tewija 


fern 


earth 


terra 


tersa 


fern 


eastern 


orientalis 


austeros 




easy 


facilis 


reidos 


adl 


eat 


edo 


aknami 


tr 


eat 


edo 


edmi 


tr 


eat 


uescor 


weskomoi 


neu 


edge 


ora 


ora 


fern 


edge 


excello 


bhreno 


intr 


effort 


molimen 


molos 


neu 


egg 


ouum 


6w(ij)om 


neu 


eight 


octo 


oktou 




eighth 


octaus 


oktowos 


adll 


eject 


iacio 


j9kjo 


tr 


elbow 


ulna 


olna 


fern 


elder 


ebulus 


edhlos 


fern 


element 


elementum 


skdlos 


mas 


elm 


ulmus 


olmos 


fern 


elm 


ulmus 


woighos 


fern 


embank 


aggero 


klami 


tr 


embryo 


fetus 


geltis 


fern 


embryon 


foetus 


cflrebhos 


mas 


employee 


famulus 


dhQmos 


mas 


empty 


uanus 


wastes 


adl 


empty 


uanus 


wonos 


adl 


empty 


haurio 


ausijo 


tr 


enact 


sancio 


sankijo 


tr 


encamp 


castro 


kastrajo 


tr 


encircle 


circumdo 


gherdho 


tr 


enclose 


amplexor 


twero 


tr 


enclosure 


claustrum 


kaghos 


mas 



enclosure 


claustrum 


odhrom 


neu 


enclosure 


clausura 


wflregis 


mas 


encourageme 
nt 


hortor 


ghoreejomoi 


cau 


end 


extremum 


benda 


fern 


end 


finis 


dhigsnis 


mas 


end 


terminus 


termen 


mas 


endeavour 


conitor 


rodhjo 


tr 


endure 


resisto 


tulejo 


den 


enemy 


inimicus 


nemots 


epic 


enjoy oneself 


oblector 


terpo 


intr 


enjoyment 


delectdtio 


teptis 


fern 


enlarge 


augeo 


augejo 


prog 


enough 


satis 


satsi 


ind 


enough (to be) 


sufficio 


dheugho 


intr 


entrails 


uiscus 


sorwa 


fern 


entrails 


intestina 


sternom 


neu 


entrance 


ostium 


ostjom 


neu 


entrance 


ianua 


januwa 


fem 


envelope 


inuolucrum 


welwtrom 


neu 


envy 


inuidia 


Orsja 


fem 


equal 


aequus 


somos 


adll 
m 


equipment 


armdmenta 


komopjom 


neu 


equipped with 


praeditus 


went 


suff 


erect 


horreo 


ghorsejo 


cau 


ermine 


mustela 
erminea 


kormon 


mas 


escape 


effugio 


skeubho 


inc 


estimate 


aestimo 


qiqeimi 


tr 


eternal 


aeus 


aiwos 


adll 


eternity 


aetas 


aiwotats 


fem 


even 


aequs 


aiqos 


adl 


even 


etiam 


eti 


ind 


even 


glaber 


gladhros 


adl 


evening 


uesper 


wespros 


mas 


evident 


euidens 


gnoros 


adl 


evil 


scelus 


skelos 


neu 


excavator 


pdla 


kernos 


mas 



271 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



excellent 


excellens 


bhodros 


adl 


excellent 


excellens 


weswos 


adl 


excess 


excessus 


udcris 


fern 


exchange 


commutatio 


mojnos 


mas 


exchange 


muto 


mejo 


inc 


exchange 


muto 


moitajo 


tr 


excite 


excito 


sprewo 


tr 


exclusive 


exclusorius 


kaiwelos 


neu 


exhaustion 


exhaustio 


dh9tis 


fern 


expect 


expecto 


welpo 


tr 


expel 


expello 


(ji)jemi 


cau 


experience 


experio 


perijo 


tr 


expression 


dictus 


weqtlom 


neu 


extend 


extendo 


spanumi 




extend 


extendi 


spemi 


prog 


extend 


tendo 


tendo 


tr 


extend 


protelo 


tenso 




extend 


prolongo 


tenjo 


tr 


extended 


extensus 


prostornos 


adl 


extension 


stratus 


stflrnos 


mas 


external 


exterior 


eksteros 


adl 


extinguish 


exstinguo 


cesnumi 


tr 


extraordinary 


rdrus 


9nswodhros 


adl 


exuberant 


laetus 


jOndros 


adl 


eye 


oculus 


oqos 


mas 


eyebrow 


brus 


bhrows 


fern 


fac 


procul 


dew 


ind 


face 


ultus 


dOrka 


fern 


fact 


factum 


dhetis 


fern 


fair weather 


serenus 


qoitros, 
koitros 


adl 


fall 


cado 


kado 


prog 


fall asleep 


sopio 


swopijo 


cau 


fall asleep 


obdormiscor 


dflrmijo 


dur 


fall down 


praecipitor 


pipto 


tr 


fall into 


ingruo 


ghrewo 




fallow 


ueruactum 


polka 





false 


falsus 


mflljos 


adl 


family 


familia 


gentis 


fem 


family 


familia 


wenja 


fern 


famine 


esuries 


nouna 


fem 


famous 


auditus 


klutos 


adl 


fan 


flabellum 


bhladhrom 


neu 


fan 


flabello 


prejo 


intr 


fancy 


lastiuio 


19skejo 




far 


procul 


porsod 


ind 


far (from) 


procul 


qeli 


ind 


farewell 


abitio 


9rtis 


fem 


farm 


uilla 


woiksla 


fem 


farmer 


agricola 


agroqolas 


mas 


fart 


pedo 


pesdo 


intr 


fashion 


fabricor 


tekso 


tr 


fat 


adeps 


lajos 


neu 


fat 


crassus 


pimos 


adl 


fat 


pinguis 


piwon 


adl 


fat 


obesus 


t9nghus 


adl 


father 


pater 


p9ter 


mas 


father-in-law 


socer 


swekros 


mas 


fatherland 


patria 


pOtrja 


fem 


fatherly 


paternus 


pOtrjos 


adll 


fault 


noxa 


agos 


mas 


fault 


culpa 


loktos 


mas 


fault 


mendum 


mendom 


neu 


fear 


paueo 


pOwejo 


den 


fear 


metuo 


aghar 


intr 


fear 


timed 


bhibheimi 


tr 


fear 


timed 


dweimi 


tr 


fearful 


dirus 


dwoiros 


adl 


feast 


daps 


daps 


mas 


feast 


conuiuium 


w91da 


fem 


feast 


daps 


westos 


mas 


feather 


pluma 


perom 


neu 


feather 


penna 


petsna 


fem 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



feather 


pluma 


plousma 


fern 


feeble 


tener 


ter9nros 


adl 


feed 


pasco 


pasko 


tr 


feel 


sentio 


awisdhijo 


tr 


feel 


sentio 


qeiso 


tr 


feel ashamed 


pudet 


aichesajo 


den 


fence 


saepes 


saipis 


mas 


ferment 


fermento 


jeso 




fern 


filix 


pratis 


fern 


ferret 


uiuerra 


weiwersa 


fern 


few 


paucum 


pau 


ind 


field 


arum 


arwom 


neu 


field 


pratum 


maghos 


mas 


fierce 


saeuus 


saiwos 


adl 


fierceness 


tules 


tonslis 


fern 


fifteen 


quindecim 


penqdekQm 


ind 


fifth 


quintus 


penqtos 


adll 


fifty 


quinquaginta 


penqadkSmta 


adll 


fig 


ficus 


bheikos 


fern 


fight 


pugna 


katos 


mas 


fight 


certo 


streudo 


dur 


file 


lima 


sleima 


fern 


fill 


pled 


(pim)plemi 


tr 


fill 


pled 


pleenami 


inc 


filth 


situs 


mergis 


fern 


finch 


passer 


spingja 


fern 


find 


inuenio 


(wi)wermi 


tr 


find 


nanciscor 


nOnkskomoi 


tr 


finger 


digitus 


cistis 


fern 


finger 


digitus 


dek9mtulos 


mas 


fingernail 


unguis 


onchis 


mas 


finish 


finio 


cerjo 


intr 


fire 


ignis 


egnis 


mas 


fire 


ignis 


pew9r 


neu 


firm 


firmus 


omos 


adl 


first 


primus 


prawos 


adll 



first 


primus 


prismos 


sup 


first (of two) 


primus (a 
duobus) 


proteros 


adll 


fish 


piscis 


piskis 


mas 


fist 


pugnus 


penqstis 


fern 


fist 


pugnus 


pougnos 


mas 


five 


quinque 


penqe 


ind 


fix 


fixus 


pastos 


adl 


flake 


floccus 


bhlokos 


mas 


flame 


flamma 


bhldgsma 


fem 


flame 


focus 


bhokos 




flask 


obrussa 


obrusja 


fern 


flat 


planus 


lergos 


adl 


flat 


planus 


plakos 


adl 


flat 


planus 


pianos 


adl 


flat-footed 


plautus 


plautos 


adl 


flax 


linum 


leinom 


neu 


flea 


pulex 


pusleks 


mas 


fleabane 


pulicdria 


dhwestus 


fem 


flee 


fugo 


bhougajo 


cau 


flee 


fugio 


bhugjo 


dur 


fleece 


uellus 


gnebhis 


fem 


flexible 


flexibilis 


lugnos 


adl 


flight 


figa 


bhouga 


fem 


flimmer 


fulgeo 


merko 




flimmer 


mico 


inikami 


dur 


floor 


contabulatio 


plarom 


neu 


flour 


farina 


melwom 


neu 


flour 


farina 


mlatom 


neu 


flourishing 


fluorescentia 


ghlustis 


adl 


flow 


fluxus 


sora 


fem 


flow 


fluo 


bhleuco 


intr 


flow 


meo 


mejajo 


intr 


flow 


fluo 


srewo 


intr 


flow 


fluo 


weiso 


den 


flow down 


defluo 


stelgho 


intr 


flower 


fids 


bhlos 


mas 



273 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



flower 


flos 


bhlotis 


fern 


fluoresce 


superluceo 


bhelo 


intr 


flush away 


egero 


rinami 


tr 


flutter 


corusco 


sp9ndo 


intr 


fly 


musca 


muska 


fern 


fly 


aduolo 


peto 


intr 


fly 


uolo 


cfllajo 


intr 


foal 


pulllus 


kurnos 




foam 


spuma 


spoima 


fern 


foenum 


hay 


koinos 


mas 


fog 


caligo 


kalgon 




fog 


nebula 


nebhla 


fern 


foggy, to be 


nebulosus 
sum 


wapejo 


den 


fold 


ouile 


cija 


fem 


fold 


flecto 


bheugo 




fold 


plico 


plekami 


cau 


follow 


sequor 


seqomoi 


dur 


food 


pabulum 


pasknis 


mas 


food 


cibus 


pitus 


mas 


food 


pulmentum 


westa 


fem 


foot 


pes 


pods 


mas 


footprint 


uestigium 


lorga 


fem 


footprint 


peda 


pedom 


neu 


forbid 


ueto 


wetami 


tr 


force 


ids 


stolgos 


mas 


force 


impetus 


tewos 


neu 


force 


compello 


twenko 


tr 


force in 


intrudo 


treudo 


cau 


ford 


portus 


p9rtus 


mas 


forearm 


lacertus 


lakertos 


mas 


forehead 


frons 


bhr6w9ntis 


mas 


foreigner 


aduena 


ghostis 


and 


foremost 


primus 


prijos 


adll 


forest 


silua 


kselwa 


fem 


forest 


lucus 


loukos 


mas 


forest 


nemus 


nemos 


neu 



forget 


obliuiscor 


ledo 


tr 


fork 


furca 


ghabhlom 


neu 


fork 


furca 


merga 


fem 


form 


forma 


pflrptus 




formerly 


olim 


olim 


ind 


fortieth 


quadragesim 
us 


q9tw9oradk9 
mt9mos 


adll 


fortification 


munitura 


karkar 


mas 


fortify 


munio 


moinijomoi 


tr 


forty 


quadraginta 


q9tw9oradka 
mta 


adll 


forty 


quadraginta 


q9tworadk9m 
ta 


adll 


forwards 


pro 


pro(d) 


ind 


fountain 


fans 


awa 


fem 


fountain 


fans 


awen 


neu 


fountain 


fans 


dhontis 


mas 


four 


quattuor 


q9tw9res 


adll 


four days 


quadriduum 


q9tw9rdj6wij 

Olll 


neu 


four each 


quaterni 


qfltrosnos 


adll 


four hundred 


quadrigenti 


q9tw0rk9mto 

s 


adll 


four hundreth 


quadrigentesi 
mus 


q9tw0rk9mte 

mtdmos 


adll 


four times 


quater 


qfltros 


ind 


four years 


quadrienniu 
m 


qfltwflratnjom 


neu 


fourteen 


quattuordeci 
m 


q9twrdek9m 


ind 


fourth 


quartus 


q9tw9rtos 


adll 


fox 


uulpes 


wolpis 


fem 


foxglove 


digitalis 
purpurea 


spjonos 


fem 


fragment 


frustum 


bhroustom 


neu 


fragrant 


fragrant 


swekos 


adl 


fraud 


dolus 


dolos 


mas 


fray 


diffilor 


sremso 


intr 


free 


liber 


leudheros 


adl 


free 


recipio 


nosejo 


cau 


freeze 


geld 


prunso 


tr 


frequent 


frequens 


menghos 


adl 


friend 


arnica 


ameika 


fem 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



friend 


amicus 


ameiks 


mas 


fringe 


antiae 


antjas 




from 


ab 


apo 


ind 


from 


ex 


extrod 


ind 


from there 


inde 


imde 


ind 


from there 


inde 


totrod 


ind 


from this side 


hinc 


kina 


ind 


from upwards 


de 


de 


ind 


from which 


unde 


jomde 


rel 


frost 


pruina 


pruswa 


fern 


fruit 


fructus 


agrenom 


neu 


fruit 


frux 


bhreugs 


mas 


fry 


frigo 


bhagjo 


tr 


fry 


frigo 


bhreico 


tr 


trypan 


sartago 


landhom 


neu 


fuck 


futtuo 


eibho 


intr 


fuel 


cibus ignis 


dawtis 


fern 


fugacious 


fugax 


tokwos 


adl 


full 


plenus 


plenos 


adl 


full 


plenus 


pletos 


adl 


fundament 


fundamentu 
m 


uposedjom 


neu 


fungus 


fungus 


swombhos 


mas 


furniture 


suppellex 


endosedjom 


neu 


furrow 


sulcus 


p9rka 


fern 


further 


ulterus 


olteros 


adl 


furthest 


ultimus 


oltSmos 


sup 


gall 


bilis 


bistlis 


fern 


gape 


hid 


ghjajo 


inc 


garden 


hortus 


ghortos 


mas 


garlic 


alius 


ahijos 


mas 


gather 


cogo 


gerco 


tr 


gather 


cogo 


katsajo 


tr 


gaul 


g alius 


gahios 


mas 


gaze 


prospecto 


qeko 




gentle 


gentilis 


klisros 


adl 


germ 


germen 


genmOn 


neu 



get angry 


stomachor 


kflrdijomoi 


prog 


get cumulated 


cumulo 


dergho 


intr 


get dressed 


induo 


ewo 


inc 


get drunk 


inebrio 


pojejo 


cau 


get dry 


seresco 


tersomoi 


intr 


get encrusted 


incrustor 


kreupo 


inc 


get furious 


saeuio 


sajo 


den 


get in a space 


locus mihi est 


telpo 


intr 


get injured 


ferior 


steugo 


inc 


get tired 


defetiscor 


kmami 


prog 


gift 


donum 


donom 


neu 


gird 


cingo 


kingo 


tr 


girl 


puella 


maqa 


fem 


give 


do 


(di)doini 


tr 


give birth 


pario 


pflrijo 


tr 


give joy 


solor 


solajomoi 


tr 


give one's 
opinion 


opinor 


tongejo 


tr 


glance 


fascis 


auga 


fem 


glare 


splendeo 


swelo 


intr 


glass 


poculum 


potlom 




glide 


surrepo 


sleidho 


intr 


glimmer 


fulgeo 


bherko 


den 


glimmer 


renideo 


ghlemi 


intr 


globe 


globus 


globhos 


mas 


gloomy 


fuscus 


mauros 


adl 


glory 


gloria 


klewos 


neu 


glove 


digitabulum 


ghesris 


fem 


glow 


cando 


kando 


tr 


glowing ash 


fauilla 


genlom 


neu 


glue 


gluten 


gloiten 


neu 


gnat 


culex 


kuleks 


mas 


gnaw 


frendo 


ghrendo 


intr 


gnaw away 


corrodo 


trowo 


tr 


go 


eo 


9rskom6i 


intr 


go 


eo 


eimi 


dur 


go aside 


me auerto 


greubho 


dur 



275 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



go away 


abeo 


cicami 


inc 


go down 


descendo 


keido 


intr 


goat 


caper 


bokkos 


mas 


goat 


capra 


digha 


fern 


goat 


hircus 


ghabhros 


mas 


goat 


capra 


kapra 


fern 


goat 


caper 


kapros 




goatish 


haedinus 


ghaidinos 


adll 


god 


deus 


deiwos 


mas 


goddess 


dea 


deiwa 


fern 


godly 


dius 


deiwijos 


adll 


gold 


aurum 


aiisom 


neu 


gold 


aurum 


ghSltom 


neu 


golden 


aureus 


gh91tnos 


adll 


good 


bonus 


asus 


adl 


good 


bonus 


bhilis 


adl 


good 


bonus 


dwenos 


adl 


good 


bonus 


manos 


adl 


good 


bonus 


probhwos 


adl 


goos 


anser 


ghansor 


mas 


grace 


gratia 


ratom 


mas 


grain 


granum 


granom 


neu 


grand- 
daughter 


neptis 


neptis 


fern 


grandfather 


auus 


awos 


mas 


grandfather 


aus 


dhedhjos 




grandmother 


anus 


anus 


fern 


grandmother 


auia 


awija 


fern 


grandson 


nepos 


nepets 


mas 


granny 


anus 


anna 


fern 


grant 


dono 


pflrnami 


tr 


grass 


gramen 


ghrasmSn 


neu 


grass 


herba 


ghrasom 


db 


grave 


fossa 


bhodsa 


fern 


gravel 


calculus 


geisa 


fern 


greasy 


adiposus 


lipros 


adl 


green 


uiridis 


chelwos 


mas 



grey 


canus 


kasnos 


mas 


grey 


albogiluus 


p91owos 


adl 


grey 


pallidus 


palowos 


adl 


grey 


rauus 


rawos 


adl 


grill 


craft's 


kratis 


fern 


grind 


contero 


ghrewo 


cau 


grind 


mold 


melo 


tr 


groan 


unco 


onkajo 




groin 


inguen 


9nceen 


fern 


groin 


intestinum 


Ui 


neu 


groom 


pubes 


pusbhis 


mas 


groove 


sulcus 


solkos 


mas 


ground 


fundus 


bhudhnos 


mas 


ground 


solea 


swoleja 


fern 


ground 


tellus 


telsus 


fern 


group 


caterua 


qelos 


neu 


grow 


cresco 


kresko 


prog 


grow 


cresco 


Ordhjo 


intr 


grow fat 


pinguesco 


peido 


prog 


grow thin 


tenuesco 


kerko 


inc 


growl 


grunnio 


ghelijo 


intr 


grown 


grandis 


gr9ndhis 


adl 


grumble 


fremo 


ghremo 


intr 


grumble 


ringor 


wrflngomoi 


intr 


grunt 


fremo 


bhremo 


intr 


grunt 


grunnio 


grundijo 


intr 


guerrilla 


guerrilla 


bhoga 


fern 


guest 


hospes 


ghostipots 


adll 


guile 


astus 


astus 


mas 


guilty 


sons 


sontis 


adl 


gull 


mergus 


medgos 


mas 


gullet 


gula 


c91a 


fern 


gulp 


lurco 


sl9rgjo 


tr 


gum 


gingiua 


genga 


fem 


gush 


seated 


skatejo 


dur 


gush up 


exubero 


bhrendho 


intr 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



hail 


grando 


grodis 


mas 


hair 


capillum 


ghaita 


fern 


hair 


capillum 


kaisrom 


neu 


hair 


caesaries 


kerom 




hair 


pilus 


pilos 


mas 


hair 


capillum 


rewmQn 


neu 


hair 


uellus 


welnos 


neu 


hair 


caesaries 


wondhos 




hair (strong) 


saeta 


saita 


fern 


hairdresser 


tonsor 


tonstor 


adll 


hairless 


caluus 


kalwos 


adl 


half 


medius 


semi- 


adll 


hall 


uestibulum 


werstidhlom 


neu 


ham 


perna 


persna 


fern 


hammer 


malleus 


matla 


fern 


hammer 


malleus 


ordlios 


mas 


hand 


manus 


ghesflr 


neu 


hand 


manus 


ghestos 


neu 


hand 


manus 


m9nus 


fern 


handle 


ansa 


ansa 




handle 


stiua 


ghetla 


fern 


handle 


manubrium 


skapos 


mas 


handle 


gero 


qerumi 


dur 


hang 


suspendo 


lembo 


tr 


hang 


pendo 


pendo 


tr 


happen 


accido 


leido 


pro 


hard 


durus 


kartus 


adl 


harm 


damno 


dapnami 


tr 


harm 


damnum 


skodhos 


mas 


harn 


urina 


wQreina 




harrow 


occa 


oketa 


fern 


harsh 


asper 


drismos 


adl 


harvest 


seges 


9snatis 


fern 


haste 


coactus 


spouda 


tr 


hasten 


percurro 


bhusjo 


intr 


hasten 


festino 


skego 


intr 



hatchet 


bipennis 


tokslos 


mas 


hate 


odi 


odjo (oda) 


tr 


hatred 


odium 


odjom 


neu 


have 


habeo 


eiko 


tr 


have fever 


febrio 


cero 


den 


have taste 


sapio 


s9pijo 


tr 


have wrinkle 


rugatus sum 


g9rbejo 


den 


haven 


portus 


kopnos 


mas 


hawk 


accipiter 


oqipteros 


mas 


hazel 


corilus 


kosolos 


fern 


hazelnut 


abellana 


arusa 


fem 


head 


caput 


ghebhla 


fern 


head 


caput 


kaput 


neu 


head 


caput 


kers9n 


neu 


head of cereal 


spica 


speika 


fem 


head towards 


uergo 


wergo 


den 


health 


ualetudo 


koilutats 


fem 


healthy 


sanus 


koilus 


adl 


healthy 


sanus 


jekos 


adl 


heap 


strues 


struwis 


fem 


hear 


clued 


kluwejo 


den 


hear 


audio 


gheuso 




hear 


audio 


kelnumi 


tr 


hearing 


auditus 


kleumOn 


neu 


heart 


cor 


k9rdi / 
k9rdjom 


neu 


hearth 


fornus 


chornos 


mas 


heat 


color 


cheros 


neu 


heat 


adoleo 


olejo 


cau 


heath 


silua 


kaitom 


neu 


heave 


erigo 


ero 


tr 


heaven 


caelum 


kemelom 


neu 


heavy 


grauis 


c9r(aw)us 


adl 


heavy 


brutus 


crfltos 


adl 


hedgehog 


er 


eghjos 


mas 


hedgehog 


er 


gher 


mas 


heel 


calx 


persa 


fem 



277 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



height 


summum 


kolmos 


mas 


hello 


heus! 


ala! 


exel 


helmet 


galea 


kelmos 


mas 


help 


adiuuo 


jewo 


intr 


hen 


gallina 


kerkos 


fern 


henbane 


hyosciamus 


bheluna 


fern 


herb 


herba 


lubhja 


fem 


herd 


grex 


gregs 


mas 


herdsman 


pastor 


cowqolos 


mas 


herdsman 


pastor 


kerdhjos 


mas 


here 


hie 


kei 


ind 


heron 


ardea 


ardeja 


fem 


hesitate 


uacillo 


kenkomoi 


intr 


hide 


celo 


kelajo 


cau 


hide 


abdi 


keudho 




high 


altus 


altos 


adl 


high 


altus 


bh9rghos 


adl 


high 


superus 


viperos 




high 


altus 


upselos 


mas 


hill 


collis 


kolnis 


fem 


hill 


mons 


montis 


mas 


himself 


se 


se 


pron 


himself 


se 


sed 


ind 


hinge 


cardo 


k9rdeen 




hint 


posterus 


apoteros 


adl 


hip 


coxa 


koksa 


fem 


hip 


lumbus 


londhwos 


mas 


his 


suus 


sewijos 


adll 


hiss 


strido 


streido 


dur 


hit 


contusio 


bhenjom 




hit 


quatio 


bh9tjo 


tr 


hit 


tundo 


bhlago 


tr 


hit 


fligo 


bhleico 


intr 


hit 


quatio 


bhutjo 


tr 


hit 


cudo 


keudo 


tr 


hit 


offendo 


slako 


tr 



hit 


quatio 


steupo 


tr 


hoard 


refugium 


kusdhos 




hold 


possideo 


potejo 


tr 


hold 


retineo 


segho 


tr 


hole 


orificium 


lugja 


fem 


hollow 


cauitas 


dholos 


mas 


hollow 


uola 


dhoneja 


fem 


hollow 


fouea 


gheweja 




hollow 


cauus 


kowos 


adl 


hollow out 


excauo 


skerbho 


tr 


holy 


sanctus 


noibhos 


adll 


holy 


sacer 


kwentos 


adll 


holy 


sacer 


sakros 


adl 


honey 


mel 


melit 


neu 


honour 


macto 


m9gtaj6 


tr 


hoof 


ungula 


kophos 


mas 


hook 


ancus 


ankos 


mas 


hook 


hamus 


kenkos 


mas 


hook 


hamus 


khamos 


mas 


hook 


uncus 


onkos 


mas 


hoopoe 


upupa 


opopa 


fem 


hope 


spes 


spes 


fem 


horn 


cornu 


kflrnu 


neu 


hornbeam 


carpinus 
betulus 


g8rbeina 




hornless 


incornis 


kemos 


adll 


horse 


equs 


ekwos 


mas 


horse 


equus 


markos 


mas 


hostage 


obses 


gheislos 


mas 


house 


domus 


domos 


fem 


house 


domus 


weiks 


mas 


housemaster 


erus 


esos 


m 


hovel 


gurgustium 


c9rcestjom 


neu 


hover 


pullulo 


prewo 


dur 


how 


qualis 


qalis 


adll 


how 


ut 


qota 


int 


how 


quomodo 


jota 


rel 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



how many 


quot 


qot(j)6s 


int 


howbeit 


autem 


aw 


ind 


howgreat 


quantus 


qaw9ntos 


pron 


howl 


ululo 


ululajo 


intr 


humble 


humilis 


wailos 


mas 


humiliate 


humilio 


neido 


tr 


hump 


gibba 


gibba 


fern 


hundred 


centum 


kflmtom 


ind 


hunger 


fames 


dhSmis 


fern 


hunger 


fames 


ghredhus 


mas 


hunt 


uenatus 


woita 


fern 


hunt 


uenor 


(wi)weimi 


tr 


hurry 


festino 


spergho 


intr 


hurry 


accelero 


speudo 


tr 


hut 


casa 


kleitis 


fern 


hut 


mapalia 


kouta 


fern 


I 


ego 


ego 


pron 




ice 


gelu 


eisom 


neu 




ice 


gelu 


gelu 


neu 




ice 


glades 


glQgjes 


fern 




ice 


glades 


jegis 


mas 




icicle 


crustula 


krusta 


fern 




icicle 


stiria 


stejsja 


fem 




ill 


aeger 


aigros 


adl 




illuminate 


illumino 


bhanumi 


tr 




imbue 


inficio 


in ago 


tr 




immediate 


immediatus 


udhus 


adl 




immediately 


cito 


kitod 


ind 




immortal 


immortdlis 


Onmrotijos 


adll 




impel 


pello 


peldo 


tr 




important 


serius 


swerus 


adl 




impregnate 


tingo 


tengo 


tr 




in 


in- 


en 


ind 




in excess 


magis etiam 


9ndhi 


ind 




in the middle 


in media 
parte 


meti 






mthe 
morning 


mane 


proi 


ind 





incise 


inseco 


ghelo 


intr 




incision 


incisio 


bh9rma 






incite 


sollicito 


Orghejo 


tr 




incite 


incito 


trenko 


tr 




inclined 


pronus 


niqos 


adll 




include 


includo 


glembho 


cau 




increase 


augmentum 


augmfln 


neu 




increase 


augo 


augo 


cau 




indeed 


quippe 


qidpe 


ind 




indication 


indicatio' 


deiktis 


fem 




indulge in 


indulged 


dhfllgejo 


intr 




mfere 


deduco 


denso 


tr 




inferior 


inferior 


niiteros 


adl 




inflate 


inflor 


bhleido 


intr 




inflate 


info 


pusjo 


tr 




inform 


enuntio 


steumi 


tr 




insect 


insectus 


empis 


fem 




inside 


in 


endo 


ind 




inside 


intus 


entos 


ind 




inside 


interior 


et9r 


mas 




insipid 


insipidus 


merwos 






inspect 


inspicio 


skewo 


tr 




insult 


insulto 


pejo 


tr 




intellect 


intellectus 


menmfln 


neu 




intelligence 


sensus 


sflnstus 






intelligent 


callidus 


glekis 


adl 




intend 


intendo 


mflnsjomoi 


neu 




internal 


interior 


enteros 


adl 




interval 


interuallum 


enterom 


neu 




intestine 


intestinus 


enteros 


adl 




intestine 


intestina 


ghoros 


mas 




mtestiones 


intestinum 


routes 


mas 




invoke 


inuoco 


kiklesko 


tr 




iron 


ferrum 


isarnom 


neu 




irritate 


irrito 


prousijo 


intr 




island 


insula 


ensla 


fem 



279 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 





tern 


item 


itim 


ind 




uxta 


close to 


p9ra 


ind 




vy 


hedera 


khederos 


fern 


. 


aws 


fauces 


gopos 


mas 


. 


oin 


iungo 


jungo 


tr 


. 


oint 


artus 


artus 


mas 


. 


oint 


artus 


koubos 


mas 


. 


oke 


nuga 


ghloumos 




. 


oke 


nugor 


ghleumi 


intr 


. 


ourney 


ito 


itajo 


freq 


. 


oy 


gaudium 


gaudhjom 


neu 


. 


oyful 


alacer 


rodos 


adl 


. 


udge 


iudex 


jousdiks 


adll 


. 


uice 


succus 


sapos 


fern 


. 


uice 


sucus 


soukos 


mas 


. 


ump 


salto 


rebhajo 


intr 


. 


ump 


salto 


dhernumoi 


intr 


. 


ump 


salio 


leigo 


intr 


. 


uniper 


picea 


lentos 


fern 


. 


uniper 


iuniperus 


toksos 


fern 


. 


ust 


iustus 


joustos 


adl 


keel 


carina 


kareina 


fern 


keep 


conseruo 


bhergho 


tr 


keep 


praeseruo 


kadho 


tr 


key 


clduis 


klaws 


fern 


kidney 


renis 


neghron 


mas 


kill 


need 


nekami 


tr 


kin 


genus 


genos 


neu 


kindness 


beneficium 


prosedjom 


neu 


king 


rex 


regs 


mas 


kingdom 


regnum 


regnom 


neu 


kingly 


regius 


regjos 


adll 


kiss 


basium 


kusis 


mas 


kiss 


sauia 


sowija 


fern 


kiss 


osculo 


bhusajo 


tr 


knead 


commisceo 


bheuro 


tr 



knead 


depso 


debho 


tr 


knee 


genu 


genu 


neu 


knee 


genuflector 


teupo 


inc 


knock 


battuo 


bheldo 


intr 


knot 


nodus 


nodos 


mas 


knot 


nodus 


osbhos 


mas 


know 


nosco 


(gi)gnosko 
(gnowa) 


tr 


know 


scio 


skijo 


tr 


known 


notus 


gnotos 


adl 


lack 


egeo 


egejo 


den 


lack 


cared 


kflsejo 


den 


lack 


desum 


meito 


den 


ladder 


scala 


skandsla 


fern 


ladle 


trua 


trowa 


fern 


lake 


lacus 


agherom 


neu 


lake 


lacus 


laqos 


mas 


lamb 


agnus 


agnos 


mas 


lamb 


ueruex 


w9ren 


mas 


lame 


claudus 


klaudos 


adl 


lamp 


lampas 


lapsa 


fern 


land 


ager 


agros 


mas 


land 


campus 


kampos 


mas 


land 


regio 


londhom 


neu 


land 


terra 


oud9n 


neu 


land estate 


fundus 


kapos 


mas 


landlady 


domina 


domuna 


fern 


landlord 


dominus 


domunos 


mas 


lap 


gremium 


gremjom 


neu 


lapwing 


uanellus 


cowija 


fern 


large fish 


squalus 


sqalos 


mas 


last 


ultimus 


opitjos 


adll 


last 


porstremus 


postflmos 


sup 


last year 


anno 
praeterito 


peruti 


ind 


late 


tarde 


lodi 


neu 


later 


posterus 


posteros 


adl 


laugh 


cachinnus 


khakhatnos 


mas 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



laugh 


rideo 


wflrisdejo 


intr 


law 


lex 


legs 


fern 


law 


ius 


jous 


neu 


lax 


salmo 


loksos 


mas 


lay 


stramdn 


stram9n 




lazy 


plger 


leskos 


adl 


lead 


duxi 


nijoiii 




lead 


plumbum 


pluwaidhom 


neu 


lead 


adduco 


wedho 


tr 


leader 


dux 


deuks 


and 


leaf 


folium 


bhuljom 


neu 


leaf 


folium 


leups 


mas 


lean 


nitor 


gneicho 


intr 


leap 


saltus 


rebha 


fern 


leap 


salto 


keko 


intr 


learn 


disco 


didksko 


tr 


leather 


corium 


korjom 


neu 


leave 


linquo 


linqo 


tr 


leek 


porrum 


pflrsom 


neu 


left 


laeus 


laiwos 


adll 


left 


sinister 


soujos 


adll 


left-handed 


scaeuus 


skaiwos 


adl 


leg 


crus 


kaiima 


fern 


leg 


crus 


krous 


neu 


legal suit 


lis 


stlltis 


fern 


legbent 


uatius 


watjos 


adl 


legitimate 


legitimus 


t9nktos 


adl 


lend 


commodo 


ghero 


tr 


lend 


commodatus 


loiqnom 


neu 


length 


longitudo 


d919nghota 


fern 


leprosy 


leprae 


trudska 


fern 


less 


minus 


minusi 


ind 


less 


setius 


seetjosi 




lessen 


minuo 


sewajo 


prog 


leuer 


uectis 


weghtis 


fern 


lick 


lingo 


lingho 


tr 



lie 



lie 



lie 



lie 



lie open 



life 



lifetime 



ligament 



light 



light 



light 



light 



lighting 



like 



lily 



limb 



lime 



lime 



limit 



limp 



line 



line 



link 



link 



lion 



lip 



lip 



lip 



liquid 



liquid 



liquid 



list 



listen 



little 



little owl 



keimoi 



cubo 



kubami 



mentior 



leugho 



occubo 



legho 



pateo 



pfltejo 



uita 



cejta 



saeculum 



saitlom 



ligamen 



tenos 



leuis 



19nghros 



leuis 



leghus 



lux 



leuks 



lumen 



leuksmSn 



illuminatio 



bhanom 



libet (mihi) 



lubhejo 



liilium 



leiljom 



membrum 



karon 



calx 



kalkis 



tilia 



leipa 



limes 



bhreuna 



claudico 



sk9ngjo 



linea 



streiba 



stria 



strigja 



nodo 



nedo 



ligo 



wedhnumi 



leo 



wlewa 



labrum 



ghelnom 



labrum 



19bjom 



labrum 



meknos 



latex 



lateks 



liquor 



wflleiqos 



liquid (to be) liqueo 



wflliqejo 



reimdn 



audio 



kleumi 



paucus 



paukos 



noctua 



den 



intr 



den 



den 



fern 



adl 



adl 



fem 



tr 



fem 



fem 



intr 



fem 



fem 



tr 



tr 



fem 



den 



adl 



fem 



28l 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



live 


UlUO 


cejwo 


dur 


liver 


iecur 


jeqOr 


neu 


load 


onus 


onos 


neu 


lobster 


langusta 


k9mertos 


mas 


lock 


cirrus 


ghrendhos 


neu 


lock of hair 


crinis 


pulga 


fern 


lofty 


excelsus 


mlodhros 


adl 


long 


long us 


d»18nghos 


mas 


long for 


aueo 


gheidho 


tr 


long hair 


caesaries 


kais9rjes 


fern 


longer time 


diutius 


peros 


ind 


long-lasting 


serus 


seros 


adl 


look 


specio 


spekjo 


tr 


look like 


uideor 


prepo 


intr 


loom 


textrinum 


weimOn 


neu 


lot 


copia 


koupna 


fern 


lot 


cumulus 


teusmQn 


neu 


lotus 


lotus 


kemeros 


fern 


loud 


penetrans 


toros 


adl 


louse 


pedis 


lousen 


fern 


love 


amo 


kami 


tr 


love 


amo 


stergo 


tr 


love 


amor 


wenos 


neu 


love 


amo 


amajo 


tr 


love potion 


uenenum 


wenesnom 


neu 


lovely 


carus 


koimos 


adl 


lovely 


carus 


leubhos 


adl 


lower 


inferus 


nerteros 


adll 


luck 


fortuna 


tougha 


fern 


lung 


pulmo 


pleumon 


mas 


luxury 


sumptus 


ghloidos 


mas 


lynx 


lynx 


louksos 


mas 


magic 


magicus 


kudiios 


adl 


magic 


ueneficiumj 


soitos 


mas 


magic force 


magia 


kwedos 


neu 


magnanimous 


magnanimus 


mSgnanflinos 


adl 



magpie 


picus 


peikos 


mas 


maid 


uirgo 


andhesa 


fem 


maim 


trunco 


skutajo 


tr 


make afraid 


terreo 


tersejo 


intr 


make bitter 


acerbo 


streubho 


tr 


make hot 


foueo 


dhochejo 


cau 


make money 


lucror 


pelo 


tr 


make noise 


strepo 


bhelo 


intr 


make noise 


strepo 


strepo 


intr 


make up 


perspicio 


d9rkj6 


tr 


male 


mas 


wersis 


mas 


man 


homo 


dhghomon 


mas 


man 


homo 


mannusos 


mas 


man 


uir 


woiros 


mas 


mane 


crinis 


krisnis 


fem 


manner 


modus 


koitus 


fem 


mantle 


sagum 


sagom 


neu 


maple 


acer 


akeris 


fem 


maple 


acer 


kleinos 


fem 


march 


itus 


c9mtis 


fem 


march 


itus 


oimos 


mas 


mare 


equa 


ekwa 


fem 


marrow 


medulla 


smerwa 


fem 


marry 


nubo 


sneubho 


tr 


marsh 


mariscus 


mareskos 


mas 


mass 


globus 


komos 


mas 


mass 


moles 


molis 


fem 


mass 


massa 


sloidhos 


mas 


massacre 


trucidatio 


agra 


fem 


mast 


malus 


masdos 


neu 


master 


dominus 


potis 


mas 


mate 


collega 


bhendhros 


mas 


mate 


sodalis 


damos 


mas 


mattock 


ligo 


sligon 


mas 


maxilla 


maxilla 


genus 


neu 


mead 


mel 


medhu 


neu 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



meager 


petilus 


pet91os 


adl 


measure 


mensura 


mestis 


fern 


measure 


mensura 


metrom 


neu 


measure 


modus 


modos 


neu 


measure 


metior 


memi 


tr 


measure 


metior 


metijomoi 


tr 


meat 


card 


memsom 


9ne 
u 


meet 


congredior 


katsajomoi 


intr 


meet 


accurro 


mimdo 


inc 


meeting 


congregdtio 


komnom 


neu 


melodious 


melodious 


bhendos 


adl 


melt 


tabesco 


tadhesko 


intr 


memory 


memoria 


menos 


neu 


memory 


memoria 


smemorja 


fern 


mention 


mentio 


mOntos 


mas 


mention 


alludo 


cotejo 


tr 


metal 


metallum 


raudos 


neu 


midday 


meridies 


medhidjows 


mas 


middle 


medius 


medhjos 


adll 


middle (in 
the) 


ob 


obhi 


ind 


middling 


sublestus 


leswos 


adl 


might 


potestas 


maghtis 


fern 


mild 


mitis 


loisos 


adl 


mild 


comes 


moilos 


adl 


milk 


lac 


glakti 


neu 


milk 


mulgeo 


molgejo 


tr 


mill 


molina 


moleina 


fern 


millet 


milium 


meljom 


neu 


millstone 


mola 


cOrawenros 


mas 


mind 


mens 


m9ntis 


fern 


miracle 


mirdculum 


smeiratlom 


neu 


miserable 


miser 


treughos 


adl 


missing 


absente 


sQnteri 


ind 


mist 


uapor 


mighla 


fern 


mistletoe 


uiscum 


wiskom 


neu 


mistress 


domina 


potnja 


fern 



mix 


misceo 


miskejo 


cau 


mix 


permisceo 


krami 


tr 


model 


fingo 


dhingho 


tr 


modest 


modestus 


nesros 


adl 


molder 


putesco 


pujo 


inc 


moment 


momentum 


meqos 


neu 


money 


pecunia 


alchos 


mas 


monster 


monstrum 


ansus 


mas 


month 


mensis 


mensis 


mas 


moo 


mugio 


mugijo 


intr 


moon 


luna 


louksna 


fem 


more 


magis 


m9gsi 


ind 


more than 
that 


immo 


immo 


adll 


morning 


mane 


amros - amrei 


mas 


morning 


matina 


wesros 


mas 


mortar 


mortdrium 


m9rtasjom 


neu 


moss 


muscus 


muskos 




mother 


mamma 


am ma 


fem 


mother 


mater 


mateer 


fem 


mother-in-law 


socrus 


swekrus 


fem 


motley 


uarius 


p9rknos 


adl 


mould 


futis 


gheutis 


fem 


mound 


tumulus 


tumlos 


mas 


mount 


scando 


skandd 


dur 


mountain 


mons 


ceri 


neu 


mountain 


mons 


perkunjom 


neu 


mountain- 
path 


callis 


k91dis 


fem 


mouse 


glis 


gleis 


mas 


mouse 


mus 


meus 


neu 


mouth 


OS 


OS 


neu 


mouthful 


bucca 


bukka 


fem 


move 


cieo 


Ornumi 


intr 


move 


moueo 


djejo 


intr 


move 


muto 


meico 


intr 


move 


moueo 


mowejo 


cau 


move 


migro 


pelko 


intr 



283 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



move away 


sperno 


spdrno 


cau 


movement 


momentum 


Ornutis 


fern 


much 


multum 


pelu 


ind 


mucus 


mucus 


moukos 




mud 


caenum 


korkos 


adl 


mud 


limus 


leimos 


mas 


mud 


lutum 


mutrom 


neu 


mud 


lutum 


penom 


neu 


mud 


limus 


sleimos 


mas 


multitude 


copiae 


hiktos 


mas 


mundane 


mundanus 


cecalos 


adl 


murder 


interficio 


chenmi 


tr 


murmur 


murmuro 


d9rdraj6 


intr 


murmur 


murmuro 


mOrmrajo 




muscle 


musculus 


kikus 


mas 


muscle 


mus 


meus / 
muskos 


neu 


must 


mustus 


mudstos 


mas 


mutilate 


mutilo 


kerso 


tr 


mutilated 


mutilus 


klambos 


adl 


mutter 


muttio 


muttijo 


den 


mutual 


mutuus 


moitwos 


adll 


myop 


myops 


nevikos 


adl 


mystery 


mysterium 


kelga 


fern 


nail 


clduus 


klawos 


mas 


nail 


clduus 


onghlos 


mas 


nail 


pango 


pflngo 


tr 


naked 


nudus 


nocodos 


adll 


name 


nomen 


nom9n 


neu 


name 


praenomen 


prainomQn 


neu 


name 


nomino 


k91ejo 


tr 


name 


nomino 


nSmnajo 


tr 


nates 


natis 


nOtis 


fern 


navel 


umbilicus 


onbhlos 


mas 


near 


propinquus 


nedjos 


adl 


near 


prope 


proqed 


ind 


neck 


ceruix 


knokos 


mas 



neck 


collus 


mongos 


fern 


neck 


ceruix 


monos 


mas 


neck 


collum 


kolsos 


mas 


need 


necesse est 


9nkej6 


tr 


needle 


acus 


akos 


neu 


neighbour 


uicinus 


epijos 


adll 


nest 


nidus 


nisdos 


mas 


net 


rete 


grebhos 


mas 


net 


nassa 


nedsa 


fern 


nettle 


urtica 


nedis 


fern 


network 


gerra 


gersa 


fern 


never 


nunquam 


neqom 


ind 


new 


nous 


new(ij)os 


adl 


nigh 


propinquus 


proqos 


adl 


night 


nox 


noqtis 


neu 


night bird 


strix 


streigs 


fem 


nightmare 


somnus 
terrorificus 


mora 


fern 


nine 


nouem 


new9n 


ind 


ninth 


nouenus 
(nonus) 


new9nos 


adll 


nipple 


tetta 


spenos 


mas 


nit 


ouum 


sknida 


fem 


no 


ne 


ne 


ind 


noble 


nobilis 


atlos 


adl 


noble 


nobilis 


m9glos 


adl 


nobody, 
nothing 


nemo, nihil 


neqis, neqid 


pron 


nod 


nuo 


newo 


intr 


noisy 


strepitosus 


bholos 


adl 


nord 


septentrio 


skouros 


mas 


nose 


ndres 


nasis 


fem 


not 


haud 


ghawod 


ind 


not 


ne 


me 


ind 


not at all 


nequaquam 


nei 


ind 


nourish 


alo 


alo 




now 


nunc 


nu 




now 


nunc 


numki 


ind 


nut 


nux 


knouks 


fem 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



oak 


robus 


aiga 


fern 


oak 


quercus 


perqos 


fern 


oak tree 


quercus suber 


grobhos 


fern 


oakum 


stupa 


stoupa 


fern 


oar 


remus 


retsmos 


mas 


oat 


auena 


awigsna 


fern 


oath 


sacramentum 


loughjom 


neu 


oath 


sacramentum 


oitos 


mas 


obedience 


oboedientia 


kleustis 


fern 


obey 


oboedio 


kleuso 


tr 


obscurity 


obscuritds 


temos 


neu 


observe 


seruo 


sQrwajo 


tr 


observe 


tueor 


tewomoi 


tr 


occipital 


occipitium 


moldha 


fern 


occupation 


cura 


koisa 


fern 


odor 


odor 


odos 


mas 


of this side 


citer 


kiteros 


adl 


oil 


oleum 


solpos 


mas 


oint 


unguo 


onco 


tr 


oint 


lino 


lino 


tr 


ointment 


unguen 


oncen 


neu 


old 


senex 


gerlos 


adl 


old 


senex 


seneks 


mas 


old (to 
become) 


senesco 


gero 


prog 


omoplate 


scapulae 


skubtis 


fern 


on 


insuper 


epi 


ind 


on account of 


causa 


rodhi 


ind 


once 


semel 


semli 


ind 


one 


unus 


oinos 


adll 


one 


unus 


semos 


mas 


one-eyed 


unioculis 


kolnos 


adll 


onion 


caepa 


kaipa 


fern 


onion 


caepa 


kremusom 


neu 


open 


aperio 


werjo 


tr 


open land 


rus 


rows 


neu 


opening 


caula 


kaghla 


fern 



opinate 


censed 


kflnsejo 


tr 


opinion 


sententia 


dhomos 


mas 


oppress 


ango 


amgho 


tr 


oppress 


opprimo 


ipjo 




or 


aut 


awti 


ind 


or 


ue 


we 


encl 


oral 


buccale 


goulos 


mas 


orange 


badius 


badjos 


adl 


order 


ordo 


kerdhos 


mas 


orphan 


orbus 


orbhos 


adll 


otherwise 


autem 


awtim 


ind 


otherwise 


altrinsecus 


perti 


ind 


otter 


lutra 


w9dra 


fem 


our 


noster 


9nser6s 


adll 


out 


ex 


uti, ud 


neu 


outdoors 


fords 


rew 


ind 


outside 


ex 


ek(si) 




over 


super 


(s)uperi 


ind 


over 


super 


uperi 


ind 


over there 


ultra 


oltrod 


ind 


owen 


fornus 


uqnos 


mas 


owl 


noctua 


kawona 


fem 


own 


possideo 


gh9bhejo 


tr 


ox 


bos 


ukson 


and 


pain 


dolor 


eduna 




pain 


dolor 


kormos 


mas 


paint 


pingo 


pingo 


tr 


palate 


palatum 


stomOn 


neu 


pale 


tenuis 


bhlendhos 


adl 


palisade 


uallum 


edhOr 


neu 


palm 


palma 


pdlma 


fem 


panic 


horror 


mormoros 


mas 


parent 


genitor 


gentor 


mas 


part 


pars 


aitis 


fem 


part 


pars 


p9rtis 


fem 


parterre 


lira 


leisa 


fem 



285 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



particle 


particula 


bhrustom 


neu 


partridge 


perdix 


kakaba 


fern 


pass 


perambulo 


trepo 


tr 


pass 


transeo 


jami 


intr 


passage 


traiectio 


teqom 


neu 


path 


semita 


sentos 


neu 


patient 


patiens 


tlatjos 


adl 


paunch 


pantex 


p9ndeks 


mas 


pause 


cessatio 


rowa 


fern 


pay attention 


faveo 


ghowejo 


tr 


pea 


cicer 


kiker 


mas 


peace 


pax 


pags 


fern 


pebble 


calculus 


ghrowa 


fern 


pee 


uriina 


moighos 


mas 


peel 


glubo 


gleubho 


tr 


peg 


cippus 


kippos 


mas 


penetrate 


penetro 


negho 


tr 


penis 


penis 


bhalnos 


mas 


penis 


penis 


lalu 


ind 


penis 


muto 


moutos 


mas 


penis 


penis 


pesnis 


mas 


penis 


penis 


poutos 


mas 


penthouse 


cenaculum 


keliknom 


neu 


penury 


lack 


loigos 


mas 


people 


populus 


teuta 


fern 


people 


uulgus 


wolgos 


neu 


pepper 


piper 


piperi 


neu 


perch 


perca 


dhghusa 


fern 


perfect 


perfectus 


k6msq9rtos 


adl 


perform 


efficio 


senumi 


tr 


perhaps 


forsan 


ail 


ind 


period 


aetas 


aiwesos 


mas 


permissive 


permissiiuus 


mSldhos 


adl 


persecute 


persequor 


wflrnaini 


tr 


persecute 


persequor 


jegho 


tr 


perspire 


spiro 


spoisajo 


intr 



phantom 


phasma 


lemsos 


mas 


pickaxe 


sacena 


sflkesna 


fern 


piece 


fragmentum 


pdrsna 


fern 


Pig 


porcus 


porkos 


mas 


Pig 


sus 


sews 


mas 


Pig 


porcus 


trogos 


mas 


pike 


ueru 


ceru 


neu 


pile 


acerus 


akeswos 


mas 


pile 


sublica 


kolnom 


neu 


pile up 


struo 


strewo 


tr 


pillage 


diripio 


welumi 


tr 


pillar 


sublica 


stobhos 


mas 


pin down 


siffilo 


gango 


intr 


pin down 


carino 


karnajo 


tr 


pinetree 


pinus 


bharwos 


fern 


pinetree 


abies 


dhanwos 


fem 


pink 


rosaceus 


elwos 




pinnacle 


pinaculus 


stertos 


mas 


pintle 


cnodax 


bendla 


mas 


pipe 


canna 


strudsma 


fem 


piss 


mingo 


iningho 


intr 


pit 


macio 


makajo 


cau 


pit 


scrobis 


skrobhis 


fem 


pitch 


pix 


peiks 


fem 


place 


locus 


stanom 


neu 


place 


locus 


stlokos 


mas 


place 


sino 


sino 


tr 


place 


condo 


stanejo 


tr 


plait 


plecto 


plekto 


tr 


plait 


plecto 


resgo 


tr 


plane 


efodio 


glabho 


tr 


planet 


planeta 


rewis 


mas 


planities 


campus 


platom 


neu 


plate 


lamina 


stlamfln 


neu 


platform 


catasta 


statlom 


neu 


plea 


prex 


preks 


fem 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



pleasant 


amoenus 


seljos 


adl 


pleasant 


suauis 


swadiis 


adl 


pleasant 


amoenus 


moghjos 


adl 


pleasantly 


libenter 


ghornim 


ind 


plough 


aratrum 


aratrom 


neu 


plough 


aro 


arajo 


tr 


plough animal 


iumentum 


aghja 


fern 


plough handle 


stiua 


steiwa 


fern 


ploughshare 


uomer 


wogsmis 




pluck 


uellico 


gnebho 


tr 


plum 


prunum 


sloiwom 


neu 


plump 


crassus 


kratsos 




pod 


siliqua 


gherghros 


fern 


pod 


siliqua 


skdliqa 


fern 


poet 


uates 


watis 


mas 


point 


punctus 


ardis 


fern 


point 


cuspis 


gloghis 


fern 


poison 


uenenum 


woisos 


mas 


pole 


asser 


pelwis 


fern 


pole 


pertica 


perta 


fern 


policeman 


tresuir 


woros 


mas 


polish 


limo 


sleimajo 


tr 


pond 


lacus 


stagnom 


neu 


ponder 


medeor 


medomoi 


intr 


poodle 


lama 


lama 


fem 


pool 


stagnum 


staknom 


neu 


poor 


pauper 


ormos 


adl 


poppy 


papauer 


makoii 


mas 


porridge 


puis 


poltos 


mas 


portico 


antae 


antas 




portico 


porticus 


p9rga 


fem 


portion 


portio 


bhagos 


mas 


position 


status 


status 


mas 


post 


meta 


meta 


fem 


post 


sparus 


sparos 


mas 


posterity 


suboles 


troghos 


mas 



pot 


aula 


auqsla 


fem 


pot 


catinus 


kumbha 


fem 


potter wheel 


tornus 


dliroghnom 


neu 


pouch 


crumena 


maken 


mas 


pour 


fundo 


ghundo 


cau 


power 


potentia 


galnos 


mas 


powerful 


potens 


kuw9ros 


adl 


praise 


laus 


loudis 


mas 


praise 


superbia 


molpa 


fem 


praise 


laudo 


cero 


tr 


pray 


rogo 


chedho 


tr 


pray 


precor 


meldho 


intr 


pray 


oro 


orajo 


tr 


prayer 


prex 


moldhos 


mas 


precarious 


precarius 


dusopis 


adl 


preceding 


anterior 


preistos 


adl 


precipitate 


praecipitor 


krepo 


intr 


precision 


subtilitas 


nomflr 


neu 


predator 


praedator 


dhaunos 


adl 


prepare 


praeparo 


adejo 


tr 


presence 


praesentia 


weidos 


neu 


present 


praesens 


prailoghos 


adll 


press 


premo 


bhrikami 


tr 


press 


imprimo 


dhengho 


tr 


press 


premo 


premo 


tr 


press 


premo 


preso 


tr 


press tightly 


comprimo 


kamo 


tr 


prevail 


praeualeo 


cinami 


intr 


previous 


praecedens 


kintos 


adll 


previous 


anterior 


prewijos 


adl 


price 


pretium 


pretjom 


neu 


prick 


centrum 


kentrom 


neu 


prickle 


agna 


akna 


fem 


prickle 


spina 


speiksna 


fem 


priest 


flamen 


bhlaghm9n 


neu 


priest 


sacerdos 


sakrodhots 


mas 



287 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



principal 


primus 


promos 


sup 


productive 


felix 


dheleiks 


adl 


profession 


ars 


kerdos 


neu 


profit 


compendium 


bheweda 


fern 


progeny 


progenies 


teukm9n 


neu 


promise 


spondeo 


spondejo 


tr 


promontory 


promontoriu 
m 


akrom 


neu 


promontory 


tumulus 


prostos 


mas 


promote 


foueo 


kaknumi 


tr 


property 


possessio 


rentus 


fern 


property 


possessio 


selwa 


fem 


propice 


idoneus 


sinisteros 


adl 


propiety 


res 


reis 


fem 


prosper 


maturo 


majo 


prog 


protect 


tueor 


alkejo 


tr 


protect 


protego 


palajo 


tr 


protest 


querela 


glagha 


fem 


proud 


superbus 


bhorsos 


adl 


proud 


superbus 


meudos 


adl 


prove 


probo 


probhwajo 


tr 


provide 


asporto 


porejo 


cau 


provide 


paro 


sepo 


tr 


provision 


prouisio 


penos 


neu 


pubescent 


pubes 


m9rjos 


mas 


pulse 


erum 


ercom 


neu 


pumice 


pumex 


poimeiks 


mas 


punch 


pungo 


pungo 


tr 


puncture 


figo 


dheico 


tr 


punish 


punio 


membho 


tr 


punishment 


poena 


woina 


fem 


pure 


castus 


kflstos 


adl 


pure 


purus 


powros 


adl 


pus 


pus 


puwos 


neu 


push 


ago 


ago 


cau 


push 


impello 


kelo 


tr 


pustule 


pustula 


pustla 


fem 



put 


pond 


dliejo 


tr 


put 


pond 


stelo 


tr 


put forth 


prodo 


proddSmi 


tr 


put in order 


ordino 


tagjo 


tr 


put off 


exuo 


nocejo 


cau 


put on 


mentior 


mflntijomoi 


tr 


quadruped 


quadrupes 


q9tw9rpods 


adll 


qualify 


qualified 


tadejo 


tr 


queen 


regina 


regeina 


fem 


question 


quaestio 


p9rkska 


fem 


quick 


celer 


peimis 


adl 


quick 


uelox 


twflrtos 


adl 


quickly 


cito 


bhersi 


ind 


raffle 


sortior 


kleuto 


tr 


rag 


pannus 


kentom 


mas 


rag 


pannus 


pannos 


mas 


rage 


rabo 


rflbhjo 


intr 


rain 


pluo 


plewo 


intr 


rain 


pluuia 


plowija 


fem 


raise 


tollo 


tOlno 


tr 


ram 


aries 


agos 


mas 


ram 


aries 


erjos 


mas 


range 


ordino 


kerdho 


tr 


range 


ordino 


reknumi 


tr 


rank 


agmen 


agmdn 


neu 


raven 


raucus 


korwos 


adl 


raw 


crudus 


omos 


adl 


ray 


radium 


rSdjoin 


neu 


raze 


rado 


gneibho 


tr 


razor 


nouacula 


ksnowatla 


fem 


reach 


apiscor 


Opjo 


inc 


reach 


ic(i)o 


aiko 


tr 


reach 


ic(i)o 


ikjo 


tr 


realise 


percipio 


preto 


tr 


reap 


meto 


meto 


tr 


reason 


ratio 


r8tis 


fem 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



reason 


arguo 


argujo 


tr 


receive 


accipio 


teko 


tr 


receive 


accipio 


ghOndo 


tr 


recent 


recens 


kainos 


adl 


recitate 


recito 


spelo 


intr 


reckon 


reor 


remoi 


neu 


reckon 


computo 


puwej5 


tr 


recline 


accumbo 


kumbo 


intr 


recommend 


suadeo 


swadejo 


cau 


red 


ruber 


dherghos 


adl 


red 


ruber 


rudhros 


adl 


red (-haired) 


rufus 


reudhos 


adl 


red ochre 


minium 


miljom 


neu 


reduce 


minuo 


minumi 


cau 


region 


pagus 


pagos 


mas 


rejoice 


gaudeo 


gaudhejo 


intr 


rejoice oneself 


delector 


tusjomoi 


intr 


relative 


familiaris 


pasds 


mas 


relative 


familidris 


sweljos 


mas 


relax 


requiesco 


remo 


intr 


relief 


podium 


podjom 


neu 


religion 


religio 


peristanom 


neu 


remain 


maneo 


m9nej6 


den 


remain 
(water) 


remaned 


stago 


den 


remaining 


reliquus 


loiqos 


adll 


remember 


memini 


mimnasko 
(memna) 


intr 


remnant 


reliquiae 


atiloiqos 


mas 


renew 


nouo 


newajo 


tr 


renowned 


nobilis 


moros 


adl 


rent 


loco 


keuso 


tr 


repair 


sarcio 


s9rkijo 


tr 


repellent 


repellens 


aghlos 


adl 


replication 


effigies 


aimom 


neu 


reprove 


orbiurgo 


kudajd 


intr 


reputation 


reputatio 


kleumfliitom 


neu 


request 


quaero 


aisosko 


tr 



require 


postulo 


bhedho 


intr 


residence 


sedes 


sedos 


neu 


resin 


bitumen 


cetus 


mas 


resin 


resina 


peitus 


mas 


resonate 


tono 


tdnami 


intr 


resound 


persono 


boukajo 


intr 


resound 


resono 


gewo 


intr 


respect 


uereor 


wflreejomoi 


tr 


rest 


requiesco 


ermi 


intr 


rest 


quiesco 


qejesko 


intr 


rest 


requiesco 


t91ijo 


den 


restrict 


obstringo 


strengo 




result 


euenio 


tenko 


prog 


retain 


retineo 


dhermi 


tr 


retaliation 


ulciscdtio 


qoina 


fern 


retire 


secedo 


spleigho 


intr 


revenge 


represalia 


apoqoitis 


fern 


rheum 


grdmiae 


gramma 


fem 


rheum 


lippa 


lippa 


fern 


rhyme 


rima 


reima 


fem 


rib 


costa 


kosta 


fem 


ribbon 


taenia 


tena 


fem 


rich 


diues 


deiwots 


adl 


riches 


ops 


ops 


mas 


ride 


equito 


reidho 


tr 


right 


dexter 


deksteros 


adll 


right 


rectus 


regtos 


mas 


right way 


uia recta 


jeunis 


fem 


rigid (to be) 


stuped 


stupejo 


den 


ring 


anus 


anos 


mas 


ring 


anus 


krenghos 


mas 


rite 


ritus 


adm9n 


neu 


river 


fluius 


danus 


mas 


river ford 


uadum 


wadhom 


neu 


road 


uia 


kelus 


fem 


roam 


uagor 


wflgajomoi 


intr 



289 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



roar 


gemitus 


dhrenos 


mas 


roar 


rugio 


ragijo 


intr 


roaring 


fremitus 


ghromos 


mas 


rob 


furor 


stero 


tr 


rock 


rupes 


karreka 


fern 


rock 


saxum 


ondos 


neu 


rock 


rupes 


pelsa 


fem 


rock 


trepido 


kflrdjo 


intr 


rod 


uirga 


cosdhos 


mas 


rod 


lituus 


litwos 


mas 


rod 


ferula 


slata 


fem 


roebuck 


gazella 


jorkos 


mas 


roe -deer 


alces 


alkis 


mas 

/ 
fem 


roof 


tectus 


robhos 


mas 


room 


cubiculum 


ketja 


fem 


root 


radix 


radeiks 


fem 


root 


radix 


wQrdja 


fem 


rope 


restis 


resgtis 


fem 


rope 


retinaculum 


sognos 


mas 


rotten 


caries 


kflrjes 


fem 


rough 


rudis 


bhorcos 


adl 


rough 


raucus 


brenghos 


adl 


rough 


rudis 


dOmpus 


adl 


row 


remo 


rejo 


intr 


rowan tree 


sorbus 


sorbhos 


fem 


rub 


mulceo 


melko 


tr 


rub 


teiro 


terjo 


tr 


rubber 


glutinum 


gloidos 


mas 


rubbish 


immunditia 


ceudhos 


neu 


rubbish 


sordes 


swordis 


fem 


rudder 


temo 


oisja 


fem 


rude 


rudis 


radios 


adl 


ruin 


ruina 


rewesna 


fem 


ruin 


ruino 


rikjo 


tr 


rule 


impero 


wQldhejo 


tr 


ruler (in 


uirga 


stolbos 


mas 



topography) 


rumen 


rumen 


reusmfln 


neu 


ruminate 


rurnino 


reusmnajo 


intr 


rummage 


ruspor, 


raspajomoi 




rumor (to 
produce) 


rumorem 
facio 


reumi 




run 


curro 


bheco 


intr 


run 


curro 


dhewo 




run 


curro 


dremo 
(didrami) 


intr 


run 


curro 


kflrso 


tr 


run 


curro 


reto 


intr 


run around 


circumcurro 


dhregho 


intr 


run away 


ecurro 


teqo 


intr 


rush 


agitatio 


sretus 


mas 


rust 


robigo 


roudhstos 


mas 


rye 


secale ceredle 


wflrughis 


mas 


ryegrass 


lolium 


aira 


fem 


sack 


saccus 


coinos 


mas 


sacrifice 


sacrificium 


sakrodhokj o 
m 


neu 


sad 


maestus 


creughos 


adl 


sad 


tristis 


gorgos 


adl 


sad 


tristis 


treistis 


adl 


sadness 


tristitia 


gorgnom 


neu 


sailor 


nauta 


nawagos 


epic 


saint 


sanctus 


kadros 


adll 


salary 


saldrium 


misdhom 


neu 


saliva 


saliua 


saleiwa 


fem 


salt 


sal 


sali 


neu 


salt 


sallo 


saldo 


cau 


sanctuary 


sanctuarium 


neinetom 


neu 


sand 


sabulum 


samdhos 


mas 


sand/gravel 


saburra 


pensiis 


mas 


sandal 


sandalia 


pedlom 


neu 


saucer 


patera 


p9tera 


fem 


say 


died 


seqo 


tr 


scabies 


scabies 


skabhjes 


fem 


scald-crow 


corus 


bhodhwos 


mas 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



scale 


squama 


bhrounom 


neu 


scandal 


scandalum 


bhloskos 


mas 


scant 


insignificans 


mtawos 


adl 


scanty 


exiguus 


sneitos 


adl 


scar 


cicatrix 


kikatreiks 


fern 


scar 


cicatrix 


krenktis 


fern 


scatter 


dispergor 


skedo 


intr 


scene 


pulpitus 


polpos 


mas 


scold 


obiurgo 


lajo 


tr 


scorch 


accendo 


dawnumi 


tr 


scrape 


abrado 


gneido 


tr 


scrape off 


abrado 


greumo 


tr 


scrape out 


abrado 


reubo 


intr 


scratch 


charaxo 


gflrbho 


tr 


scratch 


scabo 


gredo 


tr 


scratch 


erodo 


meuko 


tr 


scratch 


scabo 


skabho 


tr 


scrath out 


desculpo 


meilo 


tr 


scream 


clamo 


waplajo 


den 


scythe 


falx 


dhelgs 


fem 


sea 


mare 


mari 


neu 


sea 


mare 


trijOtos 


mas 


seabream 


sparus 
aurata 


atis 


fem 


seal 


phoca 


swelaks 


mas 


seam 


sutura 


sewm9n 


neu 


season 


tempus 


jorom 


neu 


seat 


sella 


sedla 


fem 


seat 


solium 


sodjom 


neu 


second 


secundus 


dwoteros 


adll 


second 


secundus 


eteros 


adll 


second 


secundus 


onteros 


adll 


secret 


secretum 


rovuia 


fem 


secrete 


abdo 


musnami 


tr 


secretion 


secretio 


seimOn 


neu 


sect 


secta 


wereina 


fem 


sedge 


ulua 


olwa 


fem 



sedge 


spartum 


sesqos 


fem 


see 


uideo 


d9rko 


tr 


see 


uideo 


oqo 


tr 


see 


uideo 


welo 


tr 


see 


uideo 


widejo 


tr 


seed 


semen 


semOn 


neu 


seek 


sagio 


sagijo 


tr 


seen 


uisus 


d9rktis 


fem 


seesaw 


oscillo 


sweigo 


prog 


seeside 


litus 


leitos 


neu 


seize 


capto 


ghreibho 


tr 


self 


sui 


sewe 


igen 
es 


sell 


uenum 


wesnom 


neu 


send 


mitto 


smeito 


tr 


send 


mitto 


sontejo 


cau 


send away 


amando 


fljo 


tr 


separate 


se 


Wl 


ind 


separate 


separo 


dero 


tr 


serpent 


natrix 


natreiks 


fem 


servant 


serils 


ambhiqolos 


mas 


serve 


fungor 


bhuncomoi 


intr 


sendee 


seruitium 


upostanom 


neu 


set 


instauro 


staurejo 


tr 


set out 


orior 


Orijomoi 


inc 


settle 


sedo 


sedajo 


cau 


seven 


septem 


septSm 


ind 


seventh 


Septimus 


septflmos 


adll 


sew 


suo 


sewo 


tr 


sewer's awl 


subula 


sudhla 


fem 


shackle 


uincio 


winkijo 


tr 


shadow 


umbra 


skotos 


mas 


shake 


agitor 


kreitso 


intr 


shake 


agito 


krotjajo 


tr 


shake 


quatio 


qatjo 


tr 


shaker 


mixtarium 


m9nkstrom 


neu 


shall 


debeo 


skelo 


tr 



291 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



shameful 


pudendus 


kaunos 


adl 


sharing 


socius 


sokjos 


mas 


sharp 


acer 


akris 


adl 


sharp 


acutus 


gigros 


adl 


sharp 


picans 


pikros 


adl 


sharpen 


exacuo 


(ki)kemi 


tr 


shatter 


disrumpo 


bhresjo 


tr 


shave 


abrado 


ksnowajo 


tr 


shave 


rado 


rado 


rac 


shave 


tondeo 


tondejo 


tr 


sheath 


uagina 


wageina 


fern 


sheep 


ouis 


owis 


fern 


shelf 


pluteus 


skolpos 


mas 


shell 


concha 


koiikha 


fern 


shepherd 


pastor 


poimon 


mas 


sherd 


scrupus 


skroupos 


mas 


shield 


tegb 


rebho 


tr 


shield 


scutum 


skoitom 


neu 


shift 


permutatio 


mejtis 


fern 


shimmer 


fulgeo 


bhfllgejo 


den 


shin-bone 


tibia 


teibhja 


fern 


shine 


splendeo 


erqo 


intr 


shine 


luceo 


bhrego 


intr 


shine 


splendeo 


dhelo 


intr 


shine 


luceo 


lukejo 


den 


shine 


niteo 


nitejo 


den 


shine 


luceo 


skejo 


den 


ship 


nauis 


raws 


fern 


ship 


nauis 


plowos 


mas 


shirt 


camisia 


kflrdsus 


fern 


shit 


merda 


coucis 


fern 


shit 


excrementum 


dherghs 


fern 


shit 


merda 


skerda 


fern 


shit 


merda 


smerda 


fern 


shit 


stercus 


sterkos 


neu 


shit 


stercus 


sterkos 


neu 



shiver 


tremo 


treso 




shoe 


calceus 


kerpjos 


mas 


shoot 


disparo 


selgo 


tr 


shoot 


emitto 


skeudo 


tr 


shore 


ripa 


aperos 


mas 


short 


breuis 


mflrghus 


mas 


shoulder 


umerus 


omsos 


mas 


shoulder- 
blades 


scapulae 


pletja 


fern 


show 


monstro 


deiko 


tr 


shrew 


sorex 


sworex 




shriek 


crocio 


krokijo 


intr 


shuttle 


agito 


kristajo 


cau 


sibling 


fraterculans 


s9mop9t6r 


epi 


sickle 


falcicula 


s9rpa 


fern 


side 


latus 


splighstos 


mas 


side 


latus 


stlatos 


mas 


sieve 


cribrum 


kreidhrom 


neu 


sieve 


colum 


sejdhlom 


neu 


sieve 


crino 


krino 


tr 


sieve 


cold 


sejo 


tr 


silent 


silens 


tausos 


adl 


silent (to be) 


sileo 


silejo 


intr 


silent (to be) 


taceo 


t9kejo 


inc 


silently 


silenter 


tausnim 


ind 


silver 


argentum 


argflntom 


neu 


similar 


similis 


s9mlis 


adl 


simple 


merus 


meros 


adl 


sincere 


sincerus 


Sndwojos 


adl 


sing 


cano 


kano 


intr 


sing 


cano 


sencho 


intr 


single 


unicus 


oinoikos 


adll 


sink 


mergo 


mergo 


cau 


sink 


mergo 


senqo 


inc 


sip 


lambo 


lOmbo 


tr 


sip 


sorbeo 


sorbhejo 


tr 


sir 




arjos 





Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



sir 


dominus 


audlios 


mas 


sister 


soror 


swesor 


fern 


sister-in-law 


glos 


glos 


fern 


sister's son 


sobrinus 


swesreinos 


mas 


sit 


sedeo 


sedejo 


den 


sit down 


sido 


sisdo 


intr 


site 


situs 


loghjom 


neu 


six 


sex 


seks / sweks 


ind 


sixth 


sextus 


sekstos 


adll 


skeletton 


larua 


skroutos 


mas 


skillful 


habilis 


dhabhros 


mas 


skin 


cutis 


kutis 


mas 


skin 


pellis 


pelnis 


fern 


skirt 


falda 


baita 


fern 


slack 


eneruis 


mlinos 


adl 


slanting 


obliquus 


loksos 


adl 


slate 


ardesia 


lewanks 


fern 


slave 


seruos 


dosos 


mas 


sleep 


somnus 


swopnos 


mas 


sleep 


dormio 


sesmi 




sleep 


dormio 


swepo 


dur 


sleeper 


traversa 


swelom 


neu 


slender 


gracilis 


kflrklos 


adl 


slender 


macer 


makros 


adl 


slip 


labor 


slabomoi 


intr 


slip 


prolabor 


sleibo 




slip 


prolabor 


sleubo 


inc 


slip in 


irrepo 


smeughnumi 


tr 


sloe 


prunus 
spinosa 


dherghnos 


fern 


slope 


clino 


kloinami 


cau 


slow 


lentus 


mSlsos 


mas 


slow 


tardus 


tarudos 


adl 


small 


parus 


alpos 


adl 


small 


exigus 


gherus 




small 


paruus 


paulos 


adl 


small pillar 


columella 


skolma 


fern 



smaller 


minor 


meiwijos 


adl 


smell 


oleo 


bhrflgrajo 


den 


smell 


old 


odejo 


tr 


smell 


olfacio 


sisghrami 


tr 


smell good 


fragro 


sweko 


intr 


smile 


arrideo 


smejo 


intr 


smog 


turbulentia 


sneudhs 


fem 


smoke 


fumus 


dhoumos 


mas 


smoke 


fumus 


smoughos 


mas 


smoke 


fumo 


smeugho 


intr 


smooth 


glaber 


rastos 


adl 


smooth 


explano 


sleigo 




snail 


cochlea 


sleimaks 


mas 


snake 


anguis 


enchis 


fem 


snake 


coluber 


kelodhros 


mas 


snake 


serpens 


snogha 




snappy 


transpuntori 
us 


swerwos 


adl 


snare 


laqueus 


mergha 


fem 


snatch 


rapid 


rflpjo 


tr 


sneeze 


sternuo 


sternumi 


intr 


snore 


sternuo 


srenko 


intr 


snore 


sterto 


sterto 


intr 


snow 


nix 


sneighs 


fem 


snow 


ninguit 


snincheti 


den 


so 


ita 


ita 


ind 


so 


etenim 


man 


ind 


so 


num. 


nom 


ind 


so many 


tot 


tot(j)6s 


adll 


so much 


tantus 


tawflntos 


pron 


sob 


hippito 


gheipo 


intr 


soft 


mollis 


mflldus 


adl 


soften 


mollio 


mfllduwijo 


tr 


softened 


emollitus 


mflldsnos 


adl 


soil 


solum 


bhudhmfln 


neu 


soldier 


miles 


neros 


mas 


solid 


solidus 


dliobos 


adl 



293 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



solid 


solidus 


materos 


mas 


solidify 


solidified 


greuto 


intr 


someone 


quisquis 


neqos 


pron 


someone 


ecquis 


edqis, edqid 


pron 


son 


films 


SUI1US 


mas 


song 


carmen 


kanmdn 


neu 


son-in-law 


gener 


gemros 


mas 


soon 


mox 


moksi 


ind 


soot 


fuligo 


dhoulis 




soot 


fuligo 


sotos 


mas 


sorrow 


maestitia 


croughnos 


adl 


soul 


animus 


etm9n 


neu 


sound 


sonitus 


dhwonos 


mas 


sound 


clango 


klflngo 


intr 


sound 


sono 


swenami 


intr 


soup 


ius 


supa 


fern 


sour 


amarus 


amros 


adl 


sour 


acerbus 


sauros 


adl 


sow 


porca 


trogja 


fern 


sow 


sero 


sego 


tr 


sow 


sero 


siso 


tr 


sowing 


seges 


segets 


fern 


space 


spatium 


ghewos 


es 


spade 


pdla 


lagha 


fern 


sparrow 


parra 


parsa 


fern 


sparrow 


parra 


sparwos 


mas 


speak 


for 


bhamoi 


intr 


speak 


loquor 


tloqomoi 


intr 


speak 


loquor 


wiweqmi 


tr 


spear 


gaesum 


ghaisom 


neu 


spear 


hasta 


lostos 


mas 


spearshaft 


hasta 


ghasta 


fern 


speckled 


uarius 


bhflrktos 


adl 


speckled 


uarius 


mSrktos 


adl 


speech 


contio 


9gtis 


fern 


speechless 


mutus 


muttis 


adl 



spelt 


ador 


ados 


neu 


spelt 


alica 


aleiks 




spend 


impendo 


neudo 


tr 


spend the 
night 


pernocto 


awo 


dur 


spill 


effundo 


seiko 


tr 


spill 


effundo 


sujo 


tr 


spin 


neo 


snemi 


tr 


spit 


spuo 


spewo 


intr 


splash 


respergo 


perso 


intr 


spleen 


lien 


spelgha 


fern 


splendid 


splendidus 


ghleiwos 


adl 


split 


fragmentum 


d9rnos 


mas 


split 


abiungo 


delo 


tr 


split 


scindo 


sk91jo 


tr 


split 


scindo 


skerjo 


tr 


split 


scindo 


skindo 


tr 


split 


seco 


spleido 


tr 


spoil 


ruino 


deuso 


tr 


spoon 


ligula 


leigla 


fern 


spot 


macula 


kalis 


fern 


spray 


ros 


ros 


mas 


spread 


sterno 


stflrno 


tr 


spread 


memo 


manajo 


intr 


spring 


fans 


lendha 


fern 


spring 


uer 


wesOr 


neu 


spring 


salio 


sfllijomoi 


inc 


spring 


scato 


skato 


inc 


spring 


exsulto 


skero 


intr 


sprout 


germino 


geimo 


intr 


sprout 


uireo 


wisejo 


den 


spurn 


contemno 


tembho 


tr 


square 


quadrum 


q9ddrom 


neu 


squeak 


pipio 


Pipjajo 


intr 


squeeze 


exprimo 


wesko 


tr 


stab 


baculum 


pinjos 


neu 


stab 


talea 


taleja 


fern 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



stable 


stdbilis 


staros 


adl 


stain 


maculo 


dherko 


cau 


stain 


macula 


smitla 


fern 


stain 


maculo 


smeenumi 


inc 


stalk 


calamus 


koldmos 


mas 


stalk 


tibia 


tibhja 


neu 


stall 


stabulum 


stadhlom 


neu 


stamp on 


conculco 


stembho 


tr 


stand 


St 


(si)stami 


intr 


standing post 


statio 


st9tis 


fern 


star 


Stella 


sterla 


fern 


star 


Stella 


steros 


mas 


star 


sidus 


sweidos 


neu 


stare 


intueor 


stelpo 


intr 


start 


functionem 
incipio 


dherbho 


inc 


stay 


maneo 


weso 


den 


steady 


firmus 


dhSrmos 


adl 


steal 


clepo 


klepo 


tr 


steal 


furor 


tajo 


tr 


steam 


uapor 


bholos 


mas 


steam up 


uaporo 


dhemo 


intr 


steep 


ardus 


9rdhwos 


adl 


steep 


clius 


kloiwos 


adl 


step 


gradus 


cam9n 


neu 


step 


uado 


ghengho 


intr 


step 


gredior 


ghr9djom6i 


dur 


sterile 


sterilis 


sterolis 


adl 


stick 


pilum 


ghaisom 


neu 


stick 


uirga 


sponos 


mas 


stick 


stipes 


steipets 


fern 


stick 


palus 


stupos 


mas 


stick 


palus 


sworos 


mas 


stick 


haereo 


ghaisejo 


den 


stick 


adhaero 


glinami 


intr 


stick 


adhaero 


koljo 


tr 


stick 


haereo 


limpo 


den 



stick 


instigo 


stigajo 


tr 


sticky 


glutinoosus 


gloijos 


adl 


still 


dum 


dom 


ind 


stink 


foeteo 


smerdo 


intr 


stir up 


torqueo 


mendho 


tr 


stock 


deposito 


kreumi 


tr 


stone 


lapis 


akinon 


mas 


stone 


lapis 


19pods 


mas 


stone 


saxum 


sflksom 


neu 


stool 


scamnus 


skabhiiom 


neu 


stop 


detineo 


stawo 


tr 


stop 


strigo 


strigajo 


intr 


stop up 


obtuuro 


teuro 


tr 


stork 


ciconia 


kikonja 


fem 


storm 


imber 


9mbhros 


mas 


storm 


procella 


twoimos 


mas 


story 


historia 


kleutrom 


neu 


strain 


adnitor 


kemo 


intr 


strainer 


colum 


reti 


neu 


strap 


infula 


telsmOn 


neu 


strap 


lorum 


w916rom 




straw 


palea 


paleja 


fem 


stream 


flumen 


bhleugsmSn 


neu 


stream 


amnis 


bhogla 


fem 


stream 


cursus 


sroumos 




street 


uia 


stoighos 


mas 


strenght 


ids 


belom 


neu 


strength 


ids 


weis 


neu 


strengthen 


corroboro 


dhergho 


tr 


stretched 


tentus 


t9ntos 


adl 


strew 


spargo 


spargo 


tr 


strick 


funis 


dhonnis 


mas 


strike 


tundo 


bhinami 


tr 


strike 


mulceo 


bhreuko 


tr 


strike 


percello 


keldo 


tr 


strike 


plango 


plflngo 


tr 



295 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



strike 


tundo 


tundo 


tr 


strike 


caedo 


wedhsko 


tr 


string 


corda 


strengom 




string 


funis 


tentrom 


neu 


stroll 


ambulo 


alajomoi 


intr 


strom 


fluxus 


srewtis 


fern 


strong 


robustus 


belowents 


neu 


strong 


robustus 


melos 


adl 


strong 


robustus 


nertos 


adl 


study 


studium 


stoudjom 


neu 


stuff 


farcio 


bhflrkjo 


tr 


stumble 


titubo 


stemo 


intr 


stupid 


stultus 


mlakos 


adl 


stupid 


morus 


moros 


adl 


stutter 


balbutio 


lepo 


intr 


succeed 


euenio bene 


bheugho 


perf 


success 


euentus 


kobom 


neu 


such 


talis 


talis 


adll 


suck 


sugo 


seugo 


tr 


suck 


sugo 


dheimi 


tr 


suck 


sugo 


mendo 


tr 


sudden 


repentinus 


abhnos 


adl 


suffer 


patior 


p9tjomoi 


tr 


suitor 


procus 


prokos 


mas 


sulphur 


sulpur 


swelplos 


neu 


summer 


aestus 


ghrensmos 


mas 


summer 


aestas 


samos 


mas 


summit 


cacumen 


bhroigos 


mas 


summit 


culmen 


kolm9n 


neu 


sun 


sol 


sawel(jos) 




superior 


superior 


(s)uperos 


adl 


supplementar 

y 


complementd 
rius 


witeros 


adl 


support 


destina 


leghtrom 


mas 


support 


fulcio 


bhOlkjo 


tr 


support 


sustineo 


steuto 


tr 


surname 


cognomen 


komnomSn 


neu 



swamp 


palus 


palwods 


mas 


swan 


olor 


elor 


mas 


sway 


oscillo 


kewejo 


intr 


sweat 


sudo 


swoidajo 


intr 


sweet 


dulcis 


ddlkus 


adl 


swell 


tumefacio 


bhreuso 


cau 


swell 


tumesco 


panko 


intr 


swell 


salum 


salom 


neu 


swell 


tumefacio 


swelajo 


tr 


swell 


turgeo 


turgejo 


den 


swelling 


tumor 


cotlos 


mas 


swelling 


turgentia 


keulom 


neu 


swelling 


pannus 


panknos 




swelling 


papula 


papla 


fern 


swelling 


turgentia 


pouna 


fern 


swift 


rapidus 


okiis 


adl 


swim 


no 


snami 


intr 


swindle 


decresco 


swendho 


prog 


sword 


ensis 


9nsis 


mas 


sword 


gladius 


kladjos 


mas 


syrup 


defrutum 


bhrwtom 




table 


tabula 


spelta 




tablet 


tabella 


klaros 


mas 


tablet 


lira 


loisa 


fern 


tail 


cauda 


doklom 


mas 


tail 


caudula 


dumbos 


mas 


tail 


cauda 


ersa 


fern 


tail 


cauda 


ersabhaljom 


neu 


tail 


cauda 


pukos 


mas 


take 


emo 


emo 


tr 


take 


emo 


labho 


tr 


take care 


euro 


swergho 


tr 


take 
possession 


potior 


ainumoi 


tr 


talk 


garrio 


galgaljo 


intr 


talk 


garrio 


garsijo 


intr 


tame 


cicur 


kekuros 


adl 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



tame 


domo 


domami 


tr 


taste 


gustus 


geustis 


fern 


taste 


gusto 


gusno 


tr 


team 


squadra 


lawos 


mas 


tear 


lacrima 


dakrus 


fern 


tear 


lacero 


19kesaj6 


cau 


tear 


rodo 


rodo 


tr 


tear off 


uello 


weldo 


tr 


tearing 


laceratio 


lakos 


mas 


teat 


tetta 


tetta 


fern 


technique 


ars 


teksna 


fern 


teeth 


dentes 


gombhos 


mas 


tell 


narro 


jeko 


tr 


tell 


narro 


wedo 


tr 


tell off 


obiurgatio 


lamQntom 


neu 


temple 


templum 


temlom 


neu 


temple 


tempus 


tenjom 


neu 


ten 


decern 


dek9m 


ind 


tendon 


tendo 


kenklom 




tendril 


cincinnus 


olgja 


fern 


tension 
(engine) 


tormentum 


torkmOntom 


neu 


termite 


tarmes 


tflrmos 


mas 


terrible 


terrens 


ghouros 


adl 


terror 


terror 


tersos 


mas 


that 


ut 


ei 


ind 


that 


Me ilia illud 


elne elna 
elnod 




that one 


iste 


oisos 


adll 


that, the one 
that 


is quis 


jos (je), ja, jod 


rel 


the other one 


alter 


alteros 


adll 


then 


deinde 


Ondha 


ind 


then 


turn 


torn 


ind 


then 


tunc 


tom-ke 


ind 


there 


ibi 


idhei 


ind 


therefore 


ergo 


ar 


ind 


therefore 


propterea 


tori 


ind 


thick 


densus 


dflnsus 


adl 



thigh 


poples 


morjods 


mas 


thigh 


perna 


toukna 


fem 


thin 


flaccus 


bhlakkos 


adl 


thin 


tenuis 


speimis 


adl 


thin 


tenuis 


t9nus 


adl 


thing 


res 


weqtis 


fem 


think 


cogito 


s9ntejo 




thinnen 


tenuefacio 


kako 


cau 


third 


tertius 


tritjos 


adll 


thirst 


sitis 


t9rstis 


fem 


this 


hie haec hoc 


ghei-ke ghai- 
ke ghod-ke 




this 


is, ea, id 


is, id 


pron 


this 


hie hae hoc 


ke ka kod (eke 
eka ekod) 




this 


iste ista istud 


se/sos sa/si 
tod 




thorn 


spina 


sqija 


fem 


thorn 


spina 


tOrna 


fem 


thousand 


mille 


smeighsli 


neu 


thrash 


studeo 


studejo 


den 


thread 


qualus 


koreibs 


mas 


threaten 


minor 


terco 


tr 


threatening 


minax 


torcos 


adl 


three 


tres 


trejes trija 
trisores 


adll 


three in a go 


trim 


trisnos 




three times 


ter 


tris 


ind 


throat 


guttur 


bh9rugs 


mas 


throat 


guttur 


gut9r 


mas 


through 


trans 


trantis 


ind 


throw 


iaceo 


j9kejo 


den 


throw 


iacio 


supajo 


tr 


throw away 


abicio 


celo 


tr 


thrush 


turdus 


tOrsdos 


mas 


thumb 


pollex 


polneks 


mas 


thunder 


tonitrus 


tontrom 


neu 


thunder 


tonitrum 


torsm9n 


neu 


thunderbolt 


fulmen 


meldhja 





297 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



thurify 


turifico 


kodejo 


tr 


thus 


sic 


seike 


ind 


tick 


rihipicephalu 
s 


degha 


fern 


tick 


ricinus 


reka 




tile 


tegula 


tegla 


fern 


time 


tempus 


daitis 


fern 


time 


uix 


qflrtus 


mas 


time 


tempus 


tempos 


neu 


time 


tempus 


wetos 


neu 


time before 
dawn 


antelucanum 


anksitjom 


neu 


tire 


fatigo 


lflncho 


cau 


tired 


lassus 


cOlenos 


adl 


to 


ad 


ana 


ind 


to another 
place 


alio 


aljote 


ind 


today 


hodie 


edjew 


ind 


toga 


toga 


toga 


fern 


together 


cunctim 


s9m 


ind 


tomb 


sepulcrum 


sepeltrom 


neu 


tomorrow 


eras 


krasi 


ind 


tongue 


lingua 


dencha 


fern 


tongue-tied 


balbus 


balbos 


adl 


tool 


instrumentu 
m 


kaplos 


mas 


tooth 


dens 


dentis 


mas 


top 


turben 


konos 


mas 


torch 


fax 


cheks 


fern 


torch 


taeda 


daweta 


fern 


torment 


crucio 


cedho 


tr 


torpid (to be) 


torpeo 


t9rpejo 


den 


tortoise 


testudo 


ghelus 


fern 


torture 


tormento 


rigjo 


tr 


totality 


integritas 


solwotats 


fern 


touch 


commoueo 


krewo 


tr 


touch 


tango 


palpajo 


tr 


touch 


tango 


t9ngo 


tr 


tough 


rudis 


raukos 


adl 



towards 


uersus 


anta 


ind 


towards 


uersus 


poti 


ind 


towards there 


eo 


totred 


ind 


towards this 
side 


citro 


kitrod 




towel 


mantellum 


tergslom 


neu 


tower 


turris 


tursis 


fern 


tower 


emineo 


m9nijomoi 


omc 


town 


oppidum 


dounom 


neu 


track 


indago 


pento 


tr 


traitor 


proditor 


prodfltor 


adll 


trap 


lacio 


ldkj5 




trap 


pedica 


segnom 


neu 


trap 


capio 


segnumi 


tr 


travel 


iter facere 


kelujo 


intr 


tread 


calco 


spOrami 




treat 


consuesco 


drewo 


tr 


tremble 


tremo 


tremo 


dur 


trestle 


uara 


stoghos 


mas 


trouble 


cura 


kados 


neu 


trouble 


inquieto 


oghlejo 


cau 


trough 


potarium 


aldhon 


mas 


trousers 


pantalonus 


skousa 


fern 


trout 


tructa 


perkna 


fern 


true 


uerus 


weros 


adl 


trunk 


truncus 


st9mnos 


mas 


trunk 


stirps 


sterps 


mas 


trust 


fido 


bheidho 


tr 


try 


conor 


konajomoi 


inc 


tube 


conductus 


anlos 


fern 


tube 


conductus 


rebhrus 


mas 


tuff of hair 


caesaries 


w91tis 


fern 


tunic 


tunica 


ruktus 


mas 


tunnel 


cuniculus 


bolkos 


mas 


turban 


tiara 


wosis 


mas 


turfgrass 


agrostis 


smelga 


fern 


turkey 


pavo 


teturos 


mas 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



turmoil 


tumultus 


tumolos 


mas 


turn 


gyro 


derbho 


intr 


turn 


reuertor 


kwerpo 


inc 


turn 


gyresco 


swerbho 


inc 


turn 


torqueo 


torqejo 


cau 


turn 


uerto 


wQrto 


tr 


turn 


uoluo 


welwo 


tr 


turn around 


circumeo 


witajo 


intr 


turned aside 


perperdm 


perperQnks 


ind 


turnip 


rapum 


rapom 


neu 


twenty 


uiginti 


dwidkflmtoi 


adll 


twin 


geminus 


jemos 


neu 


twisted 


tortus 


lordos 


adl 


two 


duo 


dwou, dwau, 
dwou 


adll 


two each 


bim 


dwlsnos 


lois 


two times 


bis 


dwls 


lois 


udder 


uber 


udhOr 


neu 


udder 


uber 


udhros 


adl 


ugly 


foedus 


bhoidhos 


adl 


ugly 


foedus 


bhoidos 


neu 


ugly 


turpis 


t9rrpis 


adl 


un- 


in- 


On 


ind 


unbind 


itio 


luwo (lewo) 


tr 


uncle 


avunculus 


awontlos 


mas 


uncle 


patruus 


p9truj6s 


mas 


under 


sub 


sup 


ind 


under 


sub 


upo 


ind 


underly 


inferior 


Ondheros 


adl 


understand 


intellego 


peumi 


tr 


unexpected 


necopiinus 


nekoplnos 


mas 


unfair 


iniustus 


9njoustos 


adl 


union 


coniunctio 


komjougos 


mas 


unjustice 


iuiuria 


9njousjom 


neu 


unknown 


ignotus 


9ngn6t6s 


adl 


unmade 


infectus 


Ondhetos 


adll 


unmuddy 


illimis 


9nsloimis 


adll 



until 


tenus 


teni 


ind 


uppest 


summus 


(s)upmos 


sup 


use 


usus 


bhreugtis 


fern 


uter 


uterus 


uderos 


mas 


valley 


uallis 


klopnis 


fern 


value 


ualor 


wertos 


mas 


vanish 


abeo 


ghdhinami 


inc 


vegetable 


olus 


chelwos 


neu 


vegetation 


uiridia 


dhalna 


fem 


veil 


rica 


wflreika 


fern 


veil 


obumbro 


gheugho 


tr 


vein 


uena 


weisna 


fem 


venerate 


ueneror 


aidomoi 


tr 


very 


per- 


abhro- 


prae 
fix 


vessel 


fiscus 


bhidhos 


mas 


vessel 


collectdculum 


kaukos 


mas 


veteran 


ueterdnus 


gerwos 


mas 


vibrate 


uibro 


wibrajo 


cau 


victim 


uictima 


weiktoma 


fem 


victory 


uictoria 


seghos 


mas 


vigor 


alacer 


ghoilos 


adl 


vigor 


uigor 


w9rga 


fem 


vigorous 


uiridis 


sunoros 


mas 


village 


ulcus 


woikos 


mas 


vine 


uitis 


weitis 


fem 


vine-leaf 


pampinus 


pamponos 


mas 


violent 


uiolentus 


twoisos 


adl 


violet 


liueus 


sleiwos 


adl 


virginal 


uirgindlis 


poughos 


adl 


virtue 


decus 


dekos 


neu 


vis-a-vis 


aduersum 


seqi 


ind 


viscose 


conglutinosus 


cobhon 


adl 


vision 


conspectus 


d9rktis 


fem 


visitor 


uisitdtor 


setis 


epic 


vivid 


uiuidus 


coikos 


adl 


vivid 


uiuidus 


etros 


adl 



299 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



voice 


uox 


woqs 


fern 


vomit 


uomo 


wemami 


tr 


vow 


uoueo 


wochejo 


tr 


vulture 


ultur 


bhasos 


mas 


vulture 


uultur 


cfllturos 


mas 


wade 


sura 


swora 


fern 


wake up 


expergiscor 


bheudho 


inc 


wake up 


expergiscor 


gerjo 


intr 


walk 


ambulo 


steigho 


intr 


walk 


uado 


wadho 


intr 


walk silently 


uado 


selko 


intr 


wall 


murus 


makes j a 




wall 


uallum 


walnom 


neu 


wall 


moenia 


dhoighos 


mas 


walls 


moenia 


moinja 


neu 


walnut 


nux 


knuwa 


fern 


wander 


erro 


ersajo 


den 


want 


delecto 


torpejo 


cau 


war 


bellum 


dsa 


fern 


warm 


formus 


chormos 


adl 


warm 


calefacio 


chero 


tr 


warm (bo be) 


tepeo 


tepejo 


den 


warmth 


tepor 


topnos 


mas 


warn 


moneo 


monejo 


cau 


warp 


inflecto 


keuko 


dur 


warrior 


miles 


meilets 


mas 


wart 


uerruca 


wersmfln 


neu 


wash 


purgo 


klewo 


tr 


wash 


lauo 


lowo 


tr 


wash 


lauo 


neico 


tr 


wasp 


uespa 


wopsa 


fern 


watcher 


uigil 


bhulkos 


mas 


water 


aqua 


aqa 


fern 


water 


aqua 


wed8r 


neu 


water 


aqua 


woda 


fern 


water 


aqua 


wopja 


fern 



water 


rigo 


preusnumi 


tr 


watercress 


berrum 


cerurom 


neu 


wave 


unda 


tusna 


fern 


wave 


unda 


w9nda 


fern 


way 


iter 


it9r 


neu 


way 


uia 


pontis 


mas 


way 


uia 


tropos 


mas 


way 


uia 


weghja 


fern 


we 


nos 


wejes / weje 


pron 


weak 


debilis 


klamros 


adl 


weak 


lenis 


lenis 




weaken 


debilito 


mlajo 


cau 


weakness 


debilitas 


bhelu 


neu 


wealth 


substantia 


opna 


fern 


weapon 


arma 


wedhOr 


neu 


wear 


gero 


geso 


tr 


weasel 


mustela 


kerberos 


mas 


weather 


tempus 


wedhrom 


neu 


weave 


texo 


kreko 




weave 


texo 


webho 


tr 


weave 


texo 


wego 


tr 


webbing 


ricinium 


wflreikonjom 


neu 


wedge 


cuneus 


kunejos 


mas 


wedge 


cuneus 


tOrmets 


fern 


weed 


runco 


runko 


tr 


weed 


sarrio 


s9rijo 




weep 


fled 


bhlemi 


intr 


weft 


trdma 


traghsma 


fern 


weigh 


pendo 


kenko 


inc 


weight 


pondus 


pondos 


neu 


well 


puteus 


bhrew9r 


neu 


well 


bene 


su 


lois 


went 


ii 


ludhom 


intr 


went 


ii 


sodom 


intr 


west 


occidens 


eperom 


neu 


wet 


madidus 


molqos 


adl 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix I: Indo-European in Use 



wet 


madidus 


wosmos 


adl 


wet 


rigo 


rflgajo 


tr 


wet (to be) 


umeo 


uchejo 


den 


what 


qui quae quod 


qis qid 


int 


wheat 


far 


bhar 


neu 


wheat 


farina 


bharseina 


fern 


wheat 


frumentum 


bhreugsmSn 


neu 


wheel 


rota 


dhroghos 


fern 


wheel 


rota 


rota 


fern 


wheelrim 


cantus 


kantos 


mas 


whelp 


catulus 


kuwos 


mas 


whelp 


cattulus 


mondos 


mas 


when 


quando 


qflmdo 


int 


when 


cum 


qom 


ind 


when 


cum 


jom 


rel 


whenever 


si 


sei 


neu 


where 


unde 


qomde 


ind 


where 


ubi 


qodhei 


int 


where 


quo 


qoi 


ind 


where (rel) 


ubi 


jodhei 


rel 


wherefore 


quapropter 


jori 


rel 


wherefrom 


unde 


qotrod 


ind 


whether 


ecqui, -quae, - 
quod 


edqos, -qa, - 
qod 


pron 


whey 


serum lactis 


misga 


fern 


which 


qua 


qad 


ind 


which 


uter 


qoteros 


dh°r 


whine 


hirrio 


ghirrijo 


intr 


whip 


lepeo 


wQlepejo 


den 


whip 


flagellum 


werbos 


neu 


whirl 


gurgues 


cflrcots 


mas 


whirl 


turbo 


tworbhon 


fern 


whirl 


contorqueo 


snero 


intr 


whirlpool 


uertex 


dhwolsa 


fern 


whisper 


susurro 


swero 


intr 


whisper 


susurro 


swrswrajo 


intr 


whistle 


sibilo 


sweighlajo 


intr 



whistle 


siffilo 


sweisdo 




white 


albus 


albhos 


adl 


white 


candidus 


kweitos 


mas 


white-stained 


candide 
maculatus 


bhloros 




whither 


quo 


qote 


int 


whither 


quo 


qotred 


ind 


who, which 


qui quae quod 


qos qa(i) qod 


rel 


whoever 


quisque 


qaqos 


pron 


whole 


totus 


solwos 


adll 


whore 


meretrix 


loutsa 


fern 


whore 


scortum 


skortom 


neu 


why? 


cur 


qori 


ind 


wicked 


improbus 


Onprobhwos 


adl 


wide 


latus 


plakos 


adl 


wide 


amplus 


urus 


adl 


widely known 


satis constans 


wiklutom 


adll 


widow 


uidua 


widhewa 


fern 


wife 


uxor 


sflmloghos 


fem 


wife 


uxor 


uksor 


fern 


wild 


ferus 


cheros 


adl 


wild 


rudis 


reudos 


adl 


will 


uolo 


welmi 


tr 


willlow 


salix 


widhos 


fem 


willow 


salix 


saleiks 


fem 


win 


uinco 


winko 


tr 


wind 


uentus 


wentos 


mas 


wind 


contorqueo 


gergo 


cau 


wind 


torqueo 


wondhejo 


cau 


window 


fenestra 


louksa 


fem 


wine 


uinum 


woinos 


mas 


wine-cask 


cupa 


kOlpros 


mas 


wing 


ala 


agsla 


fem 


wing 


ala 


peteros 


mas 


winnow 


ventilo 


neiko 


tr 


winter 


hiems 


ghjems 


mas 


wipe 


abrado 


m9ntraj6 


tr 



301 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



wipe 


tergo 


tergo 


tr 


wire 


filum 


chislom 


neu 


wire 


funis 


weiros 


mas 


wise 


nauus 


gnowos 




witch 


uenefica 


wikka 


fern 


with 


cum 


k9mti 


dh°r 


with 


cum 


kom 


ind 


withdraw 


remoueo 


anjo 


tr 


wither 


uiesco 


wijesko 


inc 


without 


sine 


9neu 


ind 


withraw 


cedo 


kesdo 


intr 


witness 


testis 


tristis 


adll 


wolf 


lupus 


wQlqos 


mas 


wolf 


lupus 


wailos 


mas 


woman 


mulier 


cena 


fern 


woman 


mulier 


morigna 


fern 


womb 


uterus 


colbhos 


mas 


wonder 


admiror 


smeiromoi 


tr 


wonderful 


mirus 


smeiros 


adl 


wood 


lignum 


deru 


neu 


woodpecker 


pica 


kikja 


fern 


woodpecker 


pica 


peika 


fern 


woodpiece 


lignum 


skoidos 


mas 


woodworker 


ligndrius 


tetkon 


mas 


wool 


lana 


wQlna 


fern 


word 


uerbum 


wSrdhom 


neu 


work 


labos 


dratis 


fern 


work 


laboro 


drajo 


intr 


work 


opus 


opos 


neu 


work 


laboro 


w9rgjo 


intr 


work 


labos 


wergom 


neu 


workman 


operarius 


drator 


mas 


world 


mundus 


dhoubnom 


neu 


worm 


lombricus 


longhros 


mas 


worm 


lombricus 


ochis 


mas 


worm 


uermis 


qQrmis 


mas 



worm 


uermis 


wormis 


mas 


worn 


gestamen 


bhoros 


mas 


worry 


turbo 


mernumi 


tr 


worse 


deterius 


pedjos 


adl 
II 


worship 


ueneror 


aiso 


tr 


worthy 


dignus 


deknos 


adl 


wound 


ulcus 


elkos 


neu 


wound 


ferio 


chendo 


cau 


wound 


uulnero 


swernumi 


tr 


wrap 


inuoluo 


weipo 


tr 


wrap out 


euoluo 


werpo 


tr 


wrapping 


tegmen 


welwOmen 


neu 


wrath 


ira 


eisa 


fern 


wring out 


egutto 


legnumi 


tr 


wrinkle 


ruga 


gorbos 


mas 


wrist 


manicula 


dornom 


neu 


write 


scribo 


skreibho 


tr 


yarn 


glomus 


glomos 


neu 


yawn 


hiatus 


ghanos 


neu 


year 


annus 


atnos 


mas 


yell 


clamo 


klamajo 


intr 


yellow 


fldus 


bhlawos 


adl 


yellow 


glaesus 


knakos 


adl 


yes 


certo 


jai 


ind 


yesterday 


heri 


dhghesi 


ind 


yew 


taxus 


oiwos 


fern 


yoke 


iugum 


jugom 


neu 


you 


tu 


tu 


pron 


you 


uos 


juwes / juwe 


pron 


young 


iuuenis 


juw9nkos 


adll 


young 


iuuenis 


juwenis 


adll 


young 


iuuenis 


juwon 


adl 


young goat 


haedus 


ghaidos 


mas 


youngster 


iuuenis 


machos 


mas 


youth 


iuuebtus 


machotis 


fern 


youth 


iuuentus 


juwflnta 


fern 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



APPENDIX II: PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN PHONOLOGY 

II. l. DORSALS: THE PALATOVELAR QUESTION 

1. Direct comparison in early IE studies, informed by the Centum-Satem isogloss, yielded the 
reconstruction of three rows of dorsal consonants in Late Proto-Indo-European by Bezzenberger 
(1890), a theory which became classic after Brugmann (Grundriss, 1879) included it in its 2 nd Edition. 
The palatovelars *k>, *g>, and *g> h were supposedly [k]- or [g]-like sounds which underwent a 
characteristic phonetic change in the satemized languages - three original "velar rows" had then 
become two in all Indo-European dialects attested. 

NOTE. It is disputed whether Albanian shows remains of two or three series (cf. Olberg 1976, Kortlandt 1980, 
Panzer 1982), although the fact that only the worst known (and neither isolated nor remote) IE dialect could be 
the only one to show some remains of the oldest phonetic system is indeed very unlikely. 

After that original belief, then, The centum group of languages merged the palatovelars *k>, *g>, and 
*gjh w ith the plain velars k, g, and g h , while the satem group of languages merged the labiovelars k w , 
g w , and g wh with the plain velars k, g, and g h . 

NOTE. Such hypothesis would then support an evolution [k>] -> [fc] of Centum dialects before e and i, what is 
clearly against the general tendence of velars to move forward its articulation and palatalize in these 
environments. 

2. The existence of the palatovelars as phonemes separate from the plain velars and labiovelars has 
been disputed. In most circumstances they appear to be allophones resulting from the neutralization of 
the other two series in particular phonetic circumstances. Their dialectal articulation was probably 
constrained, either to an especial phonetic environment (as Romance evolution of Latin [k] before [e] 
and [i]), either to the analogy of alternating phonetic forms. However, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly 
what the circumstances of the allophony are, although it is generally accepted that neutralization 
occurred after s and u, and often before r or a; also apparently before m and n in some Baltic dialects 

NOTE. The original allophonic distinction was disturbed when the labiovelars were merged with the plain velars. 
This produced a new phonemic distinction between palatal and plain velars, with an unpredictable alternation 
between palatal and plain in related forms of some roots (those from original plain velars) but not others (those 
from original labiovelars). Subsequent analogical processes generalized either the plain or palatal consonant in all 
forms of a particular root. Those roots where the plain consonant was generalized are those traditionally 
reconstructed as having "plain velars" in the parent language, in contrast to "palatovelars". 

Many PIE linguists still believe that all three series were distinct in Late Proto-Indo-European, 
although newest research show that the palatovelar series were a later phonetic development of certain 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Satem dialects, later extended to others; this belief was originally articuled by Antoine Meillet in 1893, 
and was followed by linguists like Hirt (1899, 1927), Lehman (1952), Georgiev (1966), Bernabe (1971), 
Steensland (1973), Miller (1976), Allen (1978), Kortlandt (1980), Shields (1981), Adrados (1995), etc. 

NOTE. There is, however, a minority who consider the labiovelars a secondary development from the pure 
velars, and reconstruct only velars and palatovelars (Kurylowicz), already criticized by Bernabe, Steensland, Miller 
and Allen. Still less acceptance had the proposal to reconstruct only a labiovelar and a palatal series (Magnusson). 

There is residual evidence of various sorts in the Satem languages of a former distinction between 
velar and labiovelar consonants: 

• In Sanskrit and Balto-Slavic, in some environments, resonant consonants (denoted by R) become 
iR after plain velars but uR after labiovelars. 

• In Armenian, some linguists assert that k w is distinguishable from k before front vowels. 

• In Albanian, some linguists assert that k w and g w are distinguishable from k and g before front 
vowels. 

NOTE. This evidence shows that the labiovelar series was distinct from the plain velar series in Late PIE, and 
cannot have been a secondary development in the Centum languages. However, it says nothing about the 
palatovelar vs. plain velar series. When this debate initially arose, the concept of a phoneme and its historical 
emergence was not clearly understood, however, and as a result it was often claimed (and sometimes still is 
claimed) that evidence of three-way velar distinction in the history of a particular IE language indicates that this 
distinction must be reconstructed for the parent language. This is theoretically unsound, as it overlooks the 
possibility of a secondary origin for a distinction. 

3. The original (logical) trend to distinguish between series of "satemizable" dorsals, called 
'palatovelars', and "non-satemizable" dorsals, the 'pure velars', was the easiest explanation found by 
neogrammarians, who apparently opened a different case for each irregularity they found. Such an 
initial answer should be considered erroneous today, at least as a starting-point to obtain a better 
explanation for this "phonological puzzle" (Bernabe). 

NOTE. "Palatals" and Velars appear mostly in complementary distributions, what supports their explanation as 
allophones of the same phonemes. Meillet (1937) establishes the contexts in which there are only velars: before 
a,r, and after s,u, while Georgiev (1966) states that the palatalization of velars should have been produced before 
e, i, j, and before liquid or nasal or w + e, i, offering statistical data supporting his conclusions. The presence of 
palatalized velar before o is then produced because of analogy with roots in which (due to the apophonic 
alternance) the velar phoneme is found before e and o, so the alternance *k>e/*ko would be leveled as *k>e/*k>o. 

Arguments in favor of only two series of velars include: 

A) The plain velar series is statistically rarer than the other two, is entirely absent from affixes, and 
appears most often in certain phonological environments (described above). 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

B) Alternations between plain velars and palatals are common in a number of roots across different 
"Satem" languages, where the same root appears with a palatal in some languages but a plain velar in 
others. This is consistent with the analogical generalization of one or another consonant in an 
originally alternating paradigm, but difficult to explain otherwise.: 

• ak/ok-, sharp, cf. Lith. akuotas, O.C.S. ostru, O.Ind. asris, Arm. aseln, but Lith. asriis. 

• akmn-, stone, cf. Lith. akmuo, O.C.S. kamy, O.Ind. dsma, but Lith. dsmens. 

• keu-, shine, cf. Lith. kidune, Russ. kuna, O.Ind. Svas, Arm. sukh. 

• b h leg-, shine, cf. O.Ind. bhdrgas, Lith. balgans, O.C.S. blagu, but Ltv. bldzt. 

• g h erd h -, enclose, O.Ind. grhd, Av. g°r°da, Lith. gardas, O.C.S. gradu, Lith. zardas, Ltv. zdrdas. 

• swekuros, father-in-law, cf. O.Sla. svekry, O.Ind. svasru. 

B) The existence of different pairs Csatemized" and "not-satemized") in the same language, as e.g.: 

• selg-, throw, cf. O.Ind. srjdti, sargas 

• kau/keu-, shout, cf. Lith. kaukti, O.C.S. kujati, Russ. sova (as Gk. kauax); O.Ind. kauti, suka-. 

• kleu-, hear, Lith. klausyti, slove, O.C.S. slovo; O.Ind. karnas, sruti, srosati, srnoti, sravas. 

• leuk-, O.Ind. rokds, rusant-. 

NOTE. The old argument proposed by Brugmann (and later copied by many dictionaries) about "Centum loans" 
is not tenable today. For more on this, see Szemereny (1978), Mayrhofer (1952), Bernabe (1971). 

C) Non-coincidence in periods and number of satemization stages; 

• Old Indian shows two stages, 

1. PIE k -+ O.Ind. s, and 

2. PIE k w e, k w i -» O.Ind. ke, ki, & PIE ske, ski > O.Ind. c (cf. cim, candra, etc.). 

• In Slavic, however, three stages are found, 

1. PIE k^s, 

2. PIE k w e, k w i->c (cto, celobek), and 

3. PIE k w oi->/coi->-/ce gives ts (as Sla. tsend). 

D) In most attested languages which present aspirated as result of the so-called "palatals", the 
palatalization of other phonemes is also attested (e.g. palatalization of labiovelars before e, i, etc.), what 
may indicate that there is an old trend to palatalize all possible sounds, of which the palatalization of 
velars is the oldest attested result. 



305 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

E) The existence of Centum dialects' in so-called Southern dialects, as Greek and some Paleo-Balkan 
dialects, and the presence of Tocharian, a 'Centum dialect', in Central Asia, being probably a northern 
IE dialect. 

NOTE. The traditional explanation of a three-way dorsal split requires that all Centum languages share a 
common innovation that eliminated the palatovelar series. Unlike for the Satem languages, however, there is no 
evidence of any areal connection among the Centum languages, and in fact there is evidence against such a 
connection — the Centum languages are geographically noncontiguous. Furthermore, if such an areal innovation 
happened, we would expect to see some dialect differences in its implementation (cf. the above differences 
between Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian), and residual evidence of a distinct palatalized series (such evidence for a 
distinct labiovelar series does exist in the Satem languages; see below). In fact, however, neither type of evidence 
exists, suggesting that there was never a palatovelar series in the Centum languages. 

4. It is generally believed that Satemization could have started as a late dialectal 'wave' (although not 
necessarily), which eventually affected almost all PIE dialectal groups. The origin is probably to be 
found in velars followed by e, i, even though alternating forms like gen/gon caused natural analogycal 
corrections within each dialect, which obscures still more the original situation. Thus, non-satemized 
forms in so-called Satem languages are actually non-satemized remains of the original situation, just as 
Spanish has feliz and not *heliz, or fdcil and not hdcil, or French uses facile and nature, and not *fele or 
*nure as one should expect from its phonetic evolution. Some irregularities are indeed explained as 
borrowings from non-satemized dialects. 

5. Those who support the model of the threefold distinction in PIE cite evidence from Albanian 
(Pedersen) and Armenian (Pisani) that they treated plain velars differently from the labiovelars in at 
least some circumstances, as well as the fact that Luwian apparently had distinct reflexes of all three 
series: *fc> > z (probably [£s]); *k > k; *k w > ku (possibly still [k w ]) (Craig Melchert). 

NOTE 1. Also, one of the most difficult problems which subsist in the interpretation of the satemization as a 
phonetic wave is that, even though in most cases the variation *k>/k may be attributed either to a phonetic 
environment or to the analogy of alternating apophonic forms, there are some cases in which neither one nor the 
other may be applied. Compare for example ok>to(u), eight, which presents k before an occlusive in a form which 
shows no change (to suppose a syncope of an older *ok>itd, as does Szemerenyi, is an explanation ad hoc). Other 
examples in which the palatalization cannot be explained by the next phoneme nor by analog)' are swekru-, 
husband's mother, akmon, stone, peku, cattle. Such (still) unexplained exceptions, however, are not sufficient to 
consider the existence of a third row of 'later palatalized' velars (Bernabe, Cheng & Wang), although there are still 
scholars who come back to the support of the three velar rows' hypothesis (viz. Tischler 1990). 

NOTE 2. Supporters of the palatovelars cite evidence from the Anatolian language Luwian, which supposedly 
attests a three-way velar distinction *kj— >z (probably [ts]); k— >k; k w — >ku (probably [k w ]), defended by Melchert 
(1987). So, the strongest argument in favor of the traditional three-way system is that the the distinction 

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Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

supposedly derived from Luwian findings must be reconstructed for the parent language. However, the underlying 
evidence "hinges upon especially difficult or vague or otherwise dubious etymologies" (see Sihler 1995); and, even 
if those findings are supported by other evidence in the future, it is obvious that Luwian might also have been in 
contact with satemization trends of other (Late) PIE dialects, that it might have developed it's own satemization 
trend, and that maybe the whole system was remade within the Anatolian branch. 

6. A system of two gutturals, Velars and Labiovelars, is a linguistic anomaly, isolated in the PIE 
occlusive subsystem - there are no parallel oppositions b w -b, p w -p, t w -t, d w -d, etc. Only one feature, 
their pronunciation with an accompanying rounding of the lips, helps distinguish them from each other. 
Labiovelars turn velars before -u, and there are some neutralization positions which help identify 
labiovelars and velars; also, in some contexts (e.g. before -i, -e) velars tend to move forward its 
articulation and eventually palatalize. Both trends led eventually to Centum and Satem dialectalization. 

II. 2. PHONETIC RECONSTRUCTION 

jj^; 1 ;p^5^: I ^55:£u^5p^^g5^5^ I ]^g 

A few sound-laws can be reconstructed, that may have been effective already in Late PIE dialects, by 
internal reconstruction. 

• Sievers' Law (Edgerton's Law, Lindeman's option) 

• Hirt's Law 

• Grassman's Law 

• Bartholomae's Law 

A. SIEVERS' LAW 

Sievers' Law in Indo-European linguistics accounts for the pronunciation of a consonant cluster 
with a glide before a vowel as it was affected by the phonetics of the preceding syllable. Specifically it 
refers to the alternation between *ij and *j, and possibly *uw and *u, in Indo-European languages. For 
instance, Proto-Indo-European *kor-jo-s became Gothic harjis "army", but PIE *kerd h - jo-s became 

Proto-Germanic *herdijas, Gothic hairdeis [htrdis] "shepherd". It differs from an ablaut in that the 
alternation is context-sensitive: PIE *ij followed a heavy syllable (a syllable with a diphthong, a long 
vowel, or ending in more than one consonant), but *j would follow a light syllable (i.e. a short vowel 
followed by a single consonant). This was first noticed by Germanic philologist Eduard Sievers, and his 
aim was to account for certain phenomena in the Germanic languages. He originally only discussed *j in 
medial position. He also noted, almost as an aside, that something similar seemed to be going on in the 
earliest Sanskrit texts (thus in the Rigveda ddivya- "heavenly" actually had three syllables in scansion 
(daiv'ya-) but say satya- "true" was scanned as written). After him, scholars would find similar 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

alternations in Greek and Latin, and alternation between *uw and *u, though the evidence is poor for 
all of these. Through time, evidence was announced regarding similar alternations of syllabicity in the 
nasal and liquid semivowels, though the evidence is extremely poor for these, despite the fact that such 
alternations in the non-glide semivowels would have left permanent, indeed irreversible, traces. 

The most ambitious extension of Sievers' Law was proposed by Franklin Edgerton in a pair of articles 
in the journal Language in 1934 and 1943. He argued that not only was the syllabicity of prevocalic 
semivowels by context applicable to all six Indo-European semivowels, it was applicable in all positions 
in the word. Thus a form like *djeus, "sky" would have been pronounced thus only when it happened to 
follow a word ending with a short vowel. Everywhere else it would have had two syllables, *dijeus. 

The evidence for alternation presented by Edgerton was of two sorts. He cited several hundred 
passages from the oldest Indie text, the Rigveda, which he claimed should be rescanned to reveal 
hitherto unnoticed expressions of the syllable structure called for by his theory. But most forms show no 
such direct expressions; for them, Edgerton noted sharply skewed distributions that he interpreted as 
evidence for a lost alternation between syllabic and nonsyllabic semivowels. Thus say siras "head" 
(from *srros) has no monosyllabic partner *sras (from *sros), but Edgerton noted that it occurred 
100% of the time in the environments where his theory called for the syllabification of the *r. Appealing 
to the "formulaic" nature of oral poetry, especially in tricky and demanding literary forms like sacred 
Vedic versification, he reasoned that this was direct evidence for the previous existence of an alternant 
*sras, on the assumption that when (for whatever reason) this *sras and other forms like it came to be 
shunned, the typical collocations in which they would have (correctly) occurred inevitably became 
obsolete pari passu with the loss of the form itself. And he was able to present a sizeable body of 
evidence in the form of these skewed distributions in both the 1934 and 1943 articles. 

In 1965 Fredrik Otto Lindeman published an article proposing a significant modification of Edgerton's 
theory. Disregarding Edgerton's evidence (on the grounds that he was not prepared to judge the niceties 
of Rigvedic scansion) he took instead as the data to be analyzed the scansions in Grassmann's 
Worterbuch zum Rig-Veda. From these he concluded that Edgerton had been right, but only up to a 
point: the alternations he postulated did indeed apply to all semivowels; but in word-initial position, the 
alternation was limited to forms like *djeus/dijeus "sky", as cited above— that is, words where the 
"short" form was monosyllabic. 

B. HIRT'S LAW 

Hirt's law, named after Hermann Hirt who postulated it originally in 1895, is a Balto-Slavic sound 
law which states in its modern form that the inherited Proto-Indo-European stress would retract to 



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Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

non-ablauting pretonic vowel or a syllabic sonorant if it was followed by a consonantal (non-syllabic) 
laryngeal that closed the preceding syllable. 

Compare: 

• PIE: *d h umos "smoke" (compare Sanskrit dhumd and Ancient Greek thumos) -» Lithuanian dumai, 
Latvian durni, Croatian/Serbian dim. 

• PIE *g w riwa "neck; mane" (compare Sanskrit griva) -» Latvian griva, Croatian/Serbian griva. 

• PIE *plnos "full" (compare Sanskrit purnd) -» Lithuanian pilnas, Latvian pilns, Serbian pun. 

Hirt's law did not operate if the laryngeal preceded a vowel, or if the laryngeal followed the second 
component of a diphthong. Therefore, Hirt's law must be older than then the loss of laryngeals in 
prevocalic position (in glottalic theory formulation: to the merger of glottalic feature of PIE voiced stops 
who dissolved into laryngeal and buccal part with the reflexes of the original PIE laryngeals), because 
the stress was not retracted in e.g. PIH *tenh 2 w6s (Ancient Greek tanaos, Sanskrit tanti) "thin" -» 
Latvian tievs, and also older than the loss of syllabic sonorants in Balto-Slavic, as can be seen from the 
abovementioned reflexes of PIH *plh 1 nos, and also in e.g. PIH *dlh 1 g h 6s "long" (compare Sanskrit 
dirghd, Ancient Greek dolikhos) -» Lithuanian ilgas, Latvian figs, Croatian/Serbian dug. 

It follows from the above that Hirt's law must have preceded Winter's law, but was necessarily 
posterior to Balto-Slavic oxytonesis (shift of stress from inner syllable to the end of the word in accent 
paradigms with end-stressed forms), because oxytonesis-originating accent was preserved in non- 
laryngeal declension paradigms; e.g. the retraction occurs in mobile PIH *eh 2 -stems so thus have dative 
plural of Slovene gordm and Chakavian gordmi (< PBS1. *-dmus), locative plural of Slovene and 
Chakavian gorah (< PBS1. *-dsu), but in thematic (o-stem) paradigm dative plural of Slovene mozem (< 
PBS1. *-mus), locative plural of Slovene mozeh and Chakavian vldsih (< PBS1. *-oysu). The retraction of 
accent from the ending to the vowel immediately preceding the stem-ending laryngeal (as in PBS1. 
reflex of PIH *g w rH-) is obvious. There is also a strong evidence that the same was valid for Old 
Prussian (in East Baltic dative and locative plural accents were generalized in non-laryngeal 
inflections). 

From the Proto-Indo-European perspective, the importance of Hirt's law lies in the strong 
correspondence it provides between the Balto-Slavic and Vedic/ Ancient Greek accentuation (which 
more or less intactly reflects the original Late PIE state), and somewhat less importantly, provides a 
reliable criterion to distinguish the original sequence of PIH *eH from lengthened grade *e, as it 
unambiguously points to the presence of a laryngeal in the stem. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



C. GRASS MANN'S LAW 



Grassmann's law, named after its discoverer Hermann Grassmann, is a dissimilatory phonological 
process in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit which states that if an aspirated consonant is followed by 
another aspirated consonant in the next syllable, the first one loses the aspiration. The descriptive 
(synchronic) version was described for Sanskrit by Panini. 

Here are some examples in Greek of the effects of Grassmann's Law: 

• [t h u-o:] 9i3co 'I kill an animal' 

• [e-tu-t h e:] exuGn 'it was killed' 

• [t h rik-s] 9 piE, 'hair' 

• [trik h -es] xpvxsc, 'hairs' 

• [t h ap-sai] 9aincu 'to bury (aorist)' 

• [t h apt-ein] 9cuix£iv 'to bury (present)' 

• [tap h -os] xacpoc, 'a grave' 

• [tap h -e] xacpri 'burial' 

In the reduplication which forms the perfect tense in both Greek and Sanskrit, if the initial consonant 
is aspirated, the prepended consonant is unaspirated by Grassmann's Law. For instance [p h u-o:] cpuco 'I 
grow' : [pe-p h u:-ka] jrecpuKa 'I have grown'. 

DIASPIRATE ROOTS 

Cases like [t h rik-s] ~ [trik h -es] and [t h ap-sai] ~ [tap h -ein] illustrates the phenomenon of diaspirate 
roots, for which two different analyses have been given. 

In one account, the "underlying diaspirate" theory, the underlying roots are taken to be /t h rik h / and 
/t h ap h /- When an /s/ (or word edge, or various other sounds) immediately follows, then the second 
aspiration is lost, and the first aspirate therefore survives ([t h rik-s], [t h ap-sai]). If a vowel follows the 
second aspirate, it survives unaltered, and therefore the first aspiration is lost by Grassmann's Law 
([trik h -es], [tap h -ein]). 

A different analytical approach was taken by the ancient Indian grammarians. In their view, the roots 
are taken to be underlying /trik h / and /tap h /- These roots persist unaltered in [trik h -es] and [tap h -ein]. 
But if an /s/ follows, it triggers an "aspiration throwback" (ATB), in which the aspiration migrates 
leftward, docking onto the initial consonant ([t h rik-s], [t h ap-sai]). 

Interestingly, in his initial formulation of the law Grassmann briefly referred to ATB to explain these 
seemingly aberrant forms. However, the consensus among contemporary historical linguists is that the 
former explanation (underlying representation) is the correct one. 

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Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

In the later course of Sanskrit, (and under the influence of the grammarians) ATB was applied to 
original monoaspirates through an analogical process. Thus, from the verb root gah 'to plunge', the 
desiderative stem jighak h a- is formed. This is by analogy with the forms bubhutsati (a desiderative 
form) and bhut (a nominal form, both from the root budh 'to be awake', originally PIE *b h ud h -). 

D. BARTHOLOMAE'S LAW 

Bartholomae's law is an early Indo-European sound law affecting the Indo-Iranian family, though 
thanks to the falling together of plain voiced and voiced aspirated stops in Iranian, its impact on the 
phonological history of that subgroup is unclear. 

It states that in a cluster of two or more obstruents (s or a stop (plosive)), any one of which is a voiced 
aspirate anywhere in the sequence, the whole cluster becomes voiced and aspirated. Thus to the PIE 
root *b h eud h "learn, become aware of the participle *b h ud h -to- "enlightened" loses the aspiration of the 
first stop (Grassmann's Law) and with the application of Bartholomae's Law and regular vowel changes 
gives Sanskrit buddha- "enlightened". 

A written form such as -ddh- (a literal rendition of the devanagari representation) presents problems 
of interpretation. The choice is between a long voiced stop with a specific release feature symbolized in 
transliteration by -h-, or else a long stop (or stop cluster) with a different phonational state, "murmur", 
whereby the breathy release is an artifact of the phonational state. The latter interpretation is rather 
favored by such phenomena as the Rigvedic form gdha "he swallowed" which is morphologically a 
middle aorist (more exactly 'injunctive') to the root ghas- "swallow", as follows: ghs-t-a > *gzdha 
whence gdha by the regular loss of a sibilant between stops in Indie. While the idea of voicing affecting 
the whole cluster with the release feature conventionally called aspiration penetrating all the way to the 
end of the sequence is not entirely unthinkable, the alternative— the spread of a phonational state (but 
murmur rather than voice) through the whole sequence— involves one less step and therefore via 
Occam's Razor counts as the better interpretation. 

Bartholomae's Law intersects with another Indie development, namely what looks like the 
deaspiration of aspirated stops in clusters with s: descriptively, Proto-Indo-European *leig h -si "you 
lick" becomes *leiksi, whence Sanskrit leksi. However, Grassmann's Law, whereby an aspirated stop 
becomes non-aspirated before another aspirated stop (as in the example of buddha-, above), suggests 
something else. In late Vedic and later forms of Sanskrit, all forms behave as though aspiration was 
simply lost in clusters with s, so such forms to the root dugh- "give milk" (etymologically *dhugh-) 
show the expected devoicing and deaspiration in, say, the desiderative formation du-dhuks-ati (with the 
root-initial dh- intact, that is, undissimilated). But the earliest passages of the Rigveda show something 
different: desiderative duduksati, aor. duksata (for later dhuksata) and so on. Thus it is apparent that 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

what went into Grassmann's Law were forms like *dhugzhata, dhudhugzha- and so on, with aspiration 
in the sibilant clusters intact. The deaspiration and devoicing of the sibilant clusters were later and 
entirely separate phenomena - and connected with yet another suite of specifically Indie sound laws, 
namely a 'rule conspiracy' to eliminate all voiced (and murmured) sibilants. Indeed, even the example 
'swallowed' given above contradicts the usual interpretation of devoicing and deaspiration: by such a 
sequence, *ghs-to would have given, first, *ksto (if the process was already Indo-European) or *ksta (if 
Indo-Iranian in date), whence Sanskrit *kta, not gdha. 

E. BRUGMANN'S LAW 

Brugmann's law, named for Karl Brugmann, states that Proto-Indo-European *o (the ablaut 
alternant of *e) in non-final syllables became *d in open syllables (syllables ending in a single 
consonant followed by a vowel) in Indo-Iranian. Everywhere else the outcome was *a, the same as the 
reflexes of PIE *e and *a. The rule seems not to apply to "non-apophonic *o", that is, *o that has no 
alternant, as in *poti-, "master, lord" (thus Sanskrit pad-, not *pati, there being no such root as *pet- 
"rule, dominate"). Similarly the form traditionally reconstructed as *owis, "sheep" (Sanskrit avi-), 
which is a good candidate for re-reconstructing as PIH *h 3 ewi- with an o-coloring laryngeal rather than 
an ablauting o-grade. 

The theory accounts for a number of otherwise very puzzling facts. Sanskrit has pitaras, mataras, 
bhrataras for "fathers, mothers, brothers" but svasaras for "sisters", a fact neatly explained by the 
traditional reconstruction of the stems as *-ter- for "father, mother, brother" but *swesor- for "sister" 
(cf. Latin pater, mater, frater but soror; note, though, that in all four cases the Latin vowel in the final 
syllable was originally long). Similarly, the great majority of n-stem nouns in Indie have a long stem- 
vowel, such as brahmanas "Brahmins", svanas "dogs" from *kwones, correlating with information 
from other Indo-European languages that these were actually on-stems. But there is one noun, uksan- 
"ox", that in the Rigveda shows forms like uksanas, "oxen". These were later replaced by "regular" 
formations (uksanas and so on, some as early as the Rigveda itself), but the notion that this might be an 
*en-stem is supported by the unique morphology of the Germanic forms, e.g. Old English oxa 
nom. singular "ox", exen plural— the Old English plural stem (e.g., the nominative) continuing Proto- 
Germanic *uxsiniz < *uxseniz, with two layers of umlaut. As in Indie, this is the only certain Old English 
n-stem that points to *en-vocalism rather than *on-vocalism. 

Perhaps the most startling confirmation comes from the inflection of the perfect tense, wherein a 
Sanskrit root like sad- "sit" has sasada for "I sat" and sasada for "he, she, it sat". It was tempting to see 
this as some kind of 'therapeutic' reaction to the falling-together of the endings *-a "J" and *-e 

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Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

"he/she/if as -a, but it was troubling that the distinction was found exclusively in roots that ended with 
a single consonant. That is, dadarsa "saw" is both first and third person singular, even though a form 
like *dadarsa is perfectly acceptable in terms of Sanskrit syllable structure. This mystery was solved 
when the ending of the perfect in the first person singular was reanalyzed as PIH *-h 2 e, that is, 
beginning with an a-coloring laryngeal: that is, at the time Brugmann's Law was operative, a form of the 
type *se-sod-h 2 e in the first person did not have an open root syllable. A problem (minor) for this 
interpretation is that roots that pretty plainly must have ended in a consonant cluster including a 
laryngeal, such as jan- < *genh 1 - "beget", and which therefore should have had a short vowel 
throughout (like dars- "see" < *dork-), nevertheless show the same patterning as sad-: jajana isg., 
jajana 3sg. Whether this is a catastrophic failure of the theory is a matter of taste, but after all, those 
who think the pattern seen in roots like sad- have a morphological, not a phonological, origin, have 
their own headaches, such as the total failure of this "morphological" development to include roots 
ending in two consonants. And such an argument would in any case cut the ground out from under the 
neat distributions seen in the kinship terms, the special behavior of "ox", and so on. 

Perhaps the most worrisome data are adverbs like Sankrit prati, Greek pros (< *proti) (meaning 
"motion from or to a place or location at a place", depending on the case of the noun it governs) and 
some other forms, all of which appear to have ablauting vowels. They also all have a voiceless stop after 
the vowel, which may or may not be significant. And for all its charms, Brugmann's Law has few 
supporters nowadays - even Brugmann himself eventually gave up on it, and Jerzy Kurylowicz, the 
author of the brilliant insight into the sasada/sasada matter, eventually abandoned his analysis in 
favor of an untenable appeal to the agency of marked vs unmarked morphological categories. Untenable 
because, for example, it's a commonplace of structural analysis that 3 rd person singular forms are about 
as "unmarked" as a verb form can be, but in Indie it is the one that "gets" the long vowel, which by the 
rules of the game is the marked member of the long/short opposition. 

F. WINTER'S LAW 

Winter's law, named after Werner Winter who postulated it in 1978, is a sound law operating on 
Balto-Slavic short vowels *e, *o, *a, *i and *u, according to which they lengthen in front of unaspirated 
voiced stops in closed syllable, and that syllable gains rising, acute accent. Compare: 

• PIE *sed- "to sit" (that also gave Latin sedeo, Sanskrit sidati, Ancient Greek hezomai and English 
sit) -» Proto-Balto-Slavic *sed-tey -» Lith. sesti, O.C.S. sesti (with regular Balto-Slavic *dt^st 
change; O.C.S. and Common Slavic yat (e) is a regular reflex of PIE/PBS1. long *e). 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

• PIE *abl- "apple" (that also gave English apple) -» Proto-Balto-Slavic *abl- -» standard Lithuanian 
obuolys (accusative obuolf) and also dialectal forms of obuolas and Samogitian obulas, O.C.S. 
abfako, modern Croatian jabuka, Slovene jdbolko etc. 

Winter's law is important for several reasons. Most importantly, it indirectly shows the difference 
between the reflexes of PIE *b, *d, *g, *g w in Balto-Slavic (in front of which Winter's law operates in 
closed syllable), and PIE *b h , *d h , *g h , *g wh (before which there is no effect of Winter's law). This shows 
that in relative chronology Winter's law operated before PIE aspirated stops *b h , *d h , *g h , merged with 
PIE plain voiced stops *£>, *d, *g in Balto-Slavic. 

Secondary, Winter's law also indirectly shows the difference between the reflexes of PIE *a and PIE *o 
which otherwise merged to *a in Balto-Slavic. When these vowels lengthen in accordance with Winter's 
law, one can see that old *a has lengthened into Balto-Slavic *d (which later gave Lithuanian o, Latvian 
d, O.C.S. a), and old *o has lengthened into Balto-Slavic *d (which later gave Lithuanian and Latvian 
uo, but still O.C.S. a). In later development that represented Common Slavic innovation, the reflexes of 
Balto-Slavic *d and *d were merged, as one can see that they both result in O.C.S. a. This also shows 
that Winter's law operated prior to the common Balto-Slavic change *o->*a. 

The original formulation of Winter's law stated that the vowels regularly lengthened in front of PIE 
voiced stops in all environments. As much as there were numerous examples that supported this 
formulation, there were also many counterexamples, such as OCS stog-b "stack" < PIE *stogos, O.C.S. 
voda "water" < PIE *wodor (collective noun formed from PIE *wodr). Adjustment of Winter's law, with 
the conclusion that it operates only on closed syllables, was proposed by Matasovic in 1994 and which, 
unlike most of the other prior proposals, successfully explains away most counterexamples, although 
it's still not generally accepted. Matasovic's revision of Winter's law has been used in the Lexikon der 
indogermanischen Verben. Other variations of blocking mechanism for Winter's law have been 
proposed by Kortlandt, Shintani, Rasmussen, Dybo and Hoist but have not gained wide acceptance. 
Today Winter's law is taken for granted by all specialists in Balto-Slavic historical linguistics, though the 
exact details of the restrictions of law remain in dispute. 

IL^TCONSONANTS 

NOTES: 1 After vowels. 2 Before a plosive (p, t, k). 3 Before an unstressed vowel (Verner's Law). 4 After a (Proto- 
Germanic) fricative (s, f). 5 Before a (PIE) front vowel (i, e). 6 Before or after a (PIE) u. 7 Before or after a (PIE) o, 
u. 8 Between vowels. 9 Before a resonant. 10 Before secondary (post-PIE) front-vowels. u After r, u, k, i (RUKI). 12 
Before a stressed vowel. *3 At the end of a word. ^ After u, r or before r, 1. ^ After n. 

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Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 



PIE 


Skr. 


Av. 


OCS 


Lith. 


Arm. 


Toch. 


Hitt. 


Gk. 


Lat. 


O.lr 


Gmc. 


*P 


p[p] 


p[p] 


p[p] 


p[p] 


h [h]; w 


p[p] 


p[p] 


p[p] 


p[p] 


0; ch [x] 2 


*f; *p 3 




*t 


t[t] 


t[t] 


t[t] 


t[t] 


f [t h ] 


t [t]; c 


t;z 5 


t[t] 


t[t] 


t [t]; th [6] 


*9; *S 3 




*R 


s[c] 


s[s] 


s[s] 


sra 


s[s] 


k; s [g] 

9 


k[k] 


k[k] 


k[k] 


c [k]; ch 
M 8 


*x; *y 3 




*k 


k [k]; 
c[c] 5 


k [k]; c 

ra 5 


k [k]; c 

[tn 5 ; c 

[Is] 10 


k[k] 


k' [k h ] 


k 4 


*k" 


ku [k™] 


p; t 5 ; k 6 


qu [k w ]; c 
M 7 


c [k]; ch 
M 8 


*v Wl *\/w 

*w 3 ; k w 

4 


*b 


b[b] 


b[b] 


b[b] 


b[b] 


p[p] 


p[p] 


p[p] 


b[b] 


b[b] 


b[b] 


*P 


*d 


d[d] 


d[d] 


d[d] 


d[d] 


t[t] 


Is [Is]; 


t[t] 


d[d] 


d[d] 


d [d]; dh 


*t 


*9 


JU 


z[z] 


z[z] 


z[3] 


c[ts] 


k [k]; s 
[c] 9 


k[k] 


g[g] 


g[g] 


g [g]; gh 
M 8 


*k 


*g 


g [g]; 
JW 5 


g [g]; J 

[c(3] 5 


g [g]; z 
[3] 5 ; dz 

[dz] 10 


g[g] 


k[k] 


*gW 


ku [k™] 


b [b]; d [d] 

5 ; g [g] 6 


u [w]; gu 

[gw] 15 


b [b]; m, 
bh [w] 8 


*\fW 


* b h 


bh 


b[b] 


b[b] 


b[b] 


b [b]; w 


p[p] 


p[p] 


P h [ P h ] 


f [fj; b a 


b [b]; m, 


*p 


*d h 


dh 


d[d] 


d[d] 


d[d] 


d[d] 


t [t]; c 


t[t] 


th [t h ] 


f[f];d 8 ; b 


d [d]; dh 


*a 


*g h 


h[h] 


z[z] 


z[z] 


z[3] 


J [dz]; z 


k [k]; s 
[c] 5 


k[k] 


ch [k h ] 


h [h]; h 
[h]/ g [g] 9 


g [g]; gh 
M 5 


*y 


*gh 


gh 

to"]; 
h [h] 

5 


g [g]; J 

[cfe] 5 


g [g]; z 
[3] 5 ; dz 
[dz]] 10 


g[g] 


g [g]; J 

[d3] 5 


*Qwh 


ku [k"] 


ph [p h ]; th 
[t h ] 5 ; ch [k h ] 

6 


f [f|; g [g] 

/ u [w] 8 ; 
gu [g w ] 15 


g[g] 


*wW 


*s 


s [s]; 


h [h, x]; 


s [s]; x 


s [s]; s Q] 


h [h]; s 


s [s]; s 


s[s] 


h [h]; s [s] 


s [s]; r [r] 


s[s] 


*s; *z 3 


*m 


m [m] 


m [m] 


m [m]; „ 


m [m]; n 


m [m]; 


m [m]; 


m [m]; 


m [m]; n [n] 


m [m] 


b [b]; m, 


*m; 13 


*n 


n[n] 


n[n] 


n[n] 


n[n] 


n[n] 


n [n]; h 


n[n] 


n[n] 


n[n] 


n[n] 


*n 


*l 


r [r] 


r[r] 


I [I] 


I [I] 


I [I], + [+ 


I [I] 


I [I] 


I [I] 


I [I] 


I [I] 


*l 


*r 


r[r] 


r[r] 


r[r] 


r[r] 


r[j] 


r[r] 


r[r] 


r[r] 


r[r] 


r[r] 


*r 


*J 


yO] 


yO] 


JO] 


JUl 





yO] 


yO] 


z [?zd/dz > 
z] / h [h]; 

8 


iO];0 8 





*j 


*u 


v[u] 


v [w] 


v[v] 


v[u] 


g [g] / 

w [w] 


w[w] 


w[w] 


w > h / 
[w > h / -] 


u [w > v] 


f [f]; 0/w 
[w] 8 


*w 


PIE 


Skr. 


Av. 


OCS 


Lith. 


Arm. 


Toch. 


Hitt. 


Gk. 


Lat. 


O.lr 


Gmc. 



315 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



II.1.3. VOWELS AND SYLLABIC CONSONANTS 



PIE 


PIH 


Skr. 


Av. 


OCS 


Lith. 


Arm. 


Toch. 


Hitt. 


Gk. 


Lat. 


O.lr 


Gmc. 


*e 


*e 


a 


a 


e 


e 


e 


a 


e, i 


e 


e 


e 


i; ai 
M 2 


*hie 


*a 


(*a 3 ) 





a 


a 


a 


ha, a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


*h 2 e 


*o 


*h 3 e 


0, a 


a, e 


a 











*o 


a, a 4 


a, a 4 


*9 


*hi 


i 


i, 








a, 


a 


a 


e 


a 


a 


a, 


*h 2 


h 


a 


*h 3 







* 


*hi 








e(a?) 





a 


e(o) 











*h 2 


a 


ha 


a 


*h 3 


a 


a, ha 





*e 


*e 


a 


a 


e 


e 


i 


a/e?; a? 

8 


e, i 


e 


e 


T 


e 


*ehi 


*a 


(*a 3 ) 


a 





a 


a/o? 


a, ah 


a > e 


a 


a 


a 


*eh 2 


*6 


*6 


uo 


u 


a/a?; u? 

8 


a 


6 


6 


a; u 8 


*eh 3 


*i 


*i 


i 


i 


b 


i 


i 


a 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


*f 


*ihi 


T 


T 


i 


y[i:] 


i 


T 


T 


T 


ei [i:] 


*ih 2 


i or ©a? 

7 


ya 


T or »a? 7 


*ih 3 


T or (i>6? 7 


*ei 


*ei 


e 


6i, ae 

4 


ei, ie 5 


i 


e 


ei 


T 


Ta, e 6 




*hiei 




*oi 


*oi 


e 


ai, ie 5 


e 


oi 


u 


oe 


ai 




*h 3 ei 




*ai 


(*ai 3 ) 


ay 


ai 


ae 


ae 


*h 2 ei 


*ei 


*ei 


ai; a 8 


ai; 
a(i) 8 


i 










ai > ei 


T? 




ai 


*6i 


*6i 


y; u 8 


ai; ui 8 






ai 


ai > ei 


6 


u 8 




*ai 


*eh 2 e 


e 










ai > ei 


ae 




ai 


PIE 


PIH 


Skr. 


Av. 


OCS 


Lith. 


Arm. 


Toch. 


Hitt. 


Gk. 


Lat. 


O.lr 


Gmc. 



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Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 



PIE 


PIH 


Skr. 


Av. 


OCS 


Lith. 


Arm. 


Toch. 


Hitt. 


Gk. 


Lat. 


O.lr 


Gmc. 


*u 


*u 


u 


u 


"b 


u 


u 


a 


u 


u 


u 


u; o 1 


u; au 


*u 


*uhi 


u 


u 


y 


u 


u 


u 


u 


u 


u 


*uh 2 


u or 

(w) a ? 7 


wa 


u or Ma? 7 


*uh 3 


u or ( w >6? 7 


*eu 


*eu 


6 


§u, 
ao 4 


ju 


iau 


oy 


u 


u 


eu 


u 


ua; 6 9 


iu 


*hieu 


*ou 


*ou 


u 


au 


o, au 


ou 


au 


*h3eu 


*au 


(*au 3 ) 


aw 


au 


au 


*h2eu 


*eu 


*eu 


au 


au 


u 


iau 










u? 




au 


*6u 


*6u 












6 








*n? 


*m 


a 


a 


? 


im; 


am 


am 


am 


a 


em 


em am 


urn 


*fl 


*mH 


a 


a 


im;um 


ama 


ma 




me, ma, mo 


ma 


ma 


*rnm 




am 


am 


bm/"b 


im;um 


am 






am 


em 


am 


*Q 


*Q 


a 


a 


? 


in;un 14 


an 


an 


an 


a 


en 


en an 


un 


*Q 


*nH 


a 


a 


in; un 14 


ana 


na 




ne, na, no 


na 


na 


*rjn 




an 


an 


bn/"bn 


in; uh 14 


an 






an 


en 


an 


*J 


*J 


r 


8 re 


Ib/l-b 


il; ul 14 


al 


al 


al 


la 


ol 


li 


ul 


1 


*IH 


Tr; Or 


are 


II; ul 14 


ala 


la 




le, la, lo 


la 


la 


*JI 




ir; ur 


ar 


bl/tl 


II; ul 14 


al, la 






al 


el 


al 


*r 


*r 


r 


8 re 


rb/rb 


ir; ur 14 


ar 


ar 


ar 


ra 


or 


ri 


aur 


7 


*rH 


Tr; Or 


are 


ir; ur 14 


ara 


ra 




re, ra, ro 


ra 


ra 


*F 




ir; ur 


ar 


br/"br 


ir; ur 14 


ar 






ar 


ar 


ar 


PIE 


PIH 


Skr. 


Av. 


OCS 


Lith. 


Arm. 


Toch. 


Hitt. 


Gk. 


Lat. 


O.lr 


Gme. 



NOTES: 1 Before wa. 2 Before r, h. 3 The existence of PIE non-allophonic a is disputed. 4 in open syllables 
(Brugmann's law). 5 Under stress. 6 Before palatal consonants. 7 The so-called breaking is disputed (typical 
examples are *proti-h 3 k w o- > Ved. pratlkam ~ Gk. Jipooomov; *g w ih 3 uo- > Ved. jlva — Arm. keank', Gk. £cooc.; 
*duh 2 ro- > Ved. dura- ~ Arm. erkar, Gk. 8np6c.) 8 In a final syllable. 9 Before velars and unstressed 10 Before a in 
the following syllable. u Before i in the following syllable. 12 In a closed syllable. '3 In the neighbourhood of labials. 
14 In the neighbourhood of labiovelars. 



317 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



II. 3. THE LARYNGEAL THEORY 



1. The laryngeal theory is a generally accepted theory of historical linguistics which proposes the 
existence of a set of three (or up to nine) consonant sounds that appear in most current reconstructions 
of the Proto-Indo-European language, which usually target Middle PIE or Indo-Hittite (PIH), i.e. the 
common IE language that includes Anatolian. These sounds have since disappeared in all existing IE 
languages, but some laryngeals are believed to have existed in the Anatolian languages. 

NOTE. In this Modern Indo-European grammar, such uncertain sounds are replaced by the vowels they yielded 
in Late PIE dialects (an -a frequently substitutes the traditional schwa indogermanicuni), cf. MIE pater for PIH 
*ph 2 ter, MIE 6kt6(u), eight, for PIH *h 3 ekteh 3 , etc. Again, for a MIE based on the northwestern dialects, such 
stricter reconstruction would give probably a simpler language in terms of phonetic irregularities (ablaut or 
apophony), but also a language phonologically too different from Latin, Greek, Germanic and Balto-Slavic 
dialects. Nevertheless, reconstructions with laryngeals are often shown in this grammar as 'etymological sources', 
so to speak, as Old English forms are shown when explaining a Modern English word in modern dictionaries. The 
rest of this chapter offers a detailed description of the effects of laryngeals in IE phonology and morphology. 

2. The evidence for them is mostly indirect, but serves as an explanation for differences between vowel 
sounds across Indo-European languages. For example, Sanskrit and Ancient Greek, two descendents of 
PIE, exhibit many similar words that have differing vowel sounds. Assume that the Greek word contains 
the vowel e and the corresponding Sanskrit word contains i instead. The laryngeal theory postulates 
these words originally had the same vowels, but a neighboring consonant which had since disappeared 
had altered the vowels. If one would label the hypothesized consonant as *%, then the original PIH 
word may have contained something like *e/ij or *ih h or perhaps a completely different sound such as 
*ahj. The original phonetic values of the laryngeal sounds remain controversial (v.i.) 

3. The beginnings of the theory were proposed by Ferdinand de Saussure in 1879, in an article chiefly 
devoted to something else altogether (demonstrating that *a and *o were separate phonemes in PIE). 
Saussure's observations, however, did not achieve any general currency until after Hittite was 
discovered and deciphered in the early 20 th century. Hittite had a sound or sounds written with symbols 
from the Akkadian syllabary conventionally transcribed as h, as in te-ih-hi , "I put, am putting". Various 
more or less obviously unsatisfactory proposals were made to connect these (or this) to the PIE 
consonant system as then reconstructed. It remained for Jerzy Kurylowicz (Etudes indoeuropeennnes I, 
1935) to propose that these sounds lined up with Saussure's conjectures. Since then, the laryngeal 
theory (in one or another form) has been accepted by most Indo-Europeanists. 

4. The late discovery of these sounds by Indo-Europeanists is largely due to the fact that Hittite and 
the other Anatolian languages are the only Indo-European languages where at least some of them are 
attested directly and consistently as consonantal sounds. Otherwise, their presence is to be seen mostly 

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Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

through the effects they have on neighboring sounds, and on patterns of alternation that they 
participate in; when a laryngeal is attested directly, it is usually as a vowel (as in the Greek examples 
below). Most Indo-Europeanists accept at least some version of laryngeal theory because their existence 
simplifies some otherwise hard-to-explain sound changes and patterns of alternation that appear in the 
Indo-European languages, and solves some minor mysteries, such as why verb roots containing only a 
consonant and a vowel have only long vowels e.g. PIE *do- "give"; re-reconstructing PIH *deh 3 - instead 
not only accounts for the patterns of alternation more economically than before, but brings the root into 
line with the basic consonant - vowel - consonant Indo-European type. 

5. There are many variations of the Laryngeal theory. Some scholars, such as Oswald Szemerenyi, 
reconstruct just one. Some follow Jaan Puhvel's reconstruction of eight or more (in his contribution to 
Evidence for Laryngeals, ed. Werner Winter). Most scholars work with a basic three: 

• *Jii, the "neutral" laryngeal 

• *h 2 , the "a-colouring" laryngeal 

• *h 3 , the "o-colouring" laryngeal 

Many scholars, however, either insist on or allow for a fourth consonant, *h 4 , which differs from *h 2 
only in not being reflected as Anatolian h. Accordingly, except when discussing Hittite evidence, the 
theoretical existence of an *h 4 contributes little. Another such theory, but much less generally accepted, 
is Winfred P. Lehmann's view that *h ± was actually two separate sounds, due to inconsistent reflexes in 
Hittite. (He assumed that one was a glottal stop and the other a glottal fricative.) 

Some direct evidence for laryngeal consonants from Anatolian: 

PIE *a is a rarish sound, and in an uncommonly large number of good etymologies it is word-initial. 
Thus PIE (traditional) anti, in front of and facing > Greek anti "against"; Latin ante "in front of 
before"; (Sanskrit and "near; in the presence of). But in Hittite there is a noun hants "front, face", 
with various derivatives (hantezzi "first", and so on, pointing to a PIH root-noun *h 2 ent- "face" (of 
which *h 2 enti would be the locative singular). 

NOTE. It does not necessarily follow that all reconstructed PIE forms with initial *a should automatically be 
rewritten as PIH *h 2 e. 

Similarly, the traditional PIE reconstruction for 'sheep' is *owi-, whence Skt dvi-, Latin ovis, Greek 
6is. But now Luvian has hawi-, indicating instead a reconstruction *h 3 ewi-. 

But if laryngeals as consonants were first spotted in Hittite only in 1935, what was the basis for 
Saussure's conjectures some 55 years earlier? They sprang from a reanalysis of how the patterns of 
vowel alternation in Proto-Indo-European roots of different structure aligned with one another. 



319 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

6. A feature of Proto-Indo-European morpheme structure was a system of vowel alternations 
christened ablaut ('alternate sound') by early German scholars and still generally known by that term, 
except in Romance languages, where the term apophony is preferred. Several different such patterns 
have been discerned, but the commonest one, by a wide margin, is e/o/zero alternation found in a 
majority of roots, in many verb and noun stems, and even in some affixes (the genitive singular ending, 
for example, is attested as -es, -os, and -s). The different states are called ablaut grades; e-grade or "full 
grades'", o-grade and "zero-grade". 

Thus the root sed-, "to sit (down)" (roots are traditionally cited in the e-grade, if they have one), has 
three different shapes: *sed-, *sod-, and *sd-. This kind of patterning is found throughout the PIE root 
inventory and is transparent: 

• *sed-: in Latin sedeo "am sitting", Old English sittan "to sit" < *set-ja- (with umlaut) < *sed-; 
Greek hedra "seat, chair" < *sed-. 

• *sod-: in Latin solium "throne" (Latin I sporadically replaces d between vowels, said by Roman 
grammarians to be a Sabine trait) = Old Irish suide n /sud'e/ "a sitting" (all details regular from PIE 
*sod-jo-m); Gothic satjan = Old English settan "to set" (causative) < *sat-ja- (umlaut again) < PIE 
*sod-eje-. PIE *se-sod-e "sat" (perfect) > Sanskrit sa-sad-a per Brugmann's law. 

• *sd-\ in compounds, as *ni- "down" + *sd- = *nisdos "nest": English nest < Proto-Germanic 
*nistaz, Latin nidus < *nizdos (all regular developments). The 3 pi. (third person plural) of the 
perfect would have been *se-sd-r whence Indo-Iranian *sazdr, which gives (by regular 
developments) Sanskrit sedur /sedur/. 

Now, in addition to the commonplace roots of consonant + vowel + consonant structure there are also 
well-attested roots like *d h e- "put, place": these end in a vowel, which is always long in the categories 
where roots like *sed- have full grades; and in those forms where zero grade would be expected, before 
an affix beginning with a consonant, we find a short vowel, reconstructed as *a, or schwa (more 
formally, schwa primum indogermanicum). The cross-language correspondences of this vowel are 
different from the other five short vowels. 

NOTE. Before an affix beginning with a vowel, there is no trace of a vowel in the root, as shown below. 

Whatever caused a short vowel to disappear entirely in roots like *sed-/*sod-/*sd-, it was a reasonable 
inference that a long vowel under the same conditions would not quite disappear, but would leave a sort 
of residue. This residue is reflected as i in Indie while dropping in Iranian; it gives variously e, a, o in 
Greek; it mostly falls together with the reflexes of PIE *a in the other languages (always bearing in mind 
that short vowels in non-initial syllables undergo various adventures in Italic, Celtic, and Germanic): 



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Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

• *do- "give": in Latin donum "gift" = Old Irish dan /dan/ and Sanskrit ddna- (d = d with tonic 
accent); Greek di-do-mi (reduplicated present) "I give" = Sanskrit ddddmi. But in the 
participles, Greek dotos "given" = Sanskrit ditd-, Latin datus all < *dd-to-. 

• *std- "stand": in Greek histemi (reduplicated present, regular from *si-sta-), Sanskrit a-stha- 
t aorist "stood", Latin testamentum "testimony" < *ter-sta- < *tri-sta- ("third party" or the 
like). But Sanskrit sthitd-" stood", Greek stasis "a standing", Latin supine infinitive statum "to 
stand". 

Conventional wisdom lined up roots of the *sed- and *do- types as follows: 



Full Grades 


Weak Grades 




sed-, sod- 


sd- 


"sit" 


do- 


dd-, d- 


"give" 



But there are other patterns of "normal" roots, such as those ending with one of the six resonants (*j 
w r Im n), a class of sounds whose peculiarity in Proto-Indo-Eruopean is that they are both syllabic 
(vowels, in effect) and consonants, depending on what sounds are adjacent: 

Root *b h er-/b h or-/b h r- ~ b h r- "carry" 

• *b h er-: in Latin fero = Greek -phe.ro, Avestan bard, Old Irish biur, Old English bera all "I 
carry"; Latin ferculum "bier, litter" < *b h er-tlo- "implement for carrying". 

• *b h or-: in Gothic barn "child" (= English dial, bairn), Greek phoreo "I wear [clothes]" 
(frequentative formation, *" carry around"); Sanskrit bhdra- "burden" (*b h or-o- via Brugmann's 
law). 

• *b h r- before consonants: Sanskrit bhr-ti- "a carrying"; Gothic gabaurps /gaborGs/, Old 
English gebyrd /yebiird/, Old High German geburt all "birth" < *gaburdi- < *b h r-ti- 

• *b h r- before vowels: Ved bibhrati 3pl. "they carry" < *b h i-b h r-nti; Greek di-phros "chariot 
footboard big enough for two men" < *dwi-b h r-o-. 

Saussure's insight was to align the long-vowel roots like *do-, *std- with roots like *5 ft er-, rather than 
with roots of the *sed- sort. That is, treating "schwa" not as a residue of a long vowel but, like the *r of 
*5 ft er-/*5 ft or-/*b h r-, an element that was present in the root in all grades, but which in full grade forms 
coalesced with an ordinary e/o root vowel to make a long vowel, with 'coloring' (changed phonetics) of 
the e-grade into the bargain; the mystery element was seen by itself only in zero grade forms: 



321 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



Full Grades 


Zero Grade 




b h er-, b h or- 


b h r- 1 b h r- 

O I 


"carry" 


deX, doX- 


dX- 1 dX- 


"give" 



* X = syllabic form of the mystery element 

Saussure treated only two of these elements, corresponding to our *h 2 and *h 3 . Later it was noticed 
that the explanatory power of the theory, as well as its elegance, were enhanced if a third element were 
added, our */r,. which has the same lengthening and syllabifying properties as the other two but has no 
effect on the color of adjacent vowels. Saussure offered no suggestion as to the phonetics of these 
elements; his term for them, "coefficiants sonantiques" , was not however a fudge, but merely the term 
in general use for glides, nasals, and liquids (i.e., the PIE resonants) as in roots like *b h er-. 

As mentioned above, in forms like *dwi-b h r-o- (etymon of Greek diphros, above), the new 
"coefficiants sonantiques" (unlike the six resonants) have no reflexes at all in any daughter language. 
Thus the compound PIH *mns-d h eh- "to 'fix thought', be devout, become rapt" forms a noun *mns-d h h- 
o- seen in Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdha- whence Sanskrit medhd- /medha/ "sacrificial rite, holiness" 
(regular development as in sedur < *sazdur, above), Avestan mazda- "name (originally an epithet) of 
the greatest deity". 

There is another kind of unproblematic root, in which obstruents flank a resonant. In the zero grade, 
unlike the case with roots of the *b h er- type, the resonant is therefore always syllabic (being always 
between two consonants). An example would be *b h end h - "tie, bind": 

• *b h end h -: in Germanic forms like Old English bindan "to tie, bind", Gothic bindan; 
Lithuanian bendras "chum", Greek peisma "rope, cable" /pesma/ < *phenth-sma < *b h end h - 
smn. 

• *b h ond h -: in Sanskrit bandhd- "bond, fastening" (*b h ond h -o-; Grassmann's law) = Old 
Icelandic bant, OE basnd; Old English basnd, Gothic band "he tied" < *{b h e)b h ond h -e. 

• *b h nd h -\ in Sanskrit baddha- < *b h nd h -to- (Bartholomae's law), Old English gebunden, 
Gothic bundan; German Bund "league". (English bind and bound show the effects of secondary 
(Middle English) vowel lengthening; the original length is preserved in bundle.) 

This is all straightforward and such roots fit directly into the overall patterns. Less so are certain roots 
that seem sometimes to go like the *b h er- type, and sometimes to be unlike anything else, with (for 
example) long syllables in the zero grades while at times pointing to a two-vowel root structure. These 
roots are variously called "heavy bases", "dis(s)yllabic roots", and "set roots" (the last being a term 
from Panini's grammar. It will be explained below). 

For example, the root "be born, arise" is given in the usual etymological dictionaries as follows: 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

A. PIE *gen-, *gon-, *gnn- 

B. PIE *gena-, *gona-, *gn- (where n = a long syllabic n) 

The (A) forms occur when the root is followed by an affix beginning with a vowel; the (B) forms when 
the affix begins with a consonant. As mentioned, the full-grade (A) forms look just like the *bher- type, 
but the zero grades always and only have reflexes of syllabic resonants, just like the *b h end h - type; and 
unlike any other type, there is a second root vowel (always and only *a) following the second consonant: 

*gen(a)- 

• PIE *genos- neut s-stem "race, clan" > Greek (Homeric) genos, -eos, Sanskrit jdnas-, 
Avestan zano, Latin genus, -eris. 

• Greek gene-tes "begetter, father"; gene-sis < *gend-ti- "origin"; Sanskrit ja.ni-m.an- "birth, 
lineage" Jdni-tar- "progenitor, father", Latin genitus "begotten" < genatos. 

*gon(e)- 

• Sanskrit janayati "beget" = Old English cennan /kennan/ < *gon-eje- (causative); Sanskrit 
jdna- "race" (o-grade o-stem) = Greek gonos, -ou "offspring". 

• Sanskrit jaj ana 3sg. "was born" < *ge-gon-e. 

*gnn-/*gn- 

• Gothic kuni "clan, family" = OE cynn /kiinn/, English kin; Rigvedic jajanur 3pl.perfect < 
*ge-gnn- (a relic; the regular Sanskrit form in paradigms like this is jajnur, a remodeling). 

• Sanskrit jatd- "born" = Latin natus (Old Latin gndtus, and cf. forms like cognatus "related 
by birth", Greek kasi-gnetos "brother"); Greek gnesios "belonging to the race". (The e in these 
Greek forms can be shown to be original, not Attic-Ionic developments from Proto-Greek *d.) 

NOTE. The Paninian term "set" (that is, sa-i-t) is literally "with an /if. This refers to the fact that roots so 
designated, like jan- "be born", have an /i/ between the root and the suffix, as we've seen in Sanskrit janitar-, 
janiman-, janitva (a gerund). Cf. such formations built to "anit" ("without an /i/") roots, such as han- "slay": 
hantar- "slayer", hanman- "a slaying", hantva (gerund). In Panini's analysis, this /i/ is a linking vowel, not 
properly a part of either the root or the suffix. It is simply that some roots are in effect in the list consisting of the 
roots that (as we would put it) 'take an -i-'. 

The startling reflexes of these roots in zero grade before a consonant (in this case, Sanskrti d, Greek 
ne, Latin nd, Lithuanian in) is explained by the lengthening of the (originally perfectly ordinary) syllabic 
resonant before the lost laryngeal, while the same laryngeal protects the syllabic status of the preceding 
resonant even before an affix beginning with a vowel: the archaic Vedic form jajanur cited above is 
structurally quite the same (*ge-gnh_ r -r) as a form like *da-drs-ur "they saw" < *de-drk-r. 



323 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Incidentally, redesigning the root as *genh- has another consequence. Several of the Sanskrit forms 
cited above come from what look like o-grade root vowels in open syllables, but fail to lengthen to -a- 
per Brugmann's law. All becomes clear when it is understood that in such forms as *gonh- before a 
vowel, the *o is not in fact in an open syllable. And in turn that means that a form like O.Ind. jajana 
"was born", which apparently does show the action of Brugmann's law, is actually a false witness: in the 
Sanskrit perfect tense, the whole class of set roots, en masse, acquired the shape of the anit 3 sing, 
forms. 

There are also roots ending in a stop followed by a laryngeal, as *pleth 2 -/*plth 2 - "spread, flatten", 
from which Sanskrit prthu- "broad" masc. (= Avestan pdrdOu-), prthivl- fern., Greek platus (zero 
grade); Skt. prathimdn- "wideness" (full grade), Greek platamon "flat stone" . The laryngeal explains (a) 
the change of *t to *th in Proto-Indo-Iranian, (b) the correspondence between Greek -a-, Sanskrit -i- 
and no vowel in Avestan (Avestan pardOwi "broad" fern, in two syllables vs Sanskrit prthivl- in three). 

Caution has to be used in interpreting data from Indie in particular. Sanskrit remained in use as a 
poetic, scientific, and classical language for many centuries, and the multitude of inherited patterns of 
alternation of obscure motivation (such as the division into set and anit roots) provided models for 
coining new forms on the "wrong" patterns. There are many forms like trsita- "thirsty" and tdniman- 
"slendernes", that is, set formations to to unequivocally anit roots; and conversely anit forms like 
piparti "fills", prta- "filled", to securely set roots (cf. the 'real' past participle, purnd-). Sanskrit 
preserves the effects of laryngeal phonology with wonderful clarity, but looks upon the historical 
linguist with a threatening eye: for even in Vedic Sanskrit, the evidence has to be weighed carefully with 
due concern for the antiquity of the forms and the overall texture of the data. 

Stray laryngeals can be found in isolated or seemingly isolated forms; here the three-way Greek 
reflexes of syllabic *h 2 , *h 2 , *h 3 are particularly helpful, as seen below. 

• *hi in Greek dnemos "wind" (cf. Latin animus "breath, spirit; anger", Vedic aniti "breathes") 
< *and- "breathe; blow" (now *h 2 enh!-). Perhaps also Greek hieros "mighty, super-human; 
divine; holy", cf. Sanskrit isird- "vigorous, energetic". 

• *fi 2 in Greek pater "father" = Sanskrit pitdr-, Old English feeder, Gothic fadar, Latin pater. 
Also *megh 2 "big" neut. > Greek mega, Sanskrit mdhi. 

• *h 3 in Greek drotron "plow" = Welsh aradr, Old Norse ardr, Lithuanian drklas. 

The Greek forms dnemos and drotron are particularly valuable because the verb roots in question are 
extinct in Greek as verbs. This means that there is no possibility of some sort of analogical interference, 
as for example happened in the case of Latin aratrum "plow", whose shape has been distorted by the 
verb arare "to plow" (the exact cognate to the Greek form would have been *aretrum). It used to be 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

standard to explain the root vowels of Greek thetos, statos, dotos "put, stood, given" as analogical. Most 
scholars nowadays probably take them as original, but in the case of "wind" and "plow", the argument 
can't even come up. 

Regarding Greek hieros, the pseudo-participle affix *-ro- is added directly to the verb root, so *ishi-ro- 
> *isero- > *ihero- > hieros (with regular throwback of the aspiration to the beginning of the word), and 
Sanskrit isird-. There seems to be no question of the existence of a root *ejsh- "vigorously move/cause 
to move". If the thing began with a laryngeal, and most scholars would agree that it did, it would have to 
be *Ji!-, specifically; and that's a problem. A root of the shape *h 1 ejsh 1 - is not possible. Indo-European 
had no roots of the type *mem-, *tet-, *d h red h -, i.e., with two copies of the same consonant. But Greek 
attests an earlier (and rather more widely- attested) form of the same meaning, hiaros. If we reconstruct 
*h 1 ejsh 2 -, all of our problems are solved in one stroke. The explanation for the hieros/hiaros business 
has long been discussed, without much result; laryngeal theory now provides the opportunity for an 
explanation which did not exist before, namely metathesis of the two laryngeals. It's still only a guess, 
but it's a much simpler and more elegant guess than the guesses available before. 

The syllabic *h 2 in PIH *ph 2 ter- "father" is not really isolated. The evidence is clear that the kinship 
affix seen in "mother, father" etc. was actually *-h 2 ter-. The laryngeal syllabified after a consonant (thus 
Greek pater, Latin pater, Sanskrit pitdr-; Greek thugdter, Sanskrit duhitdr- "daughter") but lengthened 
a preceding vowel (thus say Latin mater "mother", frater "brother") — even when the "vowel" in 
question was a syllabic resonant, as in Sanskrit yataras "husbands' wives" < *jrfl- < *jn-h 2 ter-). 

LARYNGEALSINliiORPHOLOGY 

Like any other consonant, Laryngeals feature in the endings of verbs and nouns and in derivational 
morphology, the only difference being the greater difficulty of telling what's going on. Indo-Iranian, for 
example, can retain forms that pretty clearly reflect a laryngeal, but there is no way of knowing which 
one. 

The following is a rundown of laryngeals in Proto-Indo-European morphology. 

*Jij is seen in the instrumental ending (probably originally indifferent to number, like English 
expressions of the type by hand and on foot). In Sanskrit, feminine i- and u-stems have instrumentals 
in -l, -u, respectively. In the Rigveda, there are a few old a-stems (PIE o-stems) with an instrumental in 
-a; but even in that oldest text the usual ending is -end, from the n-stems. 

Greek has some adverbs in -e, but more important are the Mycenaean forms like e-re-pa-te "with 
ivory" (i.e. elephante? -e?) 



325 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

The marker of the neuter dual was *-ih, as in Sanskrit bharati "two carrying ones (neut.)", namani 
"two names", yuge "two yokes" (< yuga-i? *yuga-T?). Greek to the rescue: the Homeric form osse "the 
(two) eyes" is manifestly from *h 3 ek w -ih 1 (formerly *ok w -i) via fully-regular sound laws (intermediately 
*ok w je). 

*-eh x - derives stative verb senses from eventive roots: PIE *sed- "sit (down)": *sed-ehr "be in a sitting 
position" (> Proto-Italic *sed-e-je-mos "we are sitting" > Latin sedemus). It is clearly attested in Celtic, 
Italic, Germanic (the Class IV weak verbs), and Balto-Slavic, with some traces in Indo-Iranian (In 
Avestan the affix seems to form past-habitual stems). 

It seems likely, though it is less certain, that this same *-h t underlies the nominative-accusative dual in 
o-stems: Sanskrit vrka, Greek luko "two wolves". (The alternative ending -au in Sanskrit cuts a small 
figure in the Rigveda, but eventually becomes the standard form of the o-stem dual.) 

*-JiiS- derives desiderative stems as in Sanskrit jighamsati "desires to slay" < *g wh i-g wh n-h 2 s-e-ti- 
(root *g wh en-, Sanskrit han- "slay"). This is the source of Greek future tense formations and (with the 
addition of a thematic suffix *-je/o-) the Indo-Iranian one as well: bharisyati "will carry" < "bher-htS- 
je-ti. 

^-jehi-Z^-iht- is the optative suffix for root verb inflections, e.g. Latin (old) siet "may he be", simus 
"may we be", Sanskrit syat "may he be", and so on. 

*Ji 2 is seen as the marker of the neuter plural: *-h 2 in the consonant stems, *-eh 2 in the vowel stems. 
Much leveling and remodeling is seen in the daughter languages that preserve any ending at all, thus 
Latin has generalized *-d throughout the noun system (later regularly shortened to -a), Greek 
generalized -a < *-h 2 . 

The categories "masculine/feminine" plainly did not exist in the most original form of Proto-Indo- 
European, and there are very few noun types which are formally different in the two genders. The 
formal differences are mostly to be seen in adjectives (and not all of them) and pronouns. Interestingly, 
both types of derived feminine stems feature *h 2 : a type that is patently derived from the o-stem 
nominals; and an ablauting type showing alternations between *-jeh 2 - and *-ih 2 -. Both are peculiar in 
having no actual marker for the nominative singular, and at least as far as the *-eh 2 - type, two things 
seem clear: it is based on the o-stems, and the nom.sg. is probably in origin a neuter plural. (An archaic 
trait of Indo-European morpho-syntax is that plural neuter nouns construe with singular verbs, and 
quite possibly *jugeh 2 was not so much "yokes" in our sense, but "yokage; a harnessing -up" .) Once that 
much is thought of, however, it is not easy to pin down the details of the "d-stems" in the Indo- 
European languages outside of Anatolia, and such an analysis sheds no light at all on the *-jeh 2 -/*-ih 2 - 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix II: Proto-Indo-European Phonology 

stems, which (like the *efi 2 -stems) form feminine adjective stems and derived nouns (e.g. Sanskrit 
devi- "goddess" from deva- "god") but unlike the "d-stems" have no foundation in any neuter category. 

*-efi 2 - seems to have formed factitive verbs, as in *new-eh 2 - "to renew, make new again", as seen in 
Latin novare, Greek nedo and Hittite ne-wa-ah-ha-an-t- (participle) all "renew" but all three with the 
pregnant sense of "plow anew; return fallow land to cultivation". 

*-h 2 - marked the 1 st person singular, with a somewhat confusing distribution: in the thematic active 
(the familiar -6 ending of Greek and Latin, and Indo-Iranian -a(mi)), and also in the perfect tense (not 
really a tense in PIE): *-h 2 e as in Greek oida "I know" < *wojd-h 2 e. It is the basis of the Hittite ending - 
hhi, as in da-ah-hi "I take" < *-ha-i (original *-ha embellished with the primary tense marker with 
subsequent smoothing of the diphthong). 

*-eh 3 may be tentatively identified in a "directive case". No such case is found in Indo-European noun 
paradigms, but such a construct accounts for a curious collection of Hittite forms like ne-pi-sa "(in)to 
the sky", tdk-na-a "to, into the ground", a-ru-na "to the sea". These are sometimes explained as o-stem 
datives in -a < *-6j, an ending clearly attested in Greek and Indo-Iranian, among others, but there are 
serious problems with such a view, and the forms are highly coherent, functionally. And there are also 
appropriate adverbs in Greek and Latin (elements lost in productive paradigms sometimes survive in 
stray forms, like the old instrumental case of the definite article in English expressions like the more the 
merrier): Greek and "upwards", kdto "downwards", Latin quo "whither?", eo "to that place"; and 
perhaps even the Indie preposition/preverb a "to(ward)" which has no satisfactory competing 
etymology. (These forms must be distinguished from the similar-looking ones formed to the ablative in 
*-6d and with a distinctive "fromness" sense: Greek 6po "whence, from where".) 

PRONUNCIATION 

Considerable debate still surrounds the pronunciation of the laryngeals and various arguments have 
been given to pinpoint their exact place of articulation. Firstly the effect these sounds have had on 
adjacent phonemes is well documented. The evidence from Hittite and Uralic is sufficient to conclude 
that these sounds were "guttural" or pronounced rather back in the buccal cavity. The same evidence is 
also consistent with the assumption that they were fricative sounds (as opposed to approximants or 
stops), an assumption which is strongly supported by the behaviour of laryngeals in consonant clusters. 

The assumption that *h t is a glottal stop [?] is still very widespread. A glottal stop would however be 
unlikely to be reflected as a fricative in Uralic borrowings, as appears to be the case, for example in the 
word lehti < *leste < = PIE *bhlh r to. If, as some evidence suggests, there were two *h t sounds, then one 
may have been the glottal stop [?] and the other may have been the h sound [h] of English "hat". 



327 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Rasmussen suggests a consonontal realization for *h t as [h] with a vocalic allophone [9]. This is 
supported by the closeness of [9] to [e] (with which it coalesces in Greek), its failure (unlike *h 2 and *h 3 ) 
to create an auxiliary vowel in Greek and Tocharian when it occurs between a semivowel and a 
consonant, and the typological likelihood of a [h] given the presence of aspirated consonants in PIE. 

From what is known of such phonetic conditioning in contemporary languages, notably Semitic 
languages, *h 2 (the "a-colouring" laryngeal) could have been a pharyngeal or epiglottal fricative such as 
[h], [5], [h], or [?]. Pharyngeal/epiglottal consonants (like the Arabic letter ^ (h) as in Muhammad) 
often cause a-coloring in the Semitic languages. 

Rasmussen suggests a consonontal realization for *h 2 as [x], with a vocalic allophone [e]. 

Likewise it is generally assumed that *h 3 was rounded (labialized) due to its o-coloring effects. It is 
often taken to be voiced based on the perfect form *pi-bh 3 - from the root *peh 3 "drink". Based on the 
analogy of Arabic, some linguists have assumed that *h 3 was also pharyngeal/epiglottal [<T W ~ C w ] like 
Arabic £ (ayin, as in Arabic mu^allim = "teacher") plus labialization, although the assumption that it 
was velar [y w ] is probably more common. (The reflexes in Uralic languages could be the same whether 
the original phonemes were velar or pharyngeal.) 

Rasmussen suggests a consonantal relization for *h 3 as [y w ], with a vocalic allophone [e] 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



APPENDIX III. PIE REVIVAL FOR A COMMON EUROPE 

Carlos Quiles, Chair, Last year student of Law and Economics, University Carlos III of Madrid. 

Maria Teresa Batalla, Vice-Chair, Doctorate Student, Library Science and Documentation. 

Neil Vermeulen, International Director, DPhil in English, expert in modern linguistics, English 
professor. 

Fatima Calvin, Executive Secretary, English Philologist, specialized in Old English and mediaeval 
languages, English professor. 

Supporters: 

♦ Theoretical Foundations: 

Department of Classical Antiquity, University of Extremadura. 

Antonio Mufioz, Vice-Dean of Administrative Affairs and Prof. Dr. in UEx, Faculty of Library 
Science, expert in Administration and e-Administration. 

University of Extremadura, supporter of the project under the first competition of 
Entrepreneurial Innovation in the Imagination Society, 2006. 

♦ Economic Foundations: 

Luis Fernando de la Macorra, Prof. Dr. in Economics, University of Extremadura, expert in 
interregional economy, especialized in the concept ofEurocity Badajoz(Es)-Elvas(Pt). 

Regional Government of Extremadura, supporter of the project under the first competition of 
Entrepreneurial Innovation in the Imagination Society, 2006. 

♦ Practical Implementation: 

Cabinet of Young Initiative, supporter of the project under the first competition of 
Entrepreneurial Innovation in the Imagination Society, 2006. 

Academia Biblos, S.L., which supports our private research with continuated donations. 

NOTE. The full project was published in Spanish in 2006, and corrected in 2007. This is a translated selection of 
the original Spanish version. 




A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

III.i. MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN OR THE REVIVED PIE LANGUAGE 

The idea arose in Easter 2004. I was studying at the 
Public Library of Badajoz with Mayte and some friends, 
and I kept reading some books about the Pre-Roman 
peoples of the Iberian Peninsula. The Lusitanians draw 
my attention, not only because they lived in our south- 
western Iberian lands some millennia before us, but also 
because their old inscriptions were easily understood for 
somebody with little knowledge of Latin, and still it was 
classified as a "Celtic-like Indo-European dialect" by the 
author. I took some more books about Proto-Indo- 
European history, culture and language, and made my European Union depicted as a single 

first notes about how could it be to inflect nouns and country. 

conjugate verbs in such an old language... and it didn't sound that strange. 

Two years later, after months of (irregular) study and work, the enterprise I eventually decided to 
undertake is finished, the basis for a complete grammatical system is more or less done, and the 
websites are working. It doesn't matter whether Indo-European revival succeeds or not, my personal 
objective is achieved; at least the farthest I've been able to carry it. 

However, I can't stop thinking about how to make good use of this work, how to benefit those who 
worked, work and will work on this project, as well as the European Union, turning this personal 
project into different not-for-profit businesses (job-maker corporations, so to speak), e.g. in the 
Badajoz-Elvas Eurocity, mainly for specialized workers, philologists, translators and interpreters, 
computer engineers, etc. I can only imagine two possible situations of success for the Indo-European 
language revival: either some regional, national or European public or private institutions support the 
project, and it is implemented and institutionalized in order; or, as it was originally planned, this turns 
to be an Open Source social movement, and consequently everyone tries to make a better project, with 
many different independent groups - institutions or individuals with limited resources -, which 
somehow manage to lead a disorderly revival. 

I think that, if it eventually succeeds, and if Europe manages to profit from these first confusing 
moments to keep all possible niches of this future market of Modern Indo-European, the output could 
be a radical change in the situation of the European economy in relation with the United States and 
other English-speaking countries, and especially a change in the perception that Europeans have of 
their Community and its peoples. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix III. PIE Revival For a Common Europe 



If we had to compare this project with traditional investments, we should say that, while the 
investment of public institutions in agrarian and industrial projects - or the investing of time and 
efforts of an individual in public competitions to become a civil servant - is like a guaranteed fixed 
deposit; to bet on this project - as an individual or an institution - is like investing in tiny and risky 
securities of a local Asian Stock Exchange. In the first case, the benefit is certain and well-known, whilst 
the second is a lottery, in which the amount invested can be completely lost or doubled with - 
apparently - the same probability. 

The only reason why people would invest in such a lottery is because it is not only a matter of chance. 
We at Dnghu have believed in it, and still believe, investing a lot of time and money. I hope you believe 
in it too. 

Carlos Quiles 

Co-founder of Dnghu 




Real knowledge of English 
within the European Union. 
Differently as what happens in 
Israel or the United States, the 
"common" language studied in 
almost every school and high 
school within the EU, English, is 
not learned as well as the own 
language. Whatever the 

sociological, cultural, 

anthropological, political 

and/or psychological reasons 
behind such behaviour, it is 
clear that Latin or artificial 
languages as Esperanto 

couldn't solve this situation, 
either. Modern Indo-European, 
on the other hand, is a new 
possibility which could change 
completely our concept of a 
united Europe . 



331 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



III. 2. EUROPEAN UNION INEFFICIENCIES 




Economic 

( Inefficiency 



Umftnd labour market 



Shyness In 

IHC irtd fil 

third pzMly'x 

language* 



Pcrcrplion oF 
Damocrariic Dchdl 

3L 



EjrpcndrUirc- 
lor Improving EU 
kl4WubO*» irtiSS* 

EsilwiKHuf* for 
cohesion 
U* - oi*iot>o a| 





Ha pc-latlwmhiri hntwwrn 
lingui-itk: oomfnuniCy 

Ffo common vcnhirw 

wgnlntl (hlrd counties' 

tomoanius- 



InatJnqLLito ■nliwnjrtional 
pPHH>ei}0T1h4EU 

Cipcnijilvs 



HutjO Public 

Expenditure 



for mullil'nguaMsm 
promotion 

and 
Inleronctanon 



Hallo. nall*t 
Polkic-a 




NEED FOR 
NATIONAL 

LANGUAGE 



Lark oF ivbImxijI 
irianrilty larllng 



ttthrc linguistic comnnidiillc*' 

poUlical dc-valopniQ'iri 

not known 



Integration 
problems 



Simplified Cause and Effect Diagram of Present-Day European Union Problems' 

Some of the problems derived from the lack of one national language for the EU can be seen in this 
cause and effect diagram. This inefficient situation, already pointed out long ago, hadn't until recently 
any stable solution. 

The revival of the Proto-Indo-European language makes it possible, with adequate linguistic policy 
and planning, to put an end to many of these problems and to open a new horizon for integration and 
collaboration between the citizens and regions of the European Union. 

Since the very beginnings of the EEC, the three main languages (working languages), English, 
French and German, were used for every communication, while English was unofficially the lingua 
franca used by all in direct conversations and other immediate communication needs. 

This model, the most logical and simple in the initial small European Community after WWII, has 
become obsolete, with the increase in the number of official languages and, at the same time, the 
growth of political demands for more presence in European institutions among defenders of national 
and regional or co-official languages. 

It seems today that every hope of achieving a USA-like system - where English is the only official 
language for the Federation - is discarded: while in US history English has won in every Federal State 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix III. PIE Revival For a Common Europe 



- although there is also co-officiality in some of them, like Spanish in New Mexico or French in 
Louissiana -, in Europe the Union does not lay its foundations on some English-speaking colonies of 
immigrants. On the contrary, the only reason why English is spoken as the European Union lingua 
franca is the predominant position of the United States within the international community since the 
foundation of the ECSC until today. 

The choice of English as the only official language for a 
future EU Federation is discarded; countries like France or 
Germany - and possibly Spain, Italy or Poland -, among 
others, would not accept it, as it would mean to abandon 
legitimate lingusitic rights in favour of other States, without 
a sufficient justification in terms of population, political or 
economical relevance. The existence of a Nation with at least 
25 official languages where none is over the others is a 
beautiful idea, and also an obvious Utopia. At present, 23 
languages - and four at least to come - are official, some 
semi-official (like Basque or Catalan), 3 of them working 
languages - i.e., officiously more important than the rest-, 
and one, English, serves (unofficially) for general 
communication. This does not seem the best of the possible 
solutions: it lacks the European spirit necessary for correct 
integration between the different nations in a common 
country, and is clearly inefficient. 

To date, only some isolated proposals had claimed to be 
intermediate solutions, as the adoption of Latin, or the use of 
supposedly 'neutral' invented languages (as Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua, etc.). In both cases, the main 
supposed advantage consists in not being any of the present European Union languages and, because of 
that, not having theoretical cultural barriers for its acceptance. Latin has been Europe's lingua franca 
for centuries - before being substituted by French in the 18 th century -, while Volapiik and its following 
clones and remakes (as Esperanto and the like) were invented by individuals with an international 
vocation, aimed at (above all) being easy to learn. However, as both solutions are not living languages, 
and because they are obviously unable to become EU's national language, the Europeans' answer has 
been at best of indifference to such proposals, thus accepting the defficient linguistic statu quo. 




In the beginnings of the EEC, English 
as a lingua franca was the best 
linguistic policy. 



333 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



MODERN HEBREW AND THE LAND OF ISRAEL 



The language of Israel is Modern Hebrew: it is not their only language, as many old Israelis still speak 
better their old languages - like Judeo-Spanish or Yiddish (Judeo-German) - than modern Hebrew, 
and it is certainly not a very practical language from an international point of view. However, the Land 
of Israel needed a language, and even though they also had the possibility of choosing between different 
alternatives, as international languages (like French, English or Turkish), death languages (like Latin or 
its equivalent 1 to Hebrews, Aramaic), or even artificial language systems (as Volapiik or Esperanto), 
they chose the historical language of Israel, Hebrew, a language dead 2.500 years before - after the 



conquest of Jerusalem by the 
Nebuchadnezzar II -, and 
transmitted and very formal 
500 years older. Hebrew 
limited exactitude, and at 
was generalized, mainly 
but, in practice, it was a 
and ease of use and learning, 
learn today) the sacred texts 
European countries still have 
subjects in High School. 

Europe faces today a 
to defend more European 
customs union is maybe all 










JTSf 



te^*- .... __ 



J^vT&tf ^VAli^ 23U1 



wrafaim'm 

■pjtjrt; rajPiasiHiirv*!, 
1-91 Kssa-airia,", 



-IT 5 



7W?1\ 



11 th century Targum. Mediaeval 

remains are the oldest writings of 

Old Hebrew. 



Babilonians under 

whose texts, mainly orally 
religious writings, are deemed 
could only be reconstructed with 
first opposition to the language 
because of religious concerns; 
language that united tradition 
as many jews learned (and still 
in old Hebrew, just as many 
Latin and Greek as obligatory 

similar decision. We don't have 
integration; the current 
we can achieve in our Union of 



countries, just a supranational entity with some delegated legislatory powers. But if we want, as it 
seems, to achieve a Confederation-like State (like Switzerland) or even a European Federation (as the 
US or Germany), then the only linguistic non-utopic solution, which unites tradition and ease of use 
and learning, is Modern Indo-European or the revived Proto-Indo-European language, because it is the 
grandmother of the languages of almost all citizens of the EU. Modern Indo-European is free of 
regional meaning -that could hurt the national proud of the others -, and, at the same time, full of 
European common significance. 

1 Before the Jews were expelled from their homeland, they spoke Aramaic, which substituted Old Hebrew after 
the fall of Jerusalem. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix III. PIE Revival For a Common Europe 

III. 3. MORE THAN JUST A LINGUA FRANCA, EUROPE'S NATIONAL LANGUAGE 

The game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that studies strategic situations where players 
choose different actions in an attempt to maximize their returns. It studies optimal strategies of 
foreseen and observed behaviour of individuals in such games; it studies, then, the choice of the optimal 
behaviour when costs and benefits of each option are not fixed, but depend on the choice of the other 
players. 

The following table is based on "Special Eurobarometer 243" of the European Commission with the title 
"Europeans and their Languages", published on February 2006 with research carried out on November and 
December 2005. The survey was published before the 2007 Enlargement of the European Union, when Bulgaria 
and Romania acceded. This is a poll, not a census. 28,694 citizens with a minimum age of 15 were asked in the 
then 25 member-states as well as in the then future member-states (Bulgaria, Romania) and the candidate 
countries (Croatia, Turkey) at the time of the survey. Only citizens, not immigrants, were asked. 

The first table shows what proportion of citizens said that they could have a conversation in each language as 
their mother tongue and as a second language or foreign language (only the languages with at least 2% of the 
speakers are listed): 



Language 


Mother Tongue 


Not Mother Tongue 


Total Proportion 


English 


13% 


38% 


51% 


German 


18% 


14% 


32% 


French 


12% 


14% 


26% 


Italian 


13% 


3% 


16% 


Spanish 


9% 


6% 


15% 


Polish 


9% 


1% 


10% 


Dutch 


5% 


1% 


6% 


Russian 


1% 


6% 


7% 


Swedish 


2% 


1% 


3% 


Greek 


3% 


0% 


3% 


Czech 


2% 


1% 


3% 


Portuguese 


2% 


0% 


2% 


Hungarian 


2% 


0% 


2% 


Slovak 


1% 


1% 


2% 


Catalan 


1% 


1% 


2% 



Languages spoken within the European Union (more than 2%). Data for EU25. 



335 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

The European Union's Linguistic Policy game is depicted here in extensive form, with a decision tree, 
where each vertex (or node) represents a point of choice for a player. The player is specified by a 
number listed by the vertex. The lines out of the vertex represent a possible action for that player. The 
payoffs are specified at the bottom of the tree. 

In this simplified game there are 2 players. Player l, who represents any linguistic community within 
the EU, moves first and choose between two options; one, (E) Egoistical, consists in favouring the own 
language, and the other (R), consists in Renouncing the own language in favor of any other option. 
Player 2, who represents other linguistic community within the EU, sees the move of player 1 and 
choose in turn E or R. For example, if player 1 chooses E and then player 2 chooses R, player 2 obtains 2 
points and player 1 obtains 5 points; if he chooses E, both obtain 3 points each. The payoff of being able 
to speak the own language with better status than the other is then 5 -due to, say, national proud-, and 
the contrary -for the same reason- has a value of 2, while speaking both languages at the same level has 
a payoff of 3. 

This - simplistically depicted - game is constantly played within the EU by the different linguistic 
communities: UK and Ireland for English, Germany and Austria mainly for German, France and 
Belgium for French,etc. 





Prf^erl Sn.Hlim. ./.Thiii.! H.rt::Mir: 


6 






E 
2 ^ 


J* am 


- All are official languages 

- Sarins linguae frsncae 
(English, French, Gennan) 

- Highest Expenditure 

- Good integrator! 


1 s 


lyf R" 


# (5.2) 


7 


- Same aw official languages 

- One lingua franca (English) 

■ Medium Expenditure 

■ Difficult Integration 






.,-# <"> 


7 


- Soma are official languages 

- One lingua franca (English) 

- Medium Expenditure 

- Difficult Integration 




R 


"""% 0.3) 


h 


- Some are official languages 

- One lingua franca (.Latin, 
Esperanto,...) 

- Low Expenditure 

- Deficient Integration 



Present Situation of the linguistic policy in the EU, without Modern Indo-European. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix III. PIE Revival For a Common Europe 

The equilibrium obtained in this game is always the same, as every pair of players has in the Egoistic 
the best of their possible decisions. Player 1, which is the first to decide - let's say he decides first 
because he represents an important linguistic community, like the English, or a majority, like the 
German - obtains 5 or 3 points if he behaves Egoistically, but 3 or 2 points if he Renounces his 
linguistic rights. The first option (underlined) is the best in any of the possible events. For the second 
player, the payoff of behaving Egoistically is 3 or 5, while Renouncing his rights would give him 2 or 3 
points. Again, the Egoistical behaviour is the best. 

It is obvious, however, that this output (3,3) is inefficient for the EU, which would benefit from the 
sacrifice of some linguistic communities to obtain a better situation, although none is prepared to give 
up. Hence the unstable equilibrium, where everybody has an interest in changing the final output, in 
negotiations where the EU looks for the optimal punctuation of the scheme (7 points), with less 
languages - in the real world the EU chooses unofficially English as lingua franca and French and 
German for some other working issues -, while every community has an incentive to behave 
Egoistically to be, in a hypothetical situation, the one to enjoy the maximum output of 5 points. 

After the introduction of Modern Indo-European (a systematized Proto-Indo-European), the payoff of 
the option in which both players renounce their linguistic rights change, but the solution of the game (at 



Situation with Eurooaio 




EM 



(3.3) 



(5,2) 



(2.5) 



(5.5| 



-n 



- All are official languages 

- Same linguae francae 
(English, French, German) 

- Highest Expenditure 

- Good Integration 

- Soma are official languages 

- One lingua franca (English) 
■ Medium Expenditure 

- Difficult Integration 



Soma are official languages 
Ore lingua franca (English) 
■ Medium Expenditure 
Difficult Integration 



■ Some are official languages. 

- Oie National Language 
(Europaio) 

- Lowest Expsndllura 

■ Good Integration 



European Union linguistic policy after the introduction of Modern Indo-European 



337 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



least in theory), paradoxically, not. 

The payoff of behaving Egoistically for both players is 
3 or 5 points, while that of Renouncing is 2 or 5. Then, 
even after the introduction of Europaio as the 
alternative, the output of the game will still be the 
Egoistic one. 

The global situation is completely different, though, as 
the equilibrium sought by the European Union is that 
which will give the maximum global payoff, 10; once 
obtained this equilibrium, no player will have incentives 
to change his decision, because his situation will not be 
better off. The game has, then, only one Nash 
Equilibrium, Pareto optimal, and the players (which are, 
in general, rational) will choose the strategies that agree 
with it. 



The European 

Parliament. Can you 
imagine how European 
Parliamentary sessions 
are driven and followed 
by its multilingual 
members without a 
common national 

language? How can we 
expect a more democratic 
Europe without a 

common language for the 
Legislative, for the 
Executive, for Justice, for 
the Administration? 




Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix III. PIE Revival For a Common Europe 

III. 4. DNGHU, THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION 

Language planning refers to the deliberate efforts to influence the behaviour of others with respect to 
the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of language. Typically it will involve the development 
of goals, objectives and strategies to change the way language is used. At a governmental level, language 
planning takes the form of language policy. Many nations have language regulatory bodies which are 
specifically charged with formulating and implementing language planning policies. 

Language planning can be divided into three sub-dimensions: 

Corpus planning refers to intervention in the forms of a language. This may be achieved by creating 
new words or expressions, modifying old ones, or selecting among alternative forms. Corpus planning 
aims to develop the resources of a language so that it becomes an appropriate medium of 
communication for modern topics and forms of discourse, equipped with the terminology needed for 
use in administration, education, etc. Corpus planning is often related to the standardization of a 
language, involving the preparation of a normative orthography, grammar, and dictionary for the 
guidance of writers and speakers in a speech community. Efforts at linguistic purism and the exclusion 
of foreign words also belong to corpus planning, and for a previously unwritten language, the first step 
in corpus planning is the development of a writing system. 

Status planning refers to deliberate efforts to allocate the functions of languages and literacies 
within a speech community. It involves status choices, making a particular language or variety an 
'official language', 'national language', etc. Often it will involve elevating a language or dialect into a 
prestige variety, which may be at the expense of competing dialects. Status planning is part and parcel 
of creating a new writing system since a writing system can only be developed after a suitable dialect is 
chosen as the standard. 

Acquisition planning concerns the teaching and learning of languages, whether national languages 
or second and foreign languages. It involves efforts to influence the number of users and the 
distribution of languages and literacies, achieved by creating opportunities or incentives to learn them. 
Such efforts may be based on policies of assimilation or pluralism. Acquisition planning is directly 
related to language spread. While acquisition planning is normally the province of national, regional, or 
local governments, bodies such as the British Council, Alliance frangaise, Instituto Cervantes and 
Goethe-Institut are also very active internationally promoting education in their respective languages. 

The main objective of the Dnghu Association is exactly to make use of its pioneering role in reviving 
the Indo-European language to become the reference institution for the development of Modern Indo- 
European or the revived Proto-Indo-European language, a set of grammatical rules necessary for 
proper communication in present-day Europe. This role includes: 

339 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

A. Administering a group of experts in Indo-European linguistics, who should develop thoroughly 
the Corpus linguistics of Modern Indo-European, through a Consortium of universities and other 
renowned linguistic institutions, establishing guidelines and recommendations to be accepted by all. 
The Consortium should be located in some clearly Europeanist city, like Brussels, Strasbourg, 
Bologna, or otherwise where the first important 

university of Central Europe joins. 

B. Also, as many resources as possible should 
be used to promote the birth of a social 
movement for revival: we called those projects 
"Europaio" - which is the easily recognizable 
name of the language system -, comprising 
Open Source software and other works and 
Wiki websites' content under Copyleft licenses, 
to attract everyone to participate and join; and 
also - being consistent with real Copyleft 
premises - allowing everyone to develop their 
own projects in case they don't like ours. This 
way, Indo-European revival is the only secured 
beneficiary of the community efforts (whether 
united or dispersed), and Indo-European has a Know i edge of French in the European Union. 

bigger chance to become the future official Along with the knowledge of German, Spanish or 

Russian, all those who know at least English and 

language of the EU. French have it easier to learn the reconstructed 

Proto-Indo-European. If they learn Latin and 

C. Lastly, incorporating a legal framework, the Greek, they will have it still easier. 

Indo-European Language Association, to manage and administer the aforementioned projects 
of language planning, dividing its activities into different zones, and trying to: 

1. Publish grammars, referente guides, dictionaries, specialized reviews in Indo-European 
linguistics, collaborating with experts in Proto-Indo-European, and also arranging conferences and 
workgroups. Dnghu would be, then, a reference for works in or about the Indo-European language. 

2. Publish learning methods, whether official or not, either free or proprietary, like manuals for 
school, high school or university students; CD-ROMs and other multimedia learning tools; distance 
courses through e-learning; translation software for individuals and professionals, etc. 




Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix III. PIE Revival For a Common Europe 



3. Translate literary works, promote literary or general artistic creations, work in subtitles and 
dubbing of films, and all kinds of promotional activities addressed to the public, with a market of 
more than 400 million Europeans. 

4. Organize language courses for individuals and companies, taught in every Dnghu center, with 
some special locations for intensive and summer courses under a only-Indo-European-spoken-here 
rule. 

5. Broadcasting of news, television and radio programs in Indo-European, making use of the 
Internet and new multimedia technologies, trying to become a reference source for independent 
news, the way the BBC and the Deutsche-Welle are in their languages. 

6. Receive public subsidies from the EU and the regions 

that host the Indo-European revival projects. Promote EU budget 2007 in figures 

donations of individuals as a logical means to fund new 
technologies and free licences. 

7. Function as Think Tank in Brussels, influencing the 
policies of the European Union with legal and legitimate 
means, pushing for a more pro-Europeanist approach and 
the Indo-European language adoption as the national 
language. 



However detailed the 

European Union budget is, 
one cannot actually calculate 
the annual costs of not having 
a common national language 
as Modern Indo-European. 



Ejependlnre estimate* lor EU policies 
(InfalllkenEUty 


Budget 
2007 


M ji jn t rem 
2M* 


SinJainablc growth 


Si» 


1S4* 


{[fllpEllirMIKEt LWto'dtt\|. 

Education inrJ Irantig 

fiSKfCtl 

Compfticiraifts aid im wal Kin 
En«gy.an<Hiin sport wiswls 
5hH pofcyagali 


hi 

a.* 

5.1 
CM 
1.0 

91 


SI J* 

J.I* 
53.*% 
Ji** 

M* 


Cdiniwi.rtirfWHQ: 
fanwiipncr 

FhjmiuI loniptfiwiK'u aiil rmployiiiPri 
THTtoHijIiMpruhcn 


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ft! 

1.1 


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115* 
■11.7* 


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14% 


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a.4% 

J.0* 


FtMifffl, n-uii fly jihI juliu 

:iri:liOirij fui>iam*nli3i ilgrrls inrJ \isn-:«.^jj\nsiK\ 

ttaitim. m^iton Rom! 


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;ircludlng uikure, mrfH. pi*l!cneaK:riand»risiiiwr 
pniertnn] 


M 


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Dnrliipniriil cwpeidltMi 
Humijiiflinsnaid 

."III. ■!;■'. Jll. ' .1111' II. Ill' 

CcmnKfl fo«Oi jnd Mcntj polfcy 
iliMrtvlrdiunnni: 


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341 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 



EUROPEAN UNION EXPENDITURE 



Sustainable growth 

InwutnykKDfnpetnf^nK. 



A global player 

dewtapment pewc and nturtty 
around thfwrkf 




The actual costs that the European Union bears because of not having a common national language 
(apart from some officiously selected lingua franca) is incalculable; just compare how businesses, 
politics, students and people behave within the United States, and how they function within the EU. 
Without a common language, the Union is nothing more than a customs union, whatever the intention 
of its member states. There are some limited and intentionally obscure statistics, though, as to how the 
direct expenditure of the EU institutions are: 

Beginning with the Lingua programme in 1990, the European Union invests more than €30 million a 
year (out of a €120 billion EU budget) promoting language learning through the Socrates and Leonardo 
da Vinci programmes in: bursaries to enable language teachers to be trained abroad, placing foreign 
language assistants in schools, funding class exchanges to motivate pupils to learn languages, creating 

new language courses on CDs and the Internet and projects that 
raise awareness of the benefits of language learning. 

Also, 13% of the annual budget for administration (6% of the 

European Union total) is dedicated to translation and 

interpretation, with more than 2.000 public employers working 

to translate and interpret - whether immediatly or not - the 

most they can to every language pair. Recent statistics talk about 

1.123 million euros invested in translation and interpretation, a 

total of 1% of the total budget, "2,28 euros per capita", as the 

European Union likes to point out, i.e., 1 of each 100 euros that 

we pay in taxes for the Union is dedicated exclusively to the 

Expenses related to the lack of a translation of papers, websites, to the Europarliament sessions, 
common lanquaqe are impossible _ ,, . .„. r , 

to ascertain etC- Furthermore, we are paying 25 million euros for each 

language made official; however, only English is really promoted 

within the institutions, French is sometimes also used, and Germans complaint because they want their 

language to be at least as important as French... And all this for "just 2,28 euros per capita" annually; 

wow, what a bargain! 

Frangois Grin, specialist in economics of linguistics and linguistic policy, published in 2005 a report in 
which he pointed out that Great Britain, because of the predominance of its language within the Union, 
had between 17.000 y 18.000 million euros a year for language learning, thus profiting from the need of 



Citizenship, 
freedom, 
security 
and justice 

Protwiwglwjftbant] 
[Ofiunw tigha, emixngmg 

MjUnqEuoptjuto 
ptxtnllK 



Natural resources 

tatting nnt dtwtofxwnt tni protKtmg 
ttKendwmwntai'*') 

M[*romg imfXi JQfeUltUtt Mi OttUWg 
iMfi qualny (M*( 



the other member states (imposed by our public institutions) to learn English. Not to talk about the 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Appendix III. PIE Revival For a Common Europe 

other English-speaking countries (as the US, Canada, Australia, South Africa, etc.), which profit from 
Europeans because of our own choice. 

Both especialized industries, of translating-interpreting in Brussels, and of language teaching and 
learning in the UK, could adapt themselves and profit from the increase of businesses and jobs based 
on Indo-European language translation and learning needs. 

The loss of thousands of jobs of EU's translators and interpreters, as well as the decrease in UK's GDP 
because of the adoption of MIE, are then not only avoidable, but even just another excuse - they are in 
fact in a better position to handle such a change than other national companies and institutions within 
the EU. It is, then, a question of willingness (of Brussels and England) to adopt a common natural 
language, beyond almost every other consideration. 

III. 5. CONCLUSION 

As a conclusion, we can only say that, paradoxically, even if this simple study was correctly made, 
there are three main factors which have determined the success of the Hebrew language revival, whilst 
other revival attempts, as that of Latin or Coptic, or artificial language adoptions (as Esperanto, Ido, 
Interlingua, Lojban, etc.) have completely failed: 

1. The real necessity of a common language (not just a lingua franca) among tiny 
workgroups - as in the first schools of Israel, which needed a common language other than 
English or French to teach to multilingual pupils. Such immediate necessity could show the real 
need for a common language in Europe, and help boost the Indo-European language revival. As 
an example, compare that, even if mobile phones seem to be now a need for most people, fifteen 
years ago it was a luxury good, only owned by those who needed it the most, as brokers; it was 
because of that first step - with big economic efforts for a then still inaccurate technology - of 
those who needed it the most, that the rest of us realized the advantages of the new technology, 
and that it spread to reach everyone. 

NOTE. As a first step toward the realizing of such actual need, we are currently implementing a change in 
European education for the next years - beginning with the Spanish education system in the 11 th and 12 th year -, 
namely the promotion of the teaching of a more general subject in the high school, "European Languages", to 
substitute the current traditional optative/obligatory subjects "Latin", "Greek" or "Classical Culture", as well as 
third languages like "French", "German", "Russian", "Italian", etc. 

The learning of such a subject (which would mainly give general notions on Proto-Indo-European and IE 
dialects of Europe like Latin, Germanic, Greek, Balto-Slavic, Celtic and Albanian) could easily demonstrate how 
those students who have passed it show 1) a greater understanding of foreign Indo-European languages of Europe, 
and especially 2) how they learn other European languages more easily, compared to those students who have 



343 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

learnt merely a third IE language (either dead or alive), apart from the obligatory national and/or co-official and 
the second language. 

2. The individual will of people to learn such a language. Unlike Esperanto, Latin, French or 
English, the Jews of Palestine learnt the reconstructed Modern Hebrew as an own language, not 
because of some external imposition, but mainly because of the thousands who (one-by-one or 
group-by-group) decided freely to learn it and use it openly with others. After more than a 
century of unending invented languages, there are still people who think that a language can be 
imposed by way of asserting the social advantages of its adoption - viz. ease of use, cultural 
'neutrality', or even supposed "number of speakers". However, their obvious lack of success, 
along with the boom of national and regional languages' revival during the same period, shows 
that - whatever the underlying sociological and psychological foundations for such a behaviour 
-, it is not only cold reason and perfect philosophy what makes people learn and adopt a 
language as an own one, but also passion and desire, love for the own, interest for the old, 
maybe also fear for the foreign, etc. 

3. The support of public institutions, from some point on, will also be necessary. 
However, we are convinced about its secondary role in the adoption of Modern Indo-European 
in Europe. With the television, the Internet, and other modern technologies, as well as libre 
culture and licences - and maybe also the growing culture of small private donations -, the 
support of the institutions of the European Union is not necessary in these first steps of the 
linguistic revival, until it becomes a language really used by young people within the Union. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

ETYMOLOGICAL NOTES 



Vocabulary is one of the best reconstructed parts of the Late Proto-Indo-European language. Indo- 
European studies have extensively dealt with the reconstruction of common PIE words and its 
derivatives, and lots of modern dictionaries of IE languages as Latin, English, German, Greek, Sanskrit, 
etc. already give etymologies in PIE roots apart from the oldest forms in their languages. 

NOTE. There are some excellent free databases on IE etymologies, which make printed works unnecessary, as 
they become quicly outdated by the continuated corrections and additions. Links to online databases on PIE and 
IE languages are available at our website, where Pokorny's Etymological Dictionary might be downloaded in PDF 
<http://dnghu.org/en/Indo-European%20etymological%20dictionary/> or directly consulted in HTML format at 
<http://dnghu.org/indoeuropean.html>. Common Proto-Indo-European words to be used in MIE can be looked 
for with the PDf or Excell document at http://dnghu.org/en/proto-indo-european-language/, and our Indo- 
European translator-dictionary <http://indo-european.info/> allows translation of whole sentences and contains 
a Wiki Etymology Dictionary. 

Good resources might also be found at <http://www.indo-european.nl/>, managed by the Department of 
Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University, and in The Tower of Babel 
<http://starling.rinet.ru/>, a project oriented to Eurasiatic, Nostratic and the like, less focused on PIE proper, but 
sharing downloadable software and PDFs for quick offline queries. 

These notes are not intended to substitute the existing reference works, and indeed not to substitute 
the common PIE vocabulary to be used in Modern Indo-European, but just to facilitate the 
comprehension of Proto-Indo-European roots in light of their derivatives (and related to the vocabulary 
used in this grammar), showing also reconstructed IE forms based on the common English vocabulary. 

Many reconstructed derivatives are then from Germanic or from international words of Graeco-Latin 
origin, but this doesn't imply we recommend their use over other common PIE words: for example, 
Latin loans *gnationalis, national, or *gnationalita-, nationality, are not used in some Germanic 
and most Slavic languages, and should be substituted by other, 'purer' or less biased' Proto-Indo- 
European terms (see notes 41 and 77). Also, non-IE suffixes Lat. aiqi-, "aequi-", Gmc. iso-, "ice-", Gk. 
geo-, could be substituted by common PIE formations, and secondary formations as e.g. Lat. re-, 
"again", could be replaced by a 'purer' IE ati-, and suffix -ti could be used instead of secondary Ita., 
Arm. -tio(n), etc. 

NOTE. For Modern Indo-European ar- (PIH arH-), compare Hitt. arha, "border" (cf. arha kisai, "dismantle"), 
Gk. opoc, O.Ind. are, "far", etc. However, its original meaning as a prefix was probably not "(do) again" as in Lat. 
re-, but instead "get back to the original situation" (a use replaced in Latin by prefix dis-}, cf. Lat. resuo, 
"unstitch", respicio, "look back", reicio, "reject", etc. 

1. Carlos Quiles, translated as Modern Indo-European Gorilos Kuriaki, lit. Old-man (Son-)of-"of-the-Lord": 

345 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

a. Carlos is a popular Spanish name derived from Germanic *karilaz, whose basic meaning is "old man". In 
Finnish, the Germanic word was borrowed and survives almost unchanged as karilas. The Old Norse descendant 
of the Germanic word, karl, means "old man, servant", and the Old High German equivalent, karal/keral, 
meaning "man, lover, husband", has become the name Karl and noun Kerl, and appears also as O.Eng. Ceorl 
(Eng. churl), "freeman of the lowest class". Middle High German karl, "freeman", was adopted into northern 
French as Charles, from which we have the name Charles. The Medieval Latin form Carolus is based on the Old 
High German karal. The fame of Carolus Magnus, "Charles the Great", or Charlemagne, added luster to the 
name Carolus and explains why the Slavic languages borrowed the name as their general word for "king", koroV 
in Russian. Gmc. karilaz/kerilaz should thus be translated as proper PIE adjective gorilos/gerilos, and 
therefore as proper MIE name m. Gorilos, f. Gorila, cf. Gk. y?7paAeoc, "old", ysptov (as in Eng. geriatrics), O.C.S. 
zhreh,; also, cf. O.Ind. jarant, Lat. glarea, etc. 

Compare also with the etymology for gorilla, MIE gorilla, coming from Gk. pi. gorillai (MIE gorillas), pi. of 
name given to wild, hairy women in Gk. translation of Carthaginian navigator Hanno's account of a tribe seen in 
his explorations along the N.W. coast of Africa (Sierra Leone), c. 500 B.C. Knowing that story, U.S. missionary 
Thomas Savage applied that name to the apes (Troglodytes gorills) he saw in that region in 1847. 

b. Quiles is a genitive, and means "(son) of quili" (cf. Spa. Quilez, Cat. Quilis, Ast. Quiros, Gal-Pt. Quiris). It 
comes, from mediaeval noun Quirici-> Quili (shortened and with r->l), a loan word from Gk. Kvpiaxoc (Indo- 
European kuriakos), "of the Lord", from which It. /Spa. Quirico, Gl.-Pt. Queirici, Cat. Quirce, Fr. Quirice, O.N. 
kirkja, Eng. church, Scots kirk or Ger. Kirche. PIE root keu- means swell. IE kurios means master, lord, as Gk. 
xvpioc, and adjective Kyriakos was used as Roman cognomen Cyriacos. Kuriaki should then be the proper 
genitive of the MIE loan -translated Greek term, meaning. 

2. For PIE root bha- (PIH *b h eh 2 colored into *b h ahj) compare modern derivatives: zero-grade (bha-) suffixed 
bhauknos, beacon, signal, as Gmc. bauknaz (cf. O.E. beacen, O.Fris. bacen, M.Du. bokin, O.H.G. bouhhan, O.Fr. 
boue, "buoy"), bhasia, berry ("bright-coloured fruit"), as Gmc. bazjo (cf. O.E. berie, berige, O.H.G. beri, Frank. 
bram-besi into O.Fr. framboise, "raspberry" , MIE bhrambhasia); bhanduos, banner, identifying sign, 
standard, hence "company united under a particular banner" as Gmc. bandwaz (cf. Goth, banwa, also L.Lat. 
bandum into Sp. banda); suffixed zero-grade bhauos, bhauotos, light, as Gk. cpcoc, cpcoxoc., (MIE bhauos, 
bhauesos), as in common borrowings bhauotogrbhia, MIE bhauesogrbhia, (see gerbh-), photography, or 
bhauosbhoros, "bearing light", morning star, phosphorus. See bha- for more IE derivatives. 

3. Modern derivatives from IE dnghus, language, are usually feminine (as general dnghwa), but for extended 
in -i Bal.-Sla. dnghwis, cf. Baltic leijuwis, injuwis, and further extended in -k-, Sla. jfztkb (cf. Russ. h3uk, Pi. 
jezyk, Cz. jazik, Sr.-Cr.,Slo. jezik, Bui. e3ux). Compare, for the noun of the English (language), modern Indo- 
European words: neuter O.E. Englisc, Ger. Englisch, Du. Engels, Gk. n.pl. AyyA(7cd; masculine is found in 
Scandinavian engelsk, in Romance - where the neuter merged with the masculine - Fr. anglais, It. inglese, Spa. 
ingles, Pt. inglese, as well as alternative Lat. sermo latinus, and Slavic (following the masculine of the word 
"language"), Russ. amnuucKuu [n3biic\, Pol. jezyk angielski, Bui. auznuucKU \e3ux\, Sr.-Cro. engleski [jezik] etc.); 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

feminine (following the gender of "language") Lat. anglica [lingua], Rom. [limba] engleza, or Slavic Cz. 
anglictina, Slo. anglescina, Bel. auzniucKasi; or no gender at all, as in Arm. angleren [lezu]. 

4. PIE root wer-, speak, (PIH werh 3 ), gives MIE wrdhom, word, as Gmc. wurdam, (cf. Goth, waurd, O.N. 
ord, O.S., O.Fris., O.E. word, Du. woord, O.H.G., Ger. wort), and werdhom, word, verb, as Lat. uerbum, as in 
adwerdhiom, adverb, or prowerdhiom, proverb; also werio, say, speak, metathesized in Greek, as in 
werioneia, as Gk. eipcoveia; also, suffixed variant form wretor, public speaker, rhetor, as Gk. pnxcop, and 
wremn, rheme. Compare also Umb. uerfalem, Gk. eipw, Skr. vrata, Av. urvata, O.Pruss. wirds, Lith. vardas, 
Ltv. vards, O.C.S. vraci, Russ. BpaTb, O.Ir. fordat; Hitt. ueria. 

5. PIE base jeug-, join (probably from a root jeu-), evolved as O.H.G. \untar\jauhta, Lat. jungo, Gk. ^uyvuui 
O.Ind. yundkti, yojayati (<jeugeieti), Av. yaoj-, yuj-, Lith. jungiu, jiingti; gives common derivatives jugom, 
joining, yoke; cf. Gmc. jukam (cf. Goth. juA - , O.N. oA:, O.S. juk, O.E. geoc, Dan. aao, M.Du. Joe, Du. juA:, O.H.G. 
jucn, Ger. Joch), Lat. iugum, Gk. £uyov, O.Ind. yugdm, Skr. yogah, Arm. Zuc (with -Z influenced by lucanem, 
"unyoke"), Toch. yokam, O.C.S. igo, Russ. ofoza, Cz. jho, Welsh iau, O.Cor. ieu, Bret. Zeo; Hett. yugan; jeugos, 
yoAre, as Goth.j'uAruzZ, M.H.G. JZucZi, Lat. jugerum (from Lat. jugera, lEjougesa), Gk. ^euyoc, O.C.S. izesa; 

6. PIE adjective newos, -a, -om, gives Germanic newjaz, (cf. Goth, niujis, O.N. nyr, O.Eng. niowe, O.Fris. nie, 
O.H.G. niuwi, Du. nieuw, Dan., Swed. ny), Lat. nouus, Osc. nuvellum, Gk. veoc, O.Ind. nduas, ndvyas, Skr. 
navah, Av. nava-, O.Pers. nau, Toch. nu/nuwe, Thrac. neos, Arm. bnp, O.Pruss. nauns (due to analogy with 
jauns), O.Lith. navas, Lith. naiijas, Ltv. naujs, O.C.S. novil, O.Russ. noe^, Polish nowy, Gaul. Novio-, O.Ir. nue, 
Welsh newydd, O.Bret, neuued, Kamviri nui, Kashmiri nov, O.Osset. nog; Hitt. newash, Luw. naif. 

It was probably a full grade of nu, now, as Gmc. nu (cf. Goth, nu, O.N. nu, O.E. nu, O.Fris. nu, O.Ger. nu, Du. 
nu, Ger. nun), Lat. nunc, Gk. vu, vuv, O.Ind. nil, Av. nu, O.Pers. nuram, Toch. num/nano, O.Pruss. teinu, Lith. nii, 
Ltv. nu, O.C.S. nune, O.Ir. nu-, Alb. tani; Hitt. nuwa, Luw. nanun. 

7. Indo-European medhjos (from PIE me, v.i.) gives Gmc. medjaz (cf. Goth, midjis, O.N. mZdr, O.S. middi, 
O.E. midd, O.Fris. midde, O.H.G. mitti), Lat. medius, Osc. mefiai, Gk. /leoooc, O.Ind. madhjam, Skt. mddhjah, 
Av. maidja-, Pers. mean, Illyr. metu, O.Arm. me/, O.Pruss. median, Lith. medis, Ltv. mezs, O.C.S.. mezda, O.Russ. 
Mewcy, Polish miedzy, Gaul. Mediolanum, O.Ir. mZcZ, Welsh mewn, Kamviri pdmiic. West Germanic dialects have 
a common dimminutive medhjolos, middle, as Gmc. middilaz (cf. O.E. middel, M.L.G., Du. middel, Ger. Mittel); 
Latin derivatives include medhjalis, medial, medhjalia, medal, medhja, mediate, medhjom, medium, 
entermedhja, intermediate, medhjaiwalis, medieval, medhitersanios, mediterranean, etc. 

PIE me, Zn Zne middle of, gives suffixed formes medhi-, among, with, as Gmc. mZcZ-, and meta-, between, un'ZZi, 
beside, after, as Gk. meta. 

For PIE aiw-, also ajus, vital force, life, long life, eternity, compare Gmc. aiwi (as in O.N. eZ, Eng. aye, nay), 
suffixed aiwom, age, eternity, in medhjaiwom, Middle Ages, medhjaiwalis, mediaeval, prwimaiwalis, 
primeval, dhlonghaiwota, longevity; further suffixed aiwota, age, and aiwoternos, eternal, as Lat. aeternus, 
in aiwoternita, eternity; suffixed aiwon, age, vital force, eon, Gk. aion; zero-grade compound jucjes, "having 
a vigorous life", healthy (from cei-, live), as Gk. hugies, in jucjesina (teksna), "(art) of health", hygiene, as Gk. 
hugieine (tekhne); o-grade ojus, life, health, as Skr. ayuh, or Gk. ouk, from (ne) ojus (qid), "(not on your) life", 
in ojutopia, from Gk. ou, no, and totioc., a place that doesn't exist. See also jeu-, vital force, youthful vigor. 

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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

8. PIE agros, field, also pasture, land, plain, gives Gmc. akraz (cf. Goth, akrs, O.N. akr, O.E. secer, O.Fris. 
ekkr, O.H.G. achar. Eng. acre), Lat. ager, Umb. ager (both from earlier Italic agros, district, property, field), Gk. 
aypoc, Skr. ajras, O.Arm. art. 

9. Indo-European sqalos, squalus, shark, (cf. Lat. squalus) is probably cognate with qalos, whale, as in Gmc. 
khwalaz (cf. O.S. hwal, O.N. hvalr, O.E. hwsel, M.Du. it>aZ, O.H.G. u;aZ), possibly from an original (s)qalos, with 
a general meaning of "big fish", then constrained in its meaning in individual dialects. See s-Mobile in § 2.8 for 
more on such related words. 

10. Indo-European aqia, "thing on the water", "watery land", island, is the source for Gmc. aujo, island (cf. 
Goth, ahwa, O.N. a, O.E. leg, O.H.G. aha, O.Is. ey, M.H.G. ouwe, Eng. is[land\), as may be seen on 
Skandinaqia, Scandinavia L.Latin mistaken form of Skadinaqia, Scadinavia, "south end of Sweden", loan- 
translation of Gmc. skadinaujo, "danger island" (cf. O.E. Scedenig, O.N. Skaney); first element is usually 
reconstructed as IE ska torn, as in Gmc. *skathan, meaning danger, scathe, damage (Goth, scapjan, O.N. skada, 
O.E. sceapian, O.Fris. skethia, M.Du. scaden, O.H.G. scadon), which could be related to Greek a-aKn9nc. (a- 
skethes), unhurt. The source for aqia is PIE root aqa, water, cognate with Lat. aqua, Russ. Oka (name of a river) 
and, within the Anatolian branch, Hitt. akwanzi, Luw. ahw-, Palaic aku-. 

English writing "island" was influenced by French isle, from Lat. insula, itself from MIE ensala (from en- 
salos, "in the sea", from salom, sea, v.i.), giving derivatives ensalaris, insular, ensalanos, islander, ensalina, 
insuline, etc. 

11. IE lendhom, land, soil, country, region, gave Gmc. landom (cf. Goth.,O.N., O.E., O.Fris., Du., Ger. land), 
and is derived from PIE lendh-, with the meaning of land, steppe; compare O.Pruss. lindan, O.C.S. ledina, Russ. 
Ijada, Polish Iqd, Gaul, landa, O.Ir. land, Welsh llan, Bret. lann. 

12. For PIE root ambhi, mblii, around, about, compare Gmc. (um)bi (cf. O.N. um/umb, O.E. be/bi, ymbe, 
M.Du. bie, O.H.G. umbi, bi, Du. bij, Ger. um, bei), Lat. ambi, amb, Gk. d|ucpi, Skr. abhi, Celt. ambi. It is probably 
derived from ant(i)-bhi, lit. "from both sides", hence older PIH -nb h i. For PIE anti, front, forehead, compare 
Gmc. andja (end, originally "the opposite side", cf. Goth, and, O.N. endr, O.E. ende, O.Fris. enda, O.H.G. endi), 
Lat. antiae, Osc. ant, Gk. dvxi, Toch. ant/ante, Lith. ant, O.Ir. etan. Anatolian Hitt. fyanta, Luw. hantili, Lye. 
xhtawata support the hypothesis of an earlier PIH locative h 2 ent-i - see ant and ambhi. 

13. Proto-Indo-European ag-, drive, draw, move, do, act, compare Lat. agere, Gk. ayeiv, O.Ir. Ogma, from 
which agtios, weighty, as Gk. a^iog, agra, seizing, as Gk. aypa, and agtos, in ambhagtos, one who goes 
around, from Lat. ambactus, a loan word from Celtic. Other common derivatives include agteiuos, active, 
agtualis, actual, agtuarios, actuary, agtuaio, actuate, agents, agent, agilis, agile, a git a, agitate, 
ambhaguos, ambiguous, komagolom, coagulum, eksagiom, essay, eksagtos, exact, eksago, demand, 
eksagmn, swarm, later exam, eksagmnaio, examine, eksagents, exigent, eksaguos, exiguous, nawagaio, 
navigate (from naus), dhumagaid, fumigate, (from dhumos, smoke) fustagaio, fustigate (from Lat. fustis, 
"club"), transagd, compromise, ntransagents, intransigent (from n-, un-, see ne), litagaio, litigate (from 
Latin loan litagiom, litigation), prodago, drive away, to squander, (from pro-d-es, be good), prodagos, 
prodigal, redago, redact, retroago, drive back, retroagteiuos, retroactive, transagd, transact; Greek 
agogos, drawing off, in -agogos, -agogue ("leading, leader"), as in damagogos, "popular leader", demagogue 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

(from damos, people), supnagogikos, hypnagogic (from swep-, sleep), pawidagogos, pedagogue, 
protagonista, protagonist (Gk JipcoTaycovioTng), komagoga, synagogue; suffixed agtios, "weighty", worth, 
worthy, of like value, weighing as much, as in agtioma, axiom, Gk. d^icoua, agtiologia, axiology; suffixed agra, 
driving , pursuing , seizing, as in Gk. agra, in podagra. 

For PIE dhumos or dhumos, smoke, also spirit, Lat. Junius, Gk. thymos, Skt. dhumah, O.Prus. dumis, Lith. 
dumai, O.C.S. dymu, M.Ir. dumacha, etc. The verb dhumaio, smoke (intr.), steam, is attested in Latin, Old 
Indian and (slightly different) in Greek, but used as transitive only in Late Latin. Dhumoponom, smoke 
drinking, (from dhumom pibo, from poi-, drink), is used in Old Indian, hence usable for 'medicinal' smoking. 
For MIE transitive "smoke", a common smeugho (also smugho) is found, cf. Gmc. smuk-a-, smauk-ia-, Bal. 
smaug-(-ja), tr., smaug-a- c, Sla. smugh>(jh), Gk. smiikho, etc. 

NOTE. About the accent, cf. Lat. fumus, O.Ind. dhumas, Dybo and Kortlandt defend the tone on the first 
syllable, while Illyc-Svityc and others defend the tone found in Greek and Old Indian. The question is difficult to 
solve, in light of the situation found in Germanic, and the new (Late PIE) differentiation of nouns with initial 
accent and adjectives with final one. Maybe with full vowel the tone is on the root, and with zero vocalism it 
isn't, cf. Lat. famulus <*d h Hmo, Gk. ariuoc <*nqiHmos, etc. 

Indo-European swep-, sleep, gives verb swopio, as Lat. sopire, Gmc. swab-ja, swepos, deep sleep, as Lat. 
sopor, in compound sweposidhakos (from -dha-k-), soporific; swepnos, sleep, as Lat. somnus, Gmc. swi[fj- 
n-am., Av. khun, Bal. sap-n-i-, sap-n-a-, O.Ir. suan, Sla. s^nqti, STbmb, Toch.B spane, swepnolents, somnolent, 
or nswepniom, insomnia; zero-grade suffixed supnos, Gk. hypnos, and in supnotis, hypnosis, supnotikos, 
hypnotic. 

For Indo-European pau, few, little, compare derivatives pawos, Gmc. fawaz (cf. Goth, fawai, O.N. far, O.E. 
feawe, Dan. faa, O.Fris. fe, O.H.G. foh) or paukos, as Lat. paucus; suffixed metathesized form parwos, little, 
small, neuter parwom, little, rarely; compound pauparos, producing little, poor (IE paros, producing), as in 
depauparaio, depauparate, and enpauparaio, impoverish; suffixed zero-grade pula, young of an animal, as 
Gmc. fulon (cf. Goth.,O.E. fula, O.N. foli, O.H.G. folo, O.Fris. fola, M.H.G. vole, Eng. foal, Ger. Fohlen); extended 
suffixed putslos, young of an animal, chicken, as Lat. pullus, and diminutive putslolos, Lat pusillus, in 
putslolanamos, pusillanimous; also, for words meaning "boy, child", compare suffixed poweros, as Lat. puer, 
putos, as Lat. putus, and pawids, as Gk. ticuc. (stem paid-), in pawideia, education, Gk. Jiai5efa, in 
enquqlopawideia, encyclopaedia, from Modern Latin, itself from enquqlios pawideia, Greek "£y kuk ^ 1 °? 
Jiai8eia" "{well-grounded education" (see IE en, q'qlos) meaning "a general knowledge" . 

For IE per-, produce, procure, PIH perh 2 (closely related to per-, grant, allot, both from per-, traffic in, sell), 
compare Latin par- (from zero-grade), in paraio, try to get, prepare, equip, in adparaio, prepare, adparatos, 
apparatus, apparel, enparaio, command, enparator, emperor, imperator, enparateiuos, imperative, 
preparaio, prepare, reparaio, repair, separaio, separate, sever; suffixed parid, get, beget, give birth, p. part. 
partos, in partosients, parturient, partem, birth, repario, find out, repartoriom, repertory; parallel 
suffixed participial form parents, parent, as Lat. parens; suffixed form -paros, producing. 

Indo-European per-, grant, allot (reciprocally, to get in return), gives derivatives as partis, a share, part, as 
Lat. pars (stem part-), in partio, divide up, share, partites, divided, share, partitos, division, party, 

349 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

partikola, particle (with dim. partikilla, parcel), dwipartitos, bipartite, kompartio, compart, enpartio, 
impart, repartio, report, partion, portion, a part, Lat. portio, in pro partioni, in proportion, according to 
each part, into propartidn, proportion; par, equal, as in parita, parity, komparaid, comapare, nparita, 
imparity, etc. 

14. PIE mater (also mater, from PIH PIH meh 2 -ter-) gave Gmc. modar, (cf. ON modir, O.E. modor, O.S. 
modar, O.H.G. muoter, M.Du. moeder), Lat. mater, Osc. maatreis, Umb. matrer, Gk. uf]rnp, O.Ind. mdtd, Skr. 
matar-, Av. mdtar-, Pers. mddar, Phryg. mater, Toch. mdcar/mdcer, Arm. iluijp (mair), Alb. moter, O.Pruss. 
mufz, Lith. mote, Ltv. mate, O.C.S., O.Russ. Mamu, Polish matka, Gaul, mdtir, O.Ir. mdthir, Welsh modryb, 
Kamviri motr, Osset. madse. 

IE ending -fer usually indicates kinship (see also pa-ter, bhra-ter, dhuga-ter, jena-ter), whilst ma- is a 
baby like sound found in the word for "mother" in non-Indo-European languages; as, Estonian ema, Semitic 
c umm, Chinese mama, Apache, Navajo -ma, Vietnamese ma, Korean eomma, Malayalam amma, Zulu umama, 
Basque ama, Hawaiian makuahine, etc.; also, compare IE-related Hitt. anna, Hung. anya. 

Compounds include maternos (or Lat. maternalis), maternal, maternita, maternity, matrikola, list, 
register, and verb matrikolaio, matriculate, matriks, matrix, matrimdniom, matrimony; also, materia, 
tree trunk (<"matrix" , the tree's source of growth), hence "hard timber used in carpentry", hence (caique of Gk. 
hule, "wood, matter"), substance, stuff, matter, as in materialis, material; metropolis (from polis), 
metropolis, as Gk. unxpOJioAic., as well as Greek goddess of produce (especially for cereal crops) Demeter, from 
de-mater , which have been related to IE de, da, or don. 

English "wedding" comes from O.E. weddian "pledge, covenant to do something" from Gmc. wadjan (cf. Goth. 
ga-wadjon, O.N. vedja, O.Fris. weddia, Ger. Wette), from PIE base wadh- "to pledge, to redeem a pledge", as 
Lat. vas (gen. vadis), "bail, security", Lith. vaduoti "to redeem a pledge". Development to "marry" is unique to 
the English language. 

15. PIE root leuk- means bright, light, brightness. Compare lenkis, light, flame, as Lat. lux, Gmc. leukiz (cf. 
O.Ice. logi, M.H.G. lohe), O.Ind. rod-, O.Pruss. luckis, Slav, lucb, Arm. lois, as in leukibheros, "light-bearer" , 
Lucifer (from bher-, carry, as Greek bhoros, by samprasarana the initial desinence is lost, cf. Lat. uir<*wiros, 
Lat. sacer<*sakros in lapis niger, etc.); suffixed leukmon, Gmc. liukmon (cf. O.Ice. Ijomi m., O.S. Homo, O.E. 
leoma "radiance" , Goth, lauhmuni "lightning , flame"), and leuksmen, light, opening, as Lat. lumen, for 
common derivatives adj. le uksme 11611 ts, luminous, enleuksmena, illuminate, etc.; louksna, moon, as Lat. 
lima, Praen. Losna, O.Pruss. lauxnos, Av. raoxsnu", M.Ir. luan, O.Bulg. luna; as in louksnalis, lunar, 
louksnatikos, lunatic, etc.; suffixed loukstrom, purification, as Lat. lustrum; leukstraio, purify, illuminate, 
as Lat. lustrare, as in enleukstraio. illustrate; leukodhraio, work by lamplight, hence lucubrate, as Lat. 
lucubrare, as in eghleukodhraio, lucubrate, (see eghs) and eghleukodhration, elucubration; suffixed 
leukos, clear, white, as Gk. Aeukoc.; o-grade loukeio, shine, as Lat. lucere, O.Ind. rokdyati, Av. raocayeiti, in 
loukents, lucent, loukeitos, lucid, ekloukeitaio, elucidate, reloukeio, shine, reloukents, relucent, 
transloukents, translucent; zero-grade suffixed luksnos, lamp, as Gk. lukhnos; and also attributed by some to 
this root nasalized zero-grade Gk. Xuy^, -Y K o?> "ty nx ", m an y case MIE lunks. Common IE derivatives include Lat. 
lux, lucere, Osc. luvkis, Umb. vuvgis, Gk. Xevxog, O.Ind. rokd-, Av. raocant, Toch. luk, Arm. lois, lusin, Lith. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

laukas, Ltv. lauks, O.C.S. luci, Russ. lug, Gaul, leux, O.Ir. luchair, Welsh Hug, Kamviri luka; Hitt. lukezi, Lye. luga, 
Luw. luha-. Other common Germanic forms come from -t suffixed leuktom. light, as Gmc. leukhtam (cf. Goth. 
liuhap, O.N. leygr, O.E. leoht, O.Fris. liacht, M.Du. lucht, O.H.G. Idh, O.Ice. Ion), or leuktio, make light, as Gmc. 
leukhtjan (cf. O.E. lihtan). 

For PIE root lech-, light, having little weight, lechus, light (also found extended in -is) compare Lat. levis, Gk. 
iXayvs, Skr. laghus, raghus, Av. raghu-, ravi (from *raghvT), Kashmiri lo.t, Toch. -/lankiitse, O.Pruss. 
lang iseiling ins, Lith. lengva, Ltv. liegs, Sla. Ihgtkb (cf. O.C.S., O.Russ. nhz-bKT,, Russ. nezKuu, Pol. lekki, Cz. lehky, 
Sr.-Cr. /za'k), O.Ir. lugu, laigiu (from *lagios), Welsh llai, Alb. lehte. Other IE derivatives include suffixed lechtos, 
Gmc. likhtaz (cf. Goth, lihts, O.N. lettr, O.E. leoht, O.H.G. liht, Swed. Zdtt, O.Fris., M.Du. licht, Ger. Zez'cZzf, Eng. 
light), light, and lechtio, lighten, as Gmc. likhtjan; also from Latin lechuaid, lighten, raise, Lat. leudre, as in 
leghuita, levity, adlechuaio, alleviate, eklechuaid, elevate, relechuaio, relieve, relechuants, relevant; 
variant lachs, small, as O.Ir. lu-; nasalized zero-grade Inch-, lung, "light organ", as Gmc. lungan (cf. O.N. lunge, 
O.E., O.Fris. lungen, M.Du. longhe, Ger. lunge), but note that lung is said pleumdn in PIE, cf. Lat. pulmon-, Gk. 
pleumon, O.Ind. kloman, Bal. plautia-, Sla. pl(j)utje. 

16. Adjective ciwos (zero-grade PIH g w iH-), alive, is the source for Gmc. kwikwaz (cf. Goth, quis, O.N. kvikr, 
O.E. cwicu, O.Fris. quik, O.H.G. quec, Ger. keck, possibly also O.E. cwifer, Eng. quiver), lat. uius, Osc. bivus, 
O.Ind. jivati, Av. Jvaiti, O. Pruss. giwa, Lith. gyventi, Ltv. dzivs. It comes from PIE root cei-, Zz'^e, compare Gk. 
Bioc (bios), £001) (zoe), Pers. gaitha, Toch. so/saz, O.Arm. keam, O.C.S. Dtcumu, Russ. otcumb, Polish zyc, Gaul. 
Bituriges, O.Ir. bethu, Welsh Z>ycZ. 

17. PIE root leus-, loosen, divide, cut apart, gives extended verb luso, lose, forfeit, Gmc. lausan (cf. O.N. Zos, 
O.E. losian, O.Is. Zy/a, Swe. sofve), with zero-grade part, lusonos, Gmc. luzanaz, (O.E., Du. loren, Ger. 
[uer]Zoren), leusos, loose, untied, Gmc. lausaz (cf. Goth. Zazzs, O.N. lauss, O.E. Zeas, Dan. Z0S, M.Du., Ger. Zos). 
Compare also Lat. lues, Gk. Xvco, Skr. lunati, Toch lo/lau, O.Ir. Zoe, Alb. Zcy; Hitt. Zuzzz. It is derived from PIE leu-. 

18. For MIE rtkos, bear, big animal, from older *h 2 (e)rtkos, compare Lat. ursus (from Ita. orcsos), Gk. apxrog, 
Skr. rksa, Av. arsam, Pers. xers, Arm. ar/, Gaul. Artioni, Welsh arth, Alb. arz, Kamviri ic, Osset. sers. Common 
Modern borrowings include Latin rtkinos, ursine, Artkikos, Arctic (from metathesized *Arktik6s), 
Antartkikos. Antartic (see anti, opposite, in front), Welsh Artkor(i)os, Arthur. 

19. Modern Indo-European 11011111, name, from an older IE II hino^mn, compare Gmc. namon (cf. Goth, namo, 
O.N. nafn, O.E. nama, O.Fris. nama, O.H.G. namo, Du. naam), Lat. nomen, Umb. nome, Gk. ovoua, O.Ind. 
nama, Skr. naman, Av. nqman, O.Pers. nama, Toch. nom/hem, Arm. uihni_h (anun), O.Pruss. emmens (from 
emnes), Sla. jbme-jbmene (cf. O.C.S. ime, Rus. umr, Polish imie) Alb. emer/emen, O.Ir. ainmm, O.Welsh azzu, 
O.Corn. hanow, Bret, azzo, Kamviri zzom; Hitt. laman. Common modern words include Latin (from nomen, 
"name, reputation"), nomnalis, nominal, nomnaio, nominate, dwinomiiialis, binomial, komnomn, 
cognomen, denomnaio, denominate, nnomnia, ignominy, nomnklator, nomenclator, prainomn, 
praenomen, pronomn, pronoun, ren 011111, renown; from Greek are o 110 11111 stikos, onomastic, -011011111, - 
onym, 11110111116s, anonymous, antonomnsia (from anti), antonomasia, eponomiios, eponymous, 
suonomnos, euonymus, siiteronomiios, heteronymous, soiiioiiomnos, homonymous, matronomiiikos, 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

matronymic, patroiiomnikos, patronymic, onomntoqoiweia, onomatopoeia, paronomnos, paronimous, 
pseudonomn, pseudonym (from Gk. pseudes, "false") ko mo no mn, synonym. Compare also, for a Germanic 
dialectal lengthened verb liomio, name, O.Fris. nomia, O.H.G. be-nuomen, possibly not reconstructible for PIE. 

For PIE qei-, pile up, build, make, compare o-grade qojos, body (as in Eng. cheetah), as Skr. kayah; suffixed 
qoiwos, making, (after Pokorny Gk. *Jioi-p6-g) in verb qoiweio, make, create, as Gk. jioieTv, qoiweitis, making, 
and as Greek suffix -qoiweitis, -poiesis, Gk. Jioinoic., also from Lat. qoiweitia, poesy, qoiweimn, poem (Gk. 
jioin(ia), qoiweita,poef (Gk. Jioiniric), qoiweitikos, poetic, epoqoiweia, epopee, etc.. 

Similar root PIE qei-, pay, atone, compensate, gives Gk. time, Skr. cinoti,Av. kaena, O.C.S. cena, Lith. kaina, as 
well as common MIE o-grade qoina, fine, penalty, as Gk. poine into Lat. poena, as in qoinalis, penal, 
qoinalita, penalty, nqoinita, impunity, qoinologia, penology, qoinitosios, punitory, supqoina, subpoena. 

20. For -qe, enclitic "and", compare Goth, O.N. -u(h), Lat. -que, Gk. -re, Messap. ti, si, O.Ind., Ira. -ca, Phryg. 
ke, Ven. kve, Gaul, -c, O.Ir. -ch-; Hitt., Luw. -ku, Lye. -ke. 

For MIE non-clitic words meaning "and", compare especially MIE eti, "out, further", also "and", as Goth, ip, 
O.N. 1, O.E. edw, O.H.G. ita-, Lat. etiam, et (cf. Fr. et, It. ed, Spa.,Ca., 1, Gl.-Pt. e, Rom. §i), Gk. eti, O.Ind. ati, Av. 
aiti, O.Pers. atiy, Phryg. eti, Toch. atas, acij , O.Pruss. et-, at-, Gaul, eti, etic, O.Bret, et-, O.Welsh et-, at-. 

Common Germanic untha (cf. O.N. enn, O.E. and, ond, O.S. endi, O.Fris. anda, M.Du. ende, O.H.G. enti, Ger. 
und), reconstructed as MIE nti, is generally said to be ultimately from PIE anti, in front, although more 
conceivably a zero-grade form of nasalized *enfi, from the aforementioned PIE eti (Adrados 1998). O.E. eac, 
"also" (as Eng. eke), Ger. auch, are used as the common conjunction in Da., No. og, Swe. och, from aug, increase. 

Slavic "a" comes from IE adverb ad, (PIH hid), "and, then", as Skr. fat, "afterwards, then, so", Av. fat, 
"afterwards, then", while Slavic "(h)i" comes from IE conjunction ei, and, if, as in Gk. e. 

21. IE -r, enclitic "for", cf. Gk. ar, ara, ra (Cypriot er), O.Ind. -r, Lith. ir, "and, also", ar (interrogative). 

22. The Angles are members of a Germanic tribe mentioned by Tacitus, O.E. Angeln, from Lat. Anglii, lit. "people 
ofAngul" (cf. O.N. Ongull), a region in what is now Schleswig-Holstein, in Northern Germany. The adjectives for 
the older inhabitants could then be reconstructed as Modern Indo-European Anglios. Modern adjective English 
is a common Germanic formation, derived from IE suffix -isko-; as, Angliskos, Germaniskos, Teutiskos 
(along with 'Classic' Graeco-Latin Anglos, Anglikos, Germanos, Germanikos, Teuton, Teutonikos), etc. 

The noun Germania is from unknown origin. The Oxford English Dictionary records theories about the Celtic 
root gair. Another theory suggests gar, while the one that derive it from Gmc. gaizo- (cf. O.N. geirr, O.H.G. ger, 
O.E. gar, Ger. Ger) is one of the oldest theories proposed. It is still a common word in modern languages; as, Nor. 
germansk, Gk. repuavoc, Rom. german, Ir. Gearmainis, Sco. Gearmailtis, Arm. germaneren, Hindi Jarman, 
Alb. gjermanishte, etc. also in Non-Indo-European languages, like Maltese Germaniz, Hebrew germani, Georgian 
germanuli, Indonesian, Malay, Tagalog, Thai, Xhosa, Jerman, Amharic jarman. 

23. For Indo-European wlqos, wolf(iem. wlqia/wlqi), compare Gmc. wulfaz (cf. Goth, wulfs, O.S. wulf O.N. 
ulfr, O.Fris., Du., O.H.G., Ger. wolf), Lat. lupus, Gk. \vkoc, Skt. vrkas, Av. vehrka-, O.Pers. Varkana- (Hyrcania, 
"wolf-land" , district southeast of the Caspian Sea), Albanian ulk, Lith. vilkas, O.C.S. btjAkt,; Rus. goak, Ukr. eoex. 
Closely related PIE words are wail, wolf, cf. O.Arm. gayl, O.lr.fdel, and wipes, fox, cf. Lat. uulpes, Gk. aXcojin^, 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

Skr. lopdsd, Av. urupis, raopis, Pers. robdh, Arm. alues, lit. lape, Ltv. lapsa. These animals are also a symbol of 
lust in many old Indo-European dialects. 

24. PIE root bher-, bear, carry, also bear children, gave Gmc. beranan (cf. Goth, bairan, O.N. bera, O.E., 
O.H.G. beran), Lat. /ero, Umb. fertu, Gk. (pspco, O.Ind. bhdrati, Av. baraiti, O.Pers. baratuv, Phryg. ber, Toch. 
par, O.Arm. berel, Lith. beriii, Ltv. beru, O.C.S. 6bpamu, Rus. 6epy, Polish biore, O.Ir. berim, Welsh cymmeryd, 
Alb. foz'e, Kamviri bor. With the meaning of give birth, compare Eng. birth, Goth, baurpei, Ger. Geburt, Lat.fors, 
O.Ind bhrtis, bibhrdnas, O.Ir. brith, O.C.S. Gbpawb. Modern derivatives include bhera, bier, Gmc. bero (cf. O.N. 
bara, O.E. ber, O.Fr. biere, O.H.G. bara, O.Fris. bere, M.Du. bare, Eng. bier); o-grade bhornom, child, Gmc. 
barnam (cf. O.E. beam, Scots bairn); suffixed zero-grade (kom)bhrtis, birth, as Gmc. (ga)burthiz (cf. Goth. 
gabaurps, O.N. byrdr, O.E. gebyrd, Ger. geburt, Eng. birth), bhrtinios, burden, as Gmc. burthinjaz (cf. Goth. 
baurpei, O.N. byrdr, O.S. burthinnia, O.E. byrden, Ger. biirde); compound root bhrenko, bring (from 
bher+enk-, reach), as Gmc. brengan (cf. Goth, briggan, p.t. brohte, pp. broht, O.Fris. brenga, O.E. bringan, 
M.Du. brenghen, O.H.G. bringan); from Latin /erre are common MIE -bher, -/er, bhertilis, fertile, 
adbherents, afferent, kombherentia, conference, kikrombherentia, circumference, kombhero, confer, 
debhero, defer, disbhero, differ, ekbherents, efferent, enbher5, m/er, obhbhero, ojfjfer, praibhero, prefer, 
probherd, proffer, rebhero, refer, supbhero, suffer, transbhero, transfer, woqibheraio, vociferate; 
prefixed and suffixed zero-grade probhrom, reproach, in obhprobhriom, opprobrium; suffixed zero-grade 
bhrtus, chance (from "a bringing, that which is brought"), as in bhrtuitos, happening by chance, fortuitous, 
bhrtuna, chance, good luck, fortune; lengthened o-grade bhor, thief, as in bhorteiuos, /urfroe, bhoronkolos, 
furuncle; from Greek pherein are o-grade noun bhoros, carrying, -bhora, -phore, -bhoretis, -phoresis, - 
bhoros, -phorous, am(bh)bhora, (from Lat., from Gk. ambhibhoreus), anabhora, diabhoretis, 
(a)subhoria, euforia, metabhora, peribhereia, bheromona, etc.; suffixed bherna, dowry ("something 
brought by a bride"), as in parabhernalia. 

For EIE nak-, reach, enough, present with nasal infix 11 a 11 kid. cf. Lat. nancio, nactus/nanctus, Bait, ndk, o- 
grade prefixed (with intensive kom-) kom-ntikid, suffice, as Gmc. ganokh- (cf. Goth, ganohs, O.N. gnogr, O.E. 
genog, O.Fris. enoch, Ger. genug). Ultimately from root nek- (PIH Hnek-), variant Greek enk-, carry, gives o- 
grade noun onkos, burden, mass, hence a tumor, as Gk. OyKoc., Skr. amsah, as in onkogenetis, onkologia; and 
Gmc. compoundfe/ircnfco, bring, v.s. Compare also Gk. eneke, O.Ind. ndksati, Av. nasaiti, O.Ir. -ice, O.Ir., Welsh 
-anc, Hitt. hink. 

Greek eu-, eu-, is usually compared with Hittite dssu, assija-, Lyd. asaa, Luw. N. Pi. assammas < PIH (e)h 2 su 
"good", MIE asus, usually su- in compounds, cf. O.Ind. su-, Av. hu-, hu-, Sla. st-dorvb(jh) , Bal. su-dru-; sw-ei- 
ka, Gaul su-, Ir su-, so-. The fact that all Greek dialects show the same evolution in this Indo-European root, is 
considered a rare phenomenon. 

Attested derivatives include zero-grade Greek q'qlos/quqlos, circle, cycle, Gk. kukAoc,, (from which L.Lat. 
cyclus, Eng. cycle), Toch. kukal/kokale, e-grade qeqlos. wheel, as Gmc. khwewlaz (cf. O.N. hvel, O.E. hweol, 
hweogol, O.S. hiughl, O.Fris. hwel, M.Du. weel), and Lith. kaklas, or neuter qeqlom, chakra, circle, wheel, as 
O.Ind. cakram, Av. caxra, also found as metathesized *qelqos, charkha, as Old. Pers. carka-, or Osset. calx, it is 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

also behind Lat. populus, although sometimes deemed from from o-grade of pel-, full, as seen in Germanic folk 
and Latin plebs, probably ultimately from qeqlos, circle, thus "community", and derivatives qeqlalis, public, 
popular, qeqlikos, public, from O.Lat. poplicus, which was influenced by Lat. pubes, "adult", into Lat. publicus, 
see <http://www.apaclassics.org/AnnualMeeting/06mtg/abstracts/S0uthern.pdf>. Other derivatives from PIE 
verbal root qel, meaning revolve, move around, sojourn, dwell, include Lat. colere, "till, cultivate, inhabit", not 
originally o-grade in PIE (from basic form PIE qel — > *kwel — > Lat. col-), as in qelon(os), setler, qelonia, 
colony, qeltos, cultivated, qeltos, worship, cult, qelteiuos, tilled, qelteiuaio, cultivate, qeltosa, culture, 
n qeltos, incult, nqelinos, inquiline, etc; suffixed qelos, "completion of a cycle", consummation, perfection, 
end, result, telos, gives Gk. teAoc., -eoq (remember that PIE [k w ] becomes Gk. [p] or [t] before certain vowels), 
giving qelios, perfect, complete, from which qeliologia, teleology, qeliom, telium, qelio, consacr ate, fulfill, in 
turn giving qelesmn, consecration ceremony, from which through Arabic tilasm, then It. talismano or Spa. 
talisman into Fr. talisman; from o-grade qolso-, "that on which the head turns", neck, hals, are qolsos, Gmc. 
kh(w)alsaz (cf. Goth., O.N., Dan., Swed., Du., Ger. hals), and qolsom, as Lat. collum, from which derivatives 
qolsar, collar, deqolsaio, decollate, behead, etc.; suffixed -qela, -colous, and enqela, inhabitant a Lat. -cola, 
incola; amqelos (from ambhi, around), "one who bustles about", servant, as Lat. anculus, giving dim. f. 
amqilla, maidservant; qolos, axis of a sphere, pole, as Gk. jioAoc., also -qolos, herdsman, as couqolos, 
cowherd, (from cous, cow), as Gk. PoukoAoc., giving couqolikos, bucolic; also, qolos, wheel, as Slavic kolo, 
koles (cf. O.C.S. koao, Russ. xoneco, Pol. kolo); suffixed o-grade qolenos, traffic, as O.Ira, -carana, as in 
wesaqolenos, "sale -traffic", bazaar, as O.Ira, vahacarana (see wes-), Pers. bazar, hence also MIE partial loan 
ivesar or loan bazar, bazaar. Compare also O.N. hjol, Skr. carati, Av. caraiti, Old Prussian -kelan, Lith. kelias, 
O.Ir. cul, Alb. sjell; Luw. kaluti-; zero-grade variant qlin, again, as Gk. JiaXiv, as in qlindromos (from Gk. - 
8p6uoc., racecourse), palindrome, qlinpsestos, palimpsest, Gk. JiaAiuxpnoioc. (from Gk.psen, "scrape"). 

A common word for wheel is rota, from which Gmc. rado (cf. ON rodull, O.E. rodur, O.H.G. rad), Lat. rota, Skr. 
ratha, Av. radha, Lith. ratas, Ltv. rats, Gaul. Roto-, Ir. rath, Welsh rhod, Alb. rrath. Known modern derivatives 
are Celtic loan word to-wo-rets, formed by IE "do-upo-rets", "a running up to", which gives Mod. Eng. tory, 
from O.Ir. toir, "pursuit"; also, retondos, rolling, which gave rotondos, rotund, 'round', as Lat. rotundus, even 
though "round" ws said in PIE wrbhis, "round in line", orbhis, "round in plane", and orghis, "round in space". 

25. Compare for PIE ghostis, stranger, guest, Gmc. gastiz (cf. Goth, gasts, O.N. gestr, O.E. gzest, O.Fris. jest, 
O.H.G. gast), Lat. hostis, hospes (hostis-potes) O.C.S. gosti, OCS gosti, Russ. zocmb, Polish gosc; Luw. gasi. 
Compound ghospots, host, (Lat. hospes, guest, originally host, "lord of strangers"), gives MIE ghospotalis, 
hospitable, and also ghospotalis, hospital (from M.Lat. hospitale, meaning inn, large house, "guest house"), 
reduced as ghostalis, hostel, from O.Fr. hostel, in turn from Lat. hos(pi)tale. For hotel, compare international 
borrowings from the same French word, with slightly different meanings Eng. hostel-hotel, Ger. Gasthaus-Hotel, 
Swe. gstgiveri-hotel, Ice. gistihtel, Spa. hostal-hotel, It. ostello-hotel, Pt. hotel, Russ. rocTHHHua (gostinitsa), Uk. 
roTeji (goteT), Pol. hotel, Cz. hostinec, Pers. hotel, Ind. hotel, and also in non-Indo-European languages, as Finnish 
hotelli, Japanese ^7^.^)1 (hosuteru) - t^tII (hoteru), Korean S.% (ho-t'eT), Thai tmwa (ho-ten), etc. The word for 
'hotel' in Latin, however, was deuersorium, from the same root as Eng. divert. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

26. More PIE derivatives related to (s)tauros, (also steuros, both maybe from PIE ster-) are Germanic 
(s)teuraz (cf. Goth, stiur, O.S. stior, O.N. stjorr, O.E. steor, O.H.G. stior, M.Du., Du. stier; Dan. tyr, Swed. tjur), 
Lat. taurus, Osc. turuf, Gk. xavpoc, Av. staora, O. Pruss. tauris, Lith. tauras, Ltv. taurins, O.C.S. turu, Rus. fur, 
Pol. tur, Gaul, tarbos, Welsh tarw, O. Ir. tarfo, Oscan turuf and Alb. tarog. 

27. Indo-European nizdos, nest, resting place, is a secondary PIE root, from ni-, down, + sed, sit. Compare 
Gmc. nistaz, Lat. nidus, O.Ind. nidas, Skr. nfaa, Arm. nist, O.C.S. zutedo, Russ. zue3do, Polish gniazdo, O.Ir. nef, 

Welsh nyf/i, Bret. nez. For mizdhos, compare Gmc. mizdo (Goth, mizdo, O.E. med, O.S. meda , O.H.G. mieta), 
Gk. uioBoc,, Skr. midha, Av. mizda, Pers. muzd, meed, O.C.S. mizda, Russ. M3da. 

28. PIE ker, /lorn, head, gave derivatives krnos, horn, Gmc. khurnaz (cf. Goth, haurn, O.E. /lorn, Ger. Horn, 
Du. horen), Lat., Celt, cornu (<*kornus, a blending with variant o-grade korus, as in Gk. koru-); keruiks, neck, 
from Lat. cervix; kerudos, male dear, hart, from Gmc. kherutas (cf. O.H.G. hiruz, O.N. hjortr, O.E. heorot, 
M.Du. Zierf, Ger. Hirsch); keruos, deer, as Lat. ceruus, Welsh carw; krsniom, Gk. Kpaviov, Lat. cranium; 
krsnotom, hornet as Gmc. khurznutu- (cf. O.E. hyrnetu, hurnitu, Du. horzeJ); kersrom [ke-'rz-rom], brain, as 
Lat. cerebrum (compare also O.N. hjarni, O.H.G. hirni, Ger. Hirn); other derivatives include Gk. Kapn, Skr. siras, 
srngam, Av. sarah, Pers. sar, Toch. kraiii, Arm. sar, O. Pruss. kerpetis, Lith. szirszu, Ltv. skirpta, O.C.S. upim,, 
Russ. cerep, Pol. trzop, Bret. Arern, Alb. Arye, Osset. s«r. 

29. For PIE snusos, daughter-in-law, compare Gmc. snusaz (cf. Goth, schuos, O.N. snor, O.E. snoru, O.H.G. 
snur), Lat. nurus, Gk. vi>oc, Skr. snusd, Arm. nu, OCS snuxa, Russ. CHOxa, Polish snecha, Alb. nuse. 

30. PIE nebhos, cloud, evolved as Skr. nabhas, Av. nabah, Lith. debesis, Ltv. debess, O.C.S. nefco, Russ. nefto, 
Polish niebo, O.Ir. nem, Cor. ne/, Kamviri ni'ru; Hitt. nepis, Luw. tappas-, Lye. tabahaza. Suffixed nebhela gives 
Gmc. nibila (cf. O.N. niflhel, O.E. nz/oZ, O.H.G. nebul, also found in MIE patronymic Nebhelnkos, Gmc. 
Nibulunkhaz, as O.H.G. Nibulunc, Nibulung), also Welsh m'ifZ, Lat. nebula, as in nebhelos, nebulous, and Gk. 
nephele, as in nebhelina, nepheline, nebhelometrom, nephelometer; suffixed nebhologfa, nephology; 
nasalized nembhos, rain, cloud, aura, as Lat. nimbus. 

For PIE me, measure, compare derivatives suffixed melos, meal "measure, mark, appointed time, time for 
eating, meal", as Gmc. melaz (v.s.); suffixed metis, wisdom, skill, as Gk. metis, further suffixed metio, measure, 
as Lat. metiri, in nasalized p. part, mensos, measured, mensosaio, measure, mensosalis, mensural, 
kommensosaio, commensurate, dismension, dimension, nmensos, immense; metrom, measure, rule, 
length, proportion, poetic meter (referred by some to IE med-), as Gk. u£Tpov, in metrikos, metrical, 
diametros, diameter, geometria, geometry, wiswometrikos, isometric, metrologia, metrology, 
kommetria, symmetry. From the same root probably PIE base mens, moon, month, cf. Gk. men, Ion. mes, Dor. 
mes, gen. menos, Aeol. menn-os, O.Ind. mas, Av. mo", gen. manho, Pers. mah, Umb. menzne, Sla. mesqeh, Bal. 
mend (gen. -es-es), O.Ir. mi, gen. mis, Welsh mis, Bret mzz,Toch. A man, B mene, Arm. amis, gen. amsoy, Alb. 
muai; derivatives include mena, month, moon, as Gmc. menon (cf. O.E. mona), Gk. men, mene, in derivatives 
menopausa, menopause, nmenosrewia, amenorrhea, etc.; from Latin extended mensis, also suffixed in -tr-, 
cf. -menstris, in menstrua, menstruate, menstrualis, menstrual, dwimenstris, bimester, dwimenstrialis, 
bimestrial, seksmenstris, semester, trimenstris, trimester, etc. (see also zero-grade suffix -m(nst)ris, 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

month). Compare also suffixed Germanic menots, as Gmc. menoth- (cf. Goth, menops, O.N. manadr, O.E. 
monath, M.Du. manet, O.H.G. manod, Du. maand, Ger. Monat), 

PIE me referred also to certain qualities of mind, as suffixed o-grade motos, mind, disposition, as Gmc. mothaz 
(cf. Goth, mops, O.N. modr, O.Fris. mod, M.Du. moet, O.H.G. muot, Du. moed, Ger. Mut), and Latin 1116s, wont, 
humor, manner, custom, as in loan words (affected by rhotacism) mosalis, moral, mosos, custom, 
mosonts(os), morose. 

Also, PIE root me, big, many, gives suffixed me-r-, meri, as Sla. merb, Gmc. meri, meros, Gaul -maros, O.Ir. 
mar, mau, Cymr mawr, mwy, Corn moy, Bret meuror, and o-grade Gk. -moro-; also deemed from this root, 
comparative meisos, greater, more, as Gmc. maizon (cf. O.S. mera, O.N. meiri, O.Eng. O.Fris. mara, O.H.G. 
mero, M.Du. mere, Ger. mehr), Osc. mais, Av. mazja, O.Ir. mor; also, superlative meistos, most, Gmc. maistaz; 
(Lat. maes, "more", comes from meg-). 

IE medo, take appropriate measures, measure, gives Gmc. metan (cf. Goth, mitan, O.E. metan, O.Fris., O.N. 
meta, Du. meten, Eng. mete, Ger. messen), also found in Germanic as kommedio, measure, Gmc. (gajmeetijaz 
(cf. O.N. msetr, O.E. gemsete, O.H.G. gimagi, Eng. meet, Ger. gemafJ); another PIE use for medos, "smart 
measure taker, wise counselor", hence "healer, physician, medicine man", found in Av. vi-mad-, Gk. MnSog, 
M/jSn, and in secondary Lat. medicus, MIE medikos, behind verb medeio, Lat. medeor, -eri "look after, heal, 
cure", as in Av. vi-maSayanta.; derivatives include medikaid, medicate, medikina, medicine, medikos, 
medical, remediom, remedy; meditaio, think about, consider, reflect, meditate; suffixed medes-, giving 
(influenced by Lat. modus) medestos, "keeping to the appropriate measure", moderate, nmedestos, inmodest; 
medesa, "keep within measure", moderate, control, nmedesatos, inmoderate; medontia, Medusa, from Gk. 
medein, "rule"; suffixed o-grade modos, measure, size, limit, manner, harmony, melody, mood, as in moda, 
mode, modelos, model, modesnos, modern, modidhakaio, modify, modolaio, modulate, modolos, 
module, modulus, kommoda, commode, kommodita, commodity, adkommodaio, accomodate; suffixed o- 
grade modios, a measure of grain; lengthened o-grade mods, ability, measure, as in mo do, have occasion, to 
be permitted or obliged, as Gmc. motan (cf. Goth, gamotan, O.Fris. mota, O.E. motan, M.L.G. moten, Du. 
moeten, Ger. miissen, Eng. must from O.E. part, moste). 

31. PIE verb gen-, give birth, beget, produce, is a well-attested root which gives derivatives referring to aspects 
and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups, e.g. genos, race, stock, kind, gender, as Lat. genus, 
generis, Gk. yivoq, Skr. janah, giving derivatives genesaio, generate, genesalis, general, genesation, 
generation; alternate base gn-a-, giving gntis, natural, native, clan, kin, race, as Gmc. kundiz (cf. O.E. gecynd, 
Eng. kind), Lat. gentis, Gk. yiveoiq, Skr. jata, Lith. gentis; reduplicate gignd, beget, cf. Lat. gignere, Gk. 
y/yve<70a;, Skr. jajanti, Av. zizanti, with past participle gntos, Lat. genitos, as in genitor, genitalis, 
komgenitalis, etc.; gnnsko, be born, from Lat. gnasci, as in gnntos, born, maybe also praignntis, pregnant, 
from older Lat. praegnas, later remade praegnans, etc. zero-grade lenthened gn- (v.i.), komgnntos, cognate; 
genios, procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality; engenuos, born in (a place), native, 
natural, freeborn, then ingenuous, and genuinos, genuine; engeniom, inborn character, later engine, and 
engenionts(os), ingenious; endogena, native, indigen; genmen, germen, as in genmenaio, germinate, 
genmenalis, etc. Compare also Gmc. kunjam, Osc. genetai, Umb. natine, Skr. janati, Pers. zdedan, Phryg. cin, 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

Thrac. zenis, Toch. kan, Arm. cnanim, Lith. gimdyti, Ltv. znots, OCS zeti, Russ. 3sunh, O.Ir. ro-genar, Welsh gem, 
Alb. dhender/dhdnder, Kam. zu£; Hitt. genzu. 
32. tu-stem Lat. nii'tu (maior- under likewise) "from birth", therefrom nii'tura " birth; nature, natural 

qualities or disposition, character; an element, substance, essence, nature"; praegnus "pregnant", 

new praegnans, from *-gnutis. 

33. From PIE root weid-, see, know, compare Gmc. witan (Goth, weitan, O.N. vita, O.S., O.E. witan, O.H.G. 
wizzan), Lat. uidere, Gk. iSeiv, eiSoo, oiSa, Doric Gk. woida, Skr. vedah, Av. vaeda, Phryg. wit-, Arm. gitem, 
O.Pruss. widdai (from vidaiet), Lith. veizdmi, O.C.S. BHfl-feTH, Pol. widziec, Rus. eiidenib, Gaulish vindos, O.Ir. ro- 
fetar, Welsh gwyn, Breton gwenn, Kashmiri vuchun. Derivatives include weistos (<*weidtos), learning, 
wisdom, knowledge, appearance, form, manner, as Gmc. wissaz (cf. O.N. viss, O.S., O.Fris., O.E. wis, O.H.G. 
wiz, O.Fr. guise, Du. wijs, Ger. weise, Eng. wise); suffixed weidos, for m, shape, as Gk. eidos, in weidolom, idol, 
eidolon, as Gk. ei'5coXov; zero-grade form widiom, knowledge, understanding, intelligence, mind, as Gmc. 
witjam (cf. O.N. vit, O.S. wit, O.Fris. wit, O.H.G. wizzi, O.E. wit, Dan. vid, Swed. vett, Ger. Witz), also nwidiom, 
ignorance (cf. Goth, unwiti); from zero-grade wideio, see, look, as Lat. uidere, O.Ind. vedayati, Goth.witan, - 
aida, O.Ice. veita, O.C.S. videti, Lith. pavydeti, Go\h.witan, -aida, O.Ir. foid-, pi. foidit; PIE derivatives include 
weidso, "visit" (<"wish to see"), cf. Lat. viso, -ere, Umb. revestu "revisit", Goth, gaweison, O.S. O.H.G. wison; 
win do. find, cf. O.Ind. vindati, Ir. J inn-, Arm. gint, etc.; wida, cf. O.Ind. vida, Welsh gwedd as in Nwida, 
Hades, the underworld, perhaps "the invisible", as Gk. Haides/Aides; widia, O.Ind. vidya, Av. vioya ds.; O.Ir. 
airde, Welsh arwydd, O.S. giwitt, O.H.G. (gi)wizzi, O.E. witt, Goth, unwiti, O.H.G. wizzi O.H.G.gi-, ir-wizzen, 
M.L.G. witte, etc.; es-stem, as in weidos, form, shape, cf. Gk. eidos, in weidolom, idol, eidolon, as Gk. 8i'8coXov; 
cf. O.Ind. vedas, Gk. ei8og, Lith. veidas, O.C.S. vidT>, M.Ir. fiad m. "Ehrenbezeigung", O.Ir. fiad, Welsh yngwydd, 
M.Bret, a goez; other formation iveid-so- Goth, -weis, O.Ice. viss, O.H.G. O.S. O.E. wis, O.H.G. wis(a), O.E. 
wis(e), perhaps also widesa, Gk. i8£a "outer apparition, shape, sight" (if *Fi8£od); wistos (<*ividtos, uisos in 
Latin), seen, as in wista, visa, wistion, vision, wistos, visor, adwistom, advice, adwistaid, advise, 
enwidiaio, envy, ekwidents, evident, prowidei5, foresee, prowistos, foreseen, nprowistos, unforeseen, 
nprowistaio, improvise, enterwideio, interview, enwidionts(6s), invidious, praiwideio, previse, 
prow^ideio, provide, prowidents, prudent, rewideio, re\dew, rewistaio, revise, superwistaio, supervise, 
survey; suffixed wistor (<*ividtor), wise, learned, learned man, Gk. histdr, in wistoria, history, Gk. ioxopia. 

34. Indo-European qel-, far, gives prefixes qele-, far off, from Gk. xnXe- (related to qeleios, Gk. xeXeog, end, 
goal, result), and qlai-, long ago, Eng. paleo-, from qlaios, old, ancient, Gk. JiaXaiog. This PIE base is possibly 
related (as a lengthened form) to qel-, move around; cf. Skr. caramah, Welsh pellaf Bret. pell. 

It is discussed whether television was formed in Eng. or borrowed from Fr. television, in either case from Gk. 
tele-, "far off, afar, at or to a distance", and Lat. vision. Other proposals for the name of this then-hypothetical 
technology were telephote (1880) and televista (1904). The technology was developed in the 1920s and '30s. 
Loan-translated in Ger. as Fernsehen. 



357 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

English technology comes from PIE tek-, Gk. tekton, O.Ind. takman, tak-ia-; Sla. t-bkati, ti>kq; Osset. taxun, 
Arm. tekhem, usually extended tek-s-, weave, also fabricate, plait, cf. O.N. pexla, O.H.G. dehsa, Lat. texto, Skr. 
taksati, Bal. takis-ia-, Sla. t-bcb, t'bcja, Hitt. taks. Common derivatives include tekstus, thread, wire, "thing 
woven", later text, cf. Gmc. takhtuz (cf. O.N. thdttr, O.H.G. tdht, common in Gmc. for "roof), Lat. textus, 
komtekstus, context, praitekstus, pretext; suffixed teksla, web, net, warp of a fabric, also weaver's beam (to 
which the warp threads are tied), cf. Lat. tela, Russ. tesla, Ir. tal, also found in adj. suptekslis, thin, fine, precise, 
subtle (<*sup-teksla, "thread passing under the warp", the finest thread); suffixed tekson, weaver, maker of 
wattle for house walls, builder, tekstor, builder, tekston, carpenter, builder, as in tekstonikos, tectonic, or 
arkhitekston, architect (from Gk. arkhein, "begin, rule"); teksiia, art, craft, skill, as Gk. tekhne, in teksnikos, 
technical, teksnologia, technology. 

Another common IE root for "weave" was webh- (<PIH H w -) as in verb webho, Gmc. webanan (cf. O.N. vefa, 
O.E. wefan, O.H.G. weban, M.L.G., M.Du., Du. weven, Eng. weave, Ger. weben), Skr. ubhati, Av. ubdaena, 
O.Pers. baftan, Pers. bafad, Toch. wap/wdp, Arm. ven, Hitt. hupala, hupiki, hupra-, Alb. vegje. A common 
Germanic word is wobh(i)a, web, fabric, as Gmc. wobo (cf. O.S. webbi, O.N. vefr, O.E. webb, O.H.G. weppi, Du. 
webbe, Ger. gewebe), Gk. huphe, also in English loan word Wiralts Wita Wobhia, World Wide Web, WWW. 
Maybe originally the same root as webh-, wander, move back and forth as in weaving, as Gmc. wabjan (cf. O.N. 
vafra, O.E. wafian, weefre, M.E. waveren, M.H.G. waben, L.Ger. wabbeln), Bal. webjde-, wibjde-. 

Proto-Indo-European wi, apart, away, is the source for adj. witos, wide, as Gmc. withas (cf. O.S., O.E., O.Fris. 
wid, O.N. vidr, Du. wijd, O.H.G. wit, Eng. wide, Ger. weit), and also for wit(e)ros/m, against, lit. "more apart", 
as Skr. vitaram, Gmc. withros (cf. Goth, wipra, O.S. withar, O.N. vidr, O.E. wid, O.H.G. widar, M.Du., Du. 
weder, Du. weer, Eng. with, Ger. wieder). Compare other derivatives as Skr. vi, Av. vi-, Hitt. na-wi "not yet", 
O.C.S. vutoru, "other, second", as Russ. emopoil. 

35. PIE ago, drive, draw out or forth, move, set in motion, gives O.N. aka, Lat. agere, actus, Osc. acum, Gk. 
ayco, Skr. ajati, ajirah, Av. azaiti, Toch. dk, Arm. acem, O.Ir. ad-aig, din, O. Welsh agit; probably Hitt. aggala-, 
"furrow". For more on ag-, v.i. 

36. For root legh-, lie down, rest, verb leghio, as Gmc. ligjan (cf. Goth, ligan, O.N. liggja, O.E. licgan, O.Fris. 
lidzia, M.Du. ligghen, O.H.G. liggan), Cel. leghjo, Sla. lezjo; cf. Lat. lectus, Gk. Xexd>, Toch. lake/leke, Lith. at- 
lagai, Ltv. lagaca, O.C.S. lego, Russ. neoKamh, Polish lezec, Gaul, legasit, O.Ir. Zzge, Welsh gwal; Hittite Zagz. 

37. PIE root ped-,/oof, Nom. pods, cf. Gmc. fots (cf. Goth, fotus, O.N. /oZr, O.E./of, O.H.G. /izoz, Du. voet), Lat. 
pedis, Umb. pen, Gk. ne^oc, Dor. ^roi)c, Skr. paddm, Av. pdda-, Pers. pa, Arm. Zief, Toch. pem/paiyye, Lith. pedq, 
Ltv. peda, O.C.S. ntnib, Russ. neuiuu, Pol. pieszy, Alb. poshte, Osset. fad; Hitt. pata, Lye. pede-, Luw. pati-. 

38. The common verb klus(sk)o, listen, comes from zero-grade of PIE kleu-, hear, and it has derivatives refer 
also to fame, word or loud, as in Gmc. khlusinon, 'listen' (cf. O.E. hlysnan, O.H.G. hlosen, Eng. listen), khludaz, 
'loud' (cf. Goth. Mup, O.N. hljodr, O.N. Wud, O.H.G. /zZuf), Lat. cluere, Gk. kAuco, KAeoc. (as in 'HpaKAfjc,, Herakles), 
Skr. sru, srnoti, qrdvayati Av. sraota-, surunaoiti, sravayeiti, M.Pers. srocZ, Pers. sardyidan, Illyr. cleves, Toch. 
klyos, kldw, Arm. Zu, O.Lith. slave, slove, Lith. klausau, slove, Ltv. klausit, slava, slave, O.C.S. slusati, slava, 
slovo, Russ. CAoeo, endea, Pol. slowo, slawa, Gaul. cZu, O.Ir. clunim, Welsh clywaf Alb. quhem. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

The common Slavic word to define themselves, O.C.S. anoBtHe, c/ioBtHbciO), reconstructed as an older base 
[Mou-], if ultimately Indo-European (cf. for klutos, "heared, famous", Skr. sruta-, Av. sruta-, Gk. lytos, Lat. in- 
clitus, M.Ir. rocloth, O.H.G. Hlot-hari, Arm. lu), is a demonym whose first reference is probably found in Ptolemy, 
who identified tribes called Stavanoi and Soubenoi, then translated (6 th century) as M.Lat. Sclaueni/Sthlaueni, 
M.Gr. ZKAafinvoi/SOXafirivoL It is thus probably related to either slava, fame, (as slaviane), thus "glorious 
people", or from slovo, speach, (as Slovene), therefore originally meaning "member of the speech community" (cf. 
Albanian noun for themselves, shqipetdr, derived from shqiponj, understand), in contrast with the Germans, who 
were in O.C.S. nemici, related to nemu 'dumb'. Compare with the Greek custom of using Pctppapoc, to mean 
"foreign, strange, ignorant" (derivatives are Lat. barbarus, Eng. barbarian) from PIE base barbar-, echoic of 
unintelligible speech, like that of foreigners (cf. Skt. barbara-, stammering, also "non-Aryan"). Therefore, a 
proper MIE reconstruction for such Slavic term is Klowenos, Slav, for a/ioBtHe, and Kloweniskos, Slavic, for 
cjioBtHbCKT), but - because the reconstruction is uncertain, and modern crossed borrowings are usual-, modern 
loan words Slaivenos, Slatveniskos should be preferred. 

For common MIE terms - which could be also written with initial klo- instead of slo-/sla-, compare: 
Slaivenos, Slav; Slatveniskos, Slavic; Sloiveniska, Slovakia; Sloivenia, Slovenia; Sloiveniskos, Slovak; 
Sloivenikos, Slovene; Augoslaxvia, Yugoslavia. The later is a compound of MIE reconstructed augos, 
southern, from ug- (proper IE reconstruction of Slavic jug-), originally referring to a southern wind, possibly 
ultimately from PIE root aug-, with derivatives meaning increase, enlarge, as already seen. 

39. PIE root bhes- breathe, blow, gave Skr. bhas-, Gk. xpvxsiv, and is probably of imitative origin. Its zero-grade 
bhs- gives supposedly *bhsugha ['(b h )su:-k h a:], spirit, soul, originally breath, life, "the invisible entity behind 
the physical body" (personified as Psykhe, the lover of Eros), a MIE loan word (bhsugho- in compounds) from 
Gk. ipuxn, with an unreconstructed Greek ending -kh-, probably PIE -gh-. In light of O.Ind. bdbhasti, some would 
rather reconstruct PIE spu-, hence MIE metathesizedpsugrha. 

40. Usually reconstructed preposition and preverb *ksun, with, together, as Gk. l,vv, is explained as kom via 
Greek-psi substratum (Villar). Slavic su-, so/s, normally compared with the Greek form, could in turn come from 
zero-grade sm (see sem, one), as O.Ind. sa. Then compound smweitus, council, from Slavic so-vetu, is also 
formed by O.C.S. B-feTb, counsel, advice (a loan-translation in Gk. fiovkq in 'ouu-PovXiov'), which comes from PIE 
root weit-, declare, condemn, cf. Av. vaed, Sla. vet-b, Bal. wait- f., cf. O.Pruss waitiat, Lith. vaitenil. 

41. IE gntis, birth, family, lit. "that which has been born" (ultimately from gen-), cf. O.Ind. jdtis, Lat. nati-o, 
Umb. natine, O.E. O.E. {ge)cyndi. "kind of, nature, quality, origin, source, beginning ; an ancestor, descendant" 
(Eng. kind), from base gn-, as gns, O.Ind. ja-s " descendant ",as gnia, pra-ja " progeny ", gnpots, jas-patis, 
"paterfamilias". Political sense has gradually taken over from racial meaning "large group of people with 
common ancestry", hence MIE gntis (or Lat. loan gntion) nation, stock, race, and common derivatives include 
gntis, national (<grilidnalis) or gntita, nationality, or gnteiuos, native, "innate, produced by birth", etc. 
suffixed -tu (v.i.), gntu, from birth, in gntvira, birth; nature, natural qualities or disposition, character; an 
element, substance, essence, nature. 

42. PIE root for prksko is prek-, ask, entreat, pray, and is cognate with Gmc. frekhnan (cf. Goth, fraihnan, 
O.N.fregna, O.E. frignan, O.H.G. frag a), Lat. prex, Osc. aparsam, Umb. pepurkurent, Skr. praqnas, pras, Av. 

359 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

frasa, Toch. prak/prek, Arm. harcanem, Lith. prasau, Ltv. prasu, O.C.S. npocumu, Russ. npocumb, Pol. prosic, 
Welsh archaf, Ir. arco, M.Bret, archas. Common MIE derivatives include preks, prayer, as Lat. prex, and verb 
prekaid, entreat, pray, as Lat. precari, in prekasios, precarious (PIE proper is dusopis, cf. O.Ir. domme 
'poor' <*dus-op-smjo, Lat. inops, O.Ind. durapah 'hard to obtain', etc), deprekaio, deprecate, enprekaid, 
imprecate; from prksko is extended p(o)rs(k)stolaio, ask, request, postulate, as Lat. postulare. 
43. Modern Indo-European words for "house": 

A. Derivatives from an original PIE root dem- are doms, ace. domm, house, 'shelter', cf. Gk. nom. do, ace. 
doma, Arm. ace. tun, also found as common o-stem domos, cf. Lat. loc. domi, Umb. damoa, Gk. 56uoc,, Sfjuoc, 
(deme), O.Ind. damas, Av. dqm, Toch. tam/tam, Arm. tun, Lith. namas, Ltv. nams, O.C.S. flOMi, Rus. doM, Pol. 
dom, Welsh ty. Also common is the u-stem domus (cf. Lat. domus, domus; O.Ir. dom-, dam-, O.C.S. dorwh, 
O.Russ. domovb, Arm. tanu, etc.), which gives domunos, "house-lord" (cf. O.Ind. damunas, "housemate" , Lat. 
dominus, "lord", see Latin ablaut), and adjective domunikos. From IE domn is Gk. 8coua, dome. Probably from 
same root is base demo, build, as Gk. Seuco, found as "settle, fit" in Goth, ga-timan, O.S. teman, O.H.G. zeman, 
giving dialectal demrom, timber, Gmc. temran (cf. Goth, timrjan, O.N. timbr, O.E. timber, O.Fris. timber, 
O.H.G. zimbar, Ger. Zimmer); cf. also Gmc. tumfetiz, (Eng. toft, from O.N. topt), Gk. ScuisSov, Lith. dimstis. 

B. For 'house' in Germanic languages MIE reconstructs a common kusom, dwelling, shelter, from Gmc. 
khusam (cf. Goth, -hus, O.N., O.E., O.Fris. hus, Du. auhs, Ger. Haus), probably related to PIE root (s)keu-, cover, 
conceal. Compare in keudh(i)o, hide, conceal, Gmc. kluthjanan (O.E. hyde), Gk. K8u0co, and other derivatives 
like keudhis, covering, Gmc. khudiz (cf. O.N. hud, O.E. hyd, O.Fris. hed, M.Du. huut, Ger. Haut); Gmc. skeujam 
cloud, cloud cover, (cf. Goth, skuggwa, O.N. scy, skuggi, O.E. sceo, scua, O.S. scz'o, O.H.G. scuwo, scur, O.Ice. 
skali, skjol, M.H.G. hode, Ger. Scheuer), Lat. cutis, scutum, ob-scurus, Gk. ktjtoc,, Skr. kostha, skunati, Arm. cim, 
Lith. kevalas, Ltv. skura, Rus. kishka, O.Ir. ci7Z, Welsh cuddio. 

C. PIE root kat-, /iuf, s/iecZ is probably the source of Romance casa, hence PIE katia or katsa, as in Gmc. 
khathra (cf. O.E. heador), Lat. catena, cassis (<kat-tis), castrum (<kat-trom) Av. kata-, Pers. kad, O.C.S. 
kotici, kotu, O.Ir. cathir, Welsh cader. The different warlike meanings found are explained by confusion with a 
similar PIE root, kat-, troop, battle, in katus, kata, cf. Gmc. kathu-, katho (cf. O.N. hod, O.E. heapu, O.H.G. 
hathu), Skr. satru, "enemy", Toch. keta, kete, O.C.S. kotora, Gaul, catu, O.Ir. cath, Welsh cad. 

Compare also from other works, Swe. kata, Nor. kota/kote/kate (probably borrowed from Uralic kota, as 
Finnish koti, Est. kodu, Hung, haz), and also Skr. catvala-, Av. caiti, Toch B kotai-, Alb katua, as well as other 
unexplained words like Bui. wbu^a, Srb.-Cro. kuca, Slovene hisa, all meaning hut, shed, house, or hole, prison, 
some of them reconstructed as ultimately from PIE root ket-, storage pit (Mallory- Adams). 

D. Old Greek oIkoc, (oikos), house, comes from IE woikos, which gave also Gk. oiida, house, and Gk. oiKnoic,, 
dwelling, administration, and Gk. oiKnxoc,, inhabitant; in MIE, it has universal loan-translations like 
woikonomia, economy, originally "household, management" , from woikonomos, econome, "manager, 
steward", woikologia, ecology, woikosomenos, world, inhabited world (into Proto-Greek woikohomeno- -> 
Att. Gk. oiKouu£vr| [yn], "inhabited [land]"). It is the o-grade form of weikos, village, dwelling, "group of 
houses", (cf. Lat. uicus, Skr. vesah, OCS visi, Russ. ves', Pol. wies, Lith. viesas), as in weikinos, neighbour, 
weikinita, neighborhood, or loan weiksla (from It. villa, country house, villa, farm, from Lat. villa). The noun 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

is derived from PIE root weiks, clan, village, "social unit above the household"; compare Goth,O.H.G. weihs, 
O.E. wic, Skr. vis, Av. vis, O.Pers. vitham, Ltv. viesis, Alb. vis; cf. also O.Pruss. waispattin, Lith. viespats, MIE 
weikspots, "clan-master", landlord, a compound equivalent to dems-pots, "house-master" , landlord, and 
similar to ghos-pots, "guest-master", host. 

MIE suffix -nomia, -nomos come from IE nonios, custom, law, usage, method, Gk. vouoc., in turn from PIE 
verb nemo, allot, distribute, divide, manage; cf. Gmc. niman (cf. Goth, niman, O.N. nema, O.E. naemel, numol, 
O.H.G. neman, Eng. numb, nim, Ger. nehmen), Gk. veusw, Av. namah, Toch. nemek, Lith. nuomas, Ltv. noma, 
Russ. nemoj, O.Ir. nem. Other known derivatives include nomesos, number, division, as Lat. numerus, 
nomesalis, numeral, etc. noma, pasturage, grazing, hence "a spreading, a spreading ulcer", noma, from 
which nomads is derived (Lat. nomas); also, nomimos, regular, ordinary, hence "coin, money", as Lat. 
nummus, Gk. vouiuoc; nomismatis, Lat. numismatis, in nomismatika, numismatics, from nomismn, 
current coin, custom (from O.Gk. vouiaua, lit. "what has been sanctioned by custom or usage"), from IE verb 
nomiso, "to hold or own as a custom, usage, to use customarily, practise, to be used to a thing" (as Gk. voui^co, 
in turn from vouoc). Also, Nemetis, Gk. goddess of vengeance, from Gk. Neueoic, "indignation, jealousy, 
vengeance" lit. "distribution, partition" . 

E. For Indo-Aryan ghar, compare a comon IE root ghers-, court, yard. 

44. For PIE base potis, powerful, able, capable; also lord, master, compare poto, "be able", (from Lat. potere), 
from which potents (Lat. pres.p. potens) and potentia; cf. also Gk. posis, Skt. patih, Lith. patis. Also found in 
compounds potso, be able, (Lat. posse, from potis, able, and es, be), as in potsibhilis, possible, "that can be 
done", and potsedeio, possess (from Lat. possidere, from potis, "as master", and sedeid, sit), which gives 
potsestion (<*pot-s-edtion), possession, forms which are properly expressed by poteio, as O.Lat. poteo, a 
verb usual in Romance through a V.Lat. potere, cf. Fr. pouvoir, Ita. potere, PL, Spa. poder, Rom. putere, etc. 

For PIE esmi (PIH h t es), be, compare Goth, ist, O.N. es, O.E. is, O.H.G. ist, Lat. est, Osc. sum, Umb. sent, Gk. 
esti, Skr. asti, Av. asti, O.Pers. astiy, Toch. se/sei, Arm. e, O.Pruss. asmai, Lith. esmi, Ltv. esmu, O.C.S. jesti, Russ. 
ecMb, Polish jest, O.Ir. am, Alb. eshte/asht; Hitt. asa, Lye. es, Luw. as, Lyd. e-, Palaic as-. 

a. A proper Indo-European word meaning "owe, possess" was PIE verb eikd, be master of, possess, Skr. iste, 
isah, Avestan isti, isvan-, and eikd 11, property, eikenos, master, owner; as Gmc. aigan-an (cf. Goth, aigan, 
O.Fris. aga, O.N. eiga, O.E. agan, O.H.G. eigan, Eng. ought), O.Ind. isana-, Toch. A akamtsune, B ekanni. 

b. For PIE sed-, sit, compare verb sedeio, sit, as Lat. sedere, O.Ind. sadayati, Av. ni-saSayeitiwith, O.Cz. 
sedeti, Germanic remade sitjan (cf. Goth, sitan, O.S. sittian, O.N. sitja, O.E. sittan, O.Fris. sitta, M.Du. sitten, 
O.H.G. sizzan, sezzal), Welsh seddu; p. part, sestos (<*sedtos) sat, hence sestos, "seat", cf. O.Ind. sattd-, Av.- 
hasta-, Lat. sessus, O.Ice. O.E. sess, also Lith. sestas and Lith. sostas, O.Pruss. sosto; causative sodeid, place, 
plant, as Goth, satjan, O.Ice. setia, O.H.G. sezzen, Lat. adsuidi, O.C.S. saditi; with reduplication sisdo (sizdo), 
put, place, cf. O.Ind. stdati (<si-zd-ati), Av. hiSaiti, Gk. i'£co, Lat. sido (<si-zdo), Umbr. sistu; sedlos/sedla (from 
*sed-tlo-) seat, position, as Gmc. setlaz (cf. Goth, sitls, M.L.G., M.Du. setel, O.E. setl, Du. zetel, Ger. SesseV), Lat. 
sella, O.C.S. sedlo, O.E. sadol, etc.; giving sedentasios, sedentary, sedikom, siege, (from L.Lat. sedicum, 
although besiege from Lat. is situa, possibly from IE tkei-), dissedeio, disagree, dissedents, dissident, 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

adsedeio, asist, assess, help, adseduos, assiduous, praisedeid, preside, resedeio, reside, supsediom, 
subsidy (but supsisdd); Greek £8pa, Ice. setr, is PIE sedra, chair, throne, face of a geometric solid, hence loan 
translations komsedros, sitting in council, komsedriom, council (from which Hebrew sanhedrin, from Gk. 
ouveSpiovJ, eksedra, exedra, katsedra, cathedra, katsedralis, cathedral, bishop's see, qetrasedrom, 

tetrahedron; Also, from Latin sedes, see, seat, residence, seda, sedate, settle, calm down; prefixed and suffixed 
pisedio, sit upon, push, press (pi, from epi) O.Ind. pidayati, Gk. me£co (<m-os8ioo), kesdo, give up, give after, 
as Av. syazd-, sizd-, Lat. cedo, as well as necesse "necessary" , nekestis (<ne-ke-sd-tis, "not something to give 
after"); for lengthened sedaio, calm down, sedate, cf. Lat. sedare, M.L.G. saten; for suffixed sestis, seat, cf. 
O.Ind. satti-, Av. sasti-, Umb. sersitu, further suffixed as sestion, session, Lat. sessio (<*sessis); compare also Gk. 
ECpucu, Skr. sad, Av. nisadayeiti, O.Pers. niyasayadan, Pers. nesastan, Toch. sdtk, Arm. nstil, O.Pruss. sidons, 
Lith. sedeti, sedziu, sesti, sedu Ltv. sedet, sedu, Slav, sedeti, sedig (O.C.S. ctfltTH, c-byKp,x, Russ. cudenib, cecmb 
Pol. siedziec), sesti, sedg (cf. O.C.S. ctcm, cxfl*, O.Russ. etc™, cfl/ry, Pol. siqsc, siqde), Gaul, essedum, O.Ir. 
saidim, Welsh seddu, Ir. suidh. 

45. For PIE ghortos with the sense of garden, fenced place compare Gmc. gardaz (cf. Goth, gards, O.N. gardr, 
O.E. geard, O.Fris. garda, Du. gaard, O.H.G. gart), also Lat hortus, cohors, Osc. heriiad, Gk. /opToc, Skr. grha-, 
Phrygian -gordum, Lith. zardas, Ltv. zards, Gaul, gorto, O.Ir. gort, Welsh garth, Bret, garz, Alb. garth-; Hitt. 
gurtas. Note the Balto-Slavic terms related to this root and beginning with [g] - as Lith. gardas, O.C.S. gradu, 
Rus. gorod, -grad, etc. - not affected by satemization, explained as Gmc. borrowing. 

46. IE ghredhus, hunger, gives Gmc. greduz (cf. Goth, gredus, O.E. graedum, cognate with Skt. grdh, Gk. - 
gyros). From the same PIE root is ghrtaio, urge on, encourage (from Lat. hortari, giving eksghrtaio, exhort), 
ghris, grace, favor (from Gk. x a P l S> which gives ghrisma, charism, or (A)sughristia, Eucharist), ghreio, it is 
necessary (from Gk. xpn, which gives ghrestos, useful, and ghrestomndhia, chrestomathy). With the - 
possibly older - sense of bowels, compare Gmc. gernjan (O.N. gorn, O.Eng. gearn, O.H.G. garn, Eng. yarn), O.E. 
gorst, Lat. hernia, horreo, Gk. xop5f), xspooc,, Skr. hirah, harsate, Av. zarsayamna, Arm. dzar, Lith. zarna, Ltv. 
zarna, Russ. 3op, O.Ir. garb, Welsh garw, Alb. derr; Hitt. karat, and adj. Gmc. gredigaz (cf. O.S. gradag, O.N. 
gradr, O.Eng. graedig, Eng. greedy). 

47. PIE root ceiw-, live, PIH *g w eih 3 -, with metathesized variant cjo- (older *g w jeh 3 , coloured to *g w joh 3 ) gives 
derivatives zero-grade ciwos (<g w ih 3 -), living, alive, as Gmc. kwi(k)waz (cf. Goth, quis, O.N. kvikr, O.E. cwicu, 
O.Fris. quik, O.H.G. quec, Ger. keck, Eng. quick), Lat. urns, Osc. bivus, O.Pruss. giwa; verb ciwo, live, as Lat. 
uiuo, O.Ind. jivati, Sla. zivb{jb), Bal. giwa; ciwoparos, viviparous, living, alive, as Lat. viviparus, and shortened 
ci(woJpara, viper, "bearing live young", from Lat. vipera (both from IE paros, v.s.); with k-suffix: ciwaks, 
lively, vivacious, cf. Lat. vivax, Lith. gyvokas, O.Ind. jivaka-; with t-suffix ciwota, life, cf. Lith. gyvata, O.C.S. 
zivott, O.Ind. jivatha-h, Lat. uita, in clwotalis, vital. Compare also O.E. cwifer, Gk. piouat, Av. gaetha, jigaesa, 
O.Pers. gaitha, Pers. zestan, Toch. so/sai, Arm. keam, giwantei, Lith. gyti, gyventi, Ltv. dzivs, dzit, O.C.S. Dtcuex, 
Dfcumu, Russ. OKumh, xcuey, Polish zyc, zyje, Gaul. Bituriges, O.Ir. bethu, Welsh fcyti. 

48. PIE root ser- gives seros, "guardian", heroe, Gk. npcog, and general verbal base serw-, guard, protect, in 
serwaio, keep, preserve, Lat. seruare, serwio, serve, as Lat. seruire, and serwos, slave, servant, Lat. seruus 

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Etymological Notes 

(forms also found in other Italic dialects, cf. Osc. serevkid, 'protection', ooserclom, usually considered borrowings 
from Etruscan); cf. also O.Ind. Av. haraiti, pasus-haurvo, "shepherd", Gmc. sarwia, Bal. serg-, Sla. stergt. 

49. To refer to a person, man, PIE had root manu-, Indo-Iranian manus, Germanic manwos and Balto-Slavic 
o-grade moniv(i)os. Compare Gmc manwaz/mannaz (cf. Goth, manna, O.N. madr, O.E. mann, O.S., O.H.G. 
man, Ger. Mann), Skr. manuh, Av. manu-, Pers. meerd, Kurd, mer, Lith. zmogus, O.C.S. mpzi, Russ. Myxc, Polish 
mqz, Kamviri mdnsa. Compare also with Ger. Mensch, Du. mens, Nor., Da. menneske, Swe. manniska, Ice. 
manneskja, from Gmc. manniskaz, IE manwiskos, person, human (cf. Romany manush, from Skr. manuh). A 
common European borrowing is mbhudhomanwos, from compound m(bhi)+bhudhom (from Gmc. budam, 
O.N. bodh, "command") + manwos, ombudsman, with the exception of some regionally translated terms, as Fr. 
mediateur, Spa. defensor del pueblo, etc. 

Some names for 'German', 'Germany', (Fr. allemand, Spa. alemdn, Pt. alemao, Cat. alemany, Celtic, like Welsh 
Almaeneg, Bret. Alaman, Indo-Iranian, as Pers. almani, Kurd, elman; and even non-IE, as Turkish Alman, Arabic 
almanya, Azeri Alman, Basque alemanera, Guarani Alemaniagua, Malagasi alema, Khmer alaman, Tagalog 
Aleman), in turn a loan word from the tribal name that the neighboring Alamanni used for themselves. The term 
comes from Gmc. compound Ala-manniz, PIE reconstructed Alomanwis, with first word from PIE root al-, 
therefore originally meaning lit. "all men". 

EIE al-, all, alo- in compounds; derivatives include adjectives like Germanic alnos, all, as Gmc. allaz (cf. Goth. 
alls, O.N. allr, O.E. all, eall, eal-, O.Fris., O.H.G. al); maybe also in Latin al(n)erds, instructed, well-informed, 
Lat. alers, allers; and Baltic alios, all, cf. Bal. al-ja- . 

50. PIE stem (s)neu- (cf. Skr. snavan-, Arm. neard), an extension of (s)ne-, spin, sew, which gives derivatives 
netla, needle, (with instrumental suffix -tlo-), as Gmc. nethlo (Goth, nepla, O.S. nathla, O.N. ndl, O.E. nsedlae, 
O.Fris. nedle, O.H.G. nadala), snota, snood, as Gmc. snodd, or nemii, thread, as Gk. vnua. Compare also Lat. 
neb, Gk. vsw, vnGoo, Skr. sndjati, Ltv. sndte, O.C.S. niti, Russ. Humb, O.Ir. sndthat, Welsh nyddu, nodwydd. 

51. For derivatives of PIE root stai, hide, stone, also thicken, stiffen, compare stoinos, stone, Gmc. stainaz (cf. 
Goth, stains, O.N. steinn, O.E. stan, O.H.G., Dan. steen, Ger. Stein), and stajr, solid fat, from Gk. oxeap; compare 
also Gk. stia, stion, Skr. stjajat, Av. staj, O.C.S. stena. 

52. PIE root pur/pawr, fire, bonfire, is probably derived from an older *peh 2 wr (cf. Hitt. pahhur) and has an 
irregular Genitive punos. Compare Goth, fon, Gk. iwp, Osc. purasiai, Umb. pir, Skr. pu, Toch. por/puwdr, Arm. 
hur, O. Pruss. panno, Polish perz, Cz. pyf. The suffixed form puris, /z're, gave Gmc. Juris (cf. O.N./izrr, O.E.fyr, 
O.Fris. fiur, M.Du. vuur, O.H.G. fiur). 

53. IE per- means lead, pass over, as in verb perio, cf. Gk. Jieipco (<perio), O.C.S. na-perjq; adj. perwntos, 
rocky, noun perwntos, mountain, as Skr. parvatah; perta, cliff, rock (possibly earlier "bedrock" , "what one 
comes through to"), as Lat. petra, Gk. Tirrpa (both dissimilated as *pcfrd, which means feather' in MIE, v.z., 
hence name Peter, from Lat. Petrus, should be Pertos; pertus, place for crossing over, ford as Gmc. ferthuz (cf. 
O.N.fjordr, Eng. firth), compare zero-grade prtus, going, entrance, passage, modern ford, harbor, port, as Gmc. 
furthuz (cf. O.Fris. forda, O.E. ford, O.H.G. furt, Ger. Furt), Lat. portus, O.Welsh rit, Welsh rhyd. Other 
derivatives include o-grade poreio, drive, ship, travel, Gmc. farjan (cf. Goth, farjan, O.H.G. O.E. faran, O.Ice. 
fara, O.S. ferian, O.H.G. ferien, ferren, O.Ice. ferja), also iterative behind Lat. portdre, MIE poritaid, carry, and 

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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

porita, gate; peritos, experienced, Lat. peritus; poros, journey, passage, way, as Gk. Jiopoc.; pornos, feather, 
as Gmc. farnaz (cf. O.E. fearn, M.Du. varn, O.S.,O.H.G. farn, Eng. fern), Skr. n. parna-, Av. n. parana-, Lith. 
spafnas, Ltv. spdrns; lengthened poreio, lead, lead across, bring to safety, as O.C.S. pariti, O.Ind. parayati, 
Gmc. forjan (cf. O.E. gefera, O.H.G. fuor en, M.E./ere, Ger. fiihren). 

The name Portugal is MIE Prtukale, Port of "Kale", as Lat. Portucale, with the second term of uncertain origin, 
although some relate it to PIE sources akin to Lat. Gallus, "Gallic", also related to similar Celtic names giving g- or 
w- (<g w ?) as Gallaecia, Wallacia, Wales, etc. (hence maybe *-caZe), Lat. calidus, "warm", or Lat. calx, "lime". 

54. English word "true" comes from O.E. triewe (W.Saxon), treowe (Mercian), faithful, trustworthy, from Gmc. 
treuwjaz (cf. Goth, triggws O.N. tryggr, O.Fris. triuwi, Du. getrouw, O.H.G. gatriuwu, Ger. treu), ultimately 
from PIE adj. derwos, dr(e)wos, "belonging to the tree", wooden, hence "firm, strong" also suffixed dreuros, 
as dissimilated Lat. durus (<*drew-r-os), hard; common PIE noun doru (n.), tree, oak, wood, from root deru-, 
also drew-: cf. Gmc. trewan (cf. Goth, triu, O.N. tre, O.S. trio, O.E. treow, O.Fris. tre), O.C.S dravb, Gk. Spvg, 
Sopv, Skr. dru, daru, Av. dauru, O.Pers. duruva, Pers. deraxt, Toch. or, Arm. tram, car, O. Pruss. drawine, Lith. 
derva, Ltv. dreve, O.C.S. dpteo, O.Rus. dpoea, Rus. depeeo, Pol. drwa, Gaul. Dervus, O.Ir. daw, derb, Welsh 
derwen, Alb. drusk, dru/ dru, Kam. daa; Hitt. ta-ru, Luw. tarweja-, and also A.Mac, darullos. 

55. For IE root leu-, cut off, separate, divide, cut apart, compare louwa, Gmc. lawwo (Swe. lagg, Eng. lag), 
O.Ir. toe, lo, Russ. lava, Lith. lova, Ltv. lava. For zero-grade forms, compare luo, loosen, release, untie, as Gk. 
Xuco, Lat. luo, lues, plague, pestilence (< "dissolution, putrefaction"), from Lat. Zues, and also seluo, loosen, 
untie, as Lat. soluere (from PIE s(iv)e-luo-), into p. part, selwotos, untied, as lat. solutus, etc. 

56. PIE belis, power, strength, gives O.H.G. paZ, O.Fris. paZZ, Lat. de-bilis, Gk. /teAraov, Skr. baliyan, balisthas, 
balam, Phryg. balaios, O.Ir. adbal, M.Ir. &oZ(7, Welsh balch, Kamviri bdlim. O.C.S. 6oAiiu, 6oAbuiu, 6onie, Russ. 

6oAbui6u, Ukr. 6i/ibuiuu, Bulg. 6oy*e. 

57. Indo-European father, pater, is possibly an earlier compound formed by baby-speak sound like pa- 
(compare modern baby words in your language beginning with p+vowel), probably earlier *ph 2 -, and IE common 
suffix for relatives -ter, a pattern followed in "mother" and other family members, too. It evolved as Gmc. fader 
(cf. Goth, fadar, O.N.fadir, O.E. feeder, O.H.G. fater), Lat. pater, Osc. patir, Umb. pater, Gk. navqp, Skr. pitar-, 
Av. pitar-, O.Pers. pita, Pers. pedar, Toch. pacar/ pacer, Arm. /icn'r, Gaul, atir, O.Ir. athir, Welsh gwaladr, 
Kashmiri petur, Osset.fyd. 

58. Indo-European bhatis, appearance, phase, gives Greek cpaoic. (phasis). It is related to verb bhanio, "bring 
to light", makes visible, cause to appear, show, as Gk. cpaivew (phainein), suffixed from common PIE verb 
Miami, shine. It gives also derivatives bbantos, visible, bbantom, phantom, bhantasia, fantasy, enbhatis, 
emphasis, enbhatikos, emphatic, epibhania, epiphany, bhaniomenom, occurrence, circumstance, also 
phenomenon, from Lat. phaenomenon, in turn from Gk. cpaivouevov, etc. 

59. For PIE ana-, breathe, blow, spirit, compare Goth, uzanan, andi, O.N. anda, ond O.E. edian, opian, Lat. 
animus, Osc. anamum, Gk. anemos, Skr. anas, aniti, Av. antya, Toch. ahcam/anme, Arm. anjn, hov, Lith. 
anuoti, O.C.S. vonja, Russ. von', O.Ir. anal, animm, Welsh anysbryd, anadl, Alb. aje/dj. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

60. The reconstruction of common words for each day in a Seven-Day Week is almost impossible, if not 
through the adoption of numbers, from one to seven, like the one used by the Roman Catholic Church (Lat. 
Feriae, used in Portuguese, see dhes-), Armenia, Greece, Iran, as well as in Arabic, Georgian and Hebrew. 
However, there seems to be a common old (pagan) pattern, followed in Greek (and partly in Sanskrit), and loan- 
translated from it in Latin and from this in Germanic. 

PIE dhes (possibly an extension of dhe-, set) is the reconstructed base for words applied to various religious 
concepts, as dhesias, holidays, Lat. feriae, (O. Lat. fesiae), dhestos,/esfzue, Lat. festus, in dhesteiuos, festive, 
dhesteiualis, festival; also, zero-grade dhasnom, temple, as Lat. fanum, in dhasnatikos, fanatic, 
prodhasnos, profane. Sometimes said to be derived from this root, compare Gk. Beoc, (theos) "god"; however, 
because of Lith. dvasid "ghost", M.H.G. getwiis "ghost" and forms as Gk. Bea-cpaxoc,, "spoken from god", 
Qeaneaioq, Beomc, "divine", it is reconstructed (after Hirt) as Proto-Greek *6Feo6c. from PIE dhwesos, and 
therefore related to Horn. Bseiov and Beiov, Att. Qelov "sulphur steam, sulphur" (*9Feo-(8)iov?)]. Thus MIE 
dhwesos, god, for common Gk. Beoc., in apodhwesotis, apotheosis, ndhwesos, atheistic, ndhwesismos, 
atheism, endhwesosiasmos, enthusiasm (Gk. £v9ouoiao|i6c,), pantdhwesiom, pantheon, Gk. n&vBeiov, etc. 

NOTE. In Latin, the s before m, 11, 1, disappears, and the preceding vowel shows a compensatory lengthening; cf. Duenos: 
cosmis > comis; Columna Rostrata -resmom > revnura; fasnom > fanum, *habesna > habena, *catesna > catena; candesla > 
candela, *quaisesla > querela. , etc. 

For PIE "feast", a more common verbal root wes- was used, cf. Goth, wisan, ON vist, O.E. wesan, O.H.G. wist, 
Lat. vescor, Skr. anuvavase, Av. vastra, Lith. svest, Pol. wesele, O.Ir. fiach, Welsh gwest, Hitt. wesi. 

A. The word for "day" (as opposed to "night") in Indo-European comes usually from a common dinom 
(especially in compounds), originally "daylight", derived from PIE root diw-, shine, as Eng. lent, from Gmc. 
compound langa-tin-, (probably lit. "longer daylight", cf. O.S. lentin, O.E. lencten, M.Du. lenten, O.H.G. lenzo), 
Lat. nun-dinum (compare also general dies, as in Eng. diurnal, from base *djeu-), Skr. dinam, O.C.S. dbHb, Russ. 
deub, Pol. dzien, O.Ir. tre-denus, Alb. gdhin; it is also found as full grade deinos, Goth, sin-teins, and f. deina, in 
O.Pruss. deina, Lith. diena, Ltv. diena - compare also Lat. fern, dina, in nun-dinae. 

B. Germanic 'day' comes from old PIE agh-, day, older *h 2 eg h , considered as a span of time, hence "24 hours", 
from IE aghor, aghn-, n. cf. Skr. ahar, ahn-, Av. azan-; compare for an original EIE n. dhaghdr, dhaghn-, 
halfday of 12 hours, daylight, Germanic dog- (<*dhagh-7) O.N. dogn, O.Da.,Da.,Swe. dogn; also O.N. dogr, 
O.Swe., O.Da. doger O.E., dogor (-er), -es (along with the common innovative Gmc. dagaz<*dhaghos, as in Eng. 
day, Ger. Tag, etc.) where the initial dh- is interpreted as from (possibly the original) PIE root dhech-, burn — 
which gave derivatives with the sense of "hot season", "summer", thus maybe evolved *dh-agh- to mean "hot 
part of the day", daylight -, as in O. Pruss. dagis, Lith. dagas. Compare from dhech- Lat. fovere, Gk. -;rravoc, 
Skr. dahati, dah, Av. dazaiti, Pers. dag, Toch. tsak/tsak, Lith. degti, Ltv. degt, OCS zesti, Russ. szigat', zgucij, 
Polish zge, Ir. daig, Alb. djek. C 

Here is a brief explanation of possible loan-translations of the names of week days into Modern Indo-European 
in three different calendars, Pagan (like Greek, Roman and Germanic, as well as Sanskrit calendars, the last 
followed in Indian timekeeping, i.e., modern Hindi, Telugu, Gujarati, Bengali, and even Tamil and Malayalam, 



365 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

beginning in Monday), International (beginning in Monday, similar to the traditional Slavic one), and Christian 
(counting in Dkesias, feasts, from Ecc.Lat. Feriae, see dhes-), viz: 

I. Monday should be Mensos (dinom), "Moon's (day)". Compare Gmc. Monan-dagaz, L.L. Lunee dies, Gk. 
nuspa ZeXnvnc, and Skr. Soma vdsara (Beng. Shombar). Also, 'neutral Pfwom (dinom), "First (day)", and 
Christian Seqondha (Dhesia), "Second (Feast)", i.e. "Feast following Sunday". 

PIE seq-, follow, gives derivatives verb (middle-only) seqomai, follow, Lat. sequor, Gk. hepomai, Skr. sacate, 
Av. hacaite, O.Pers. haca, Toch. sale/, Lith. sekti, Ltv. sekt, Ir. sech Welsh hep. Common modern MIE words 
include p. part, seqtos, Lat. secutus, Gk. ejitoc, Lith. -sektas, and Latin derivatives seqtor, eager follower, 
seqta, party, sect, seqela, sequel, seqentia, sequence, komseqents, consequent; from 3 rd p. sg. seqetoi, pass. 
seqetor, cf. O.Ir. sechithir, Lat. sequitur, ekseqomai, carry out, accomplish, follow up, carry out, pursue 
judicially, punish, execute, ekseqtos, accomplished, carried out, obhseqiom, present, obhseqios, obsequious, 
perseqomai, persecute, proseqomai, prosecute, supseqomai, follow immediatly, supseqents, subsequent; 
from es-stem seqos extended seqester, "follower", mediator, depositary, seqestraio, kidnap, seqestrom, 
sequestrum, kidnapping; seqos, following, along, alongside of, cf. Lat. secus, O.Ind. saca, as in ekstremseqos, 
from outside, extrinsic, entremseqos, from inside, intrinsic; seqnom, identifying mark, sign (from "standard 
that one follows"), Lat. signum, also seqna, sign, adseqnaio, assign, komseqnaio, consign, deseqnaio, 
designate, design, reseqnaio, return, give back; suffixed soqios, ally, companion, friend ("follower"), cf. Lat. 
socius, O.H.G. beinsegga, O.S. segg, O.E. secj, O.Ice. seggr, Alb. shoku and verb soqieio, cf. Lat. soqiare, Gk. 
aoooia "help, stand by" (<sm-soqieio); soqio-, socio-, soqitis, Av. zero-grade askiti, "association" (full grade 
haciti- "Begleitung"), Lat. ad-soqia-ti-, soqieta, society, etc. 

II. Tuesday is Taronos (dinom), Thunder's (day), as it is the day of the gods of war. Mars was called Mavors 
in some poetry (Virgil VIII, 630), and Mamers was his Oscan name. He was also known as Marmor, Marmar and 
Maris, the latter from the Etruscan deity Maris. If compared with Greek mythology, Ares (Ancient Greek Apnc) is 
the son of Zeus and Hera. Though often referred to as the Olympian god of warfare, he is more accurately the god 
of savage warfare, bloodlust or slaughter. There may be a connection with the Roman war god Mars, via common 
Indo-European mar-, crush, smash, destroy, break, possilby through Gk. 'Apnc. (<*Mres?); cf. Lat. moretum, 
Gmc. marjan, Gk. maraino, marnamai, O.Ind. mrnati, pass, muryate, ptc. murna-; a-maritar-, "destroyer", 
Hitt. marrija-. Compare for a general IE god of war Taron (<PIH -rH-) thunder, the Thunderer, cf. Gmc. thunr- 
(maybe influenced by the former PIE root, cf. O.N. porr, O.E. punor, O.Fris. thuner, M.Du. donre, O.H.G. donar), 
Hitt. d Tarxu-, d Tarxunna-, "storm god", Pashto Pashto tana/tana, tdna/tdna f., Sla. t[a]ron-b, ttron-b, Gaul (in 
Lat.) Taranis "thunder god"; Ir torann; Cymr taran id, Bret, taran. For modern names, cf. Gmc. Tiwaz-dagaz, 
(althoug Tiw, from PIE deiiv-, thus , is in fact etymologically related to Gk. Zeus and Lat. love, v.i.), loan- 
translated from L.L. Martis dies, nuepa Apecoc, "day of Ares", and compare also Skr. Mangala vdsara (Beng. 
Monggolbar), identified with Karttikeya, the god of war. Compare for PIE eis-, originally maybe denoting 
"passion, vigor", hence 'anger, wrath': cf. Lat. ira, Gk. oioxpoc, ispoc, Apnc, Skr. isirah, Av. aesma (as in 
Asmodeus, v.i.). English "iron" comes from Gmc. isarnan (cf. O.S. isarn, O.N. isarn, O.E. iseern, M.Du. iser, 
O.H.G. isarn), borrowed from Celtic isarnon (cf. O.Ir. iarn, Welsh haiarn), from IE ajos (gen. ajesos, PIE root 
ajos-, older h 2 eios), originally metal ("vigorous, powerful material"); compare also Gmc. ajiz, (cf. Goth, aiz, O.N. 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

eir, O.E. ar, O.H.G. er, ehern), Lat. aes, Umb. ahesnes, Skr. ayah, Av. ayanh, Pers. ahan, Gaul. Isarnodori, O.Ir. 
z'arn, Welsh haearn. Also, Alterom (diiiom) or Christian Tritia (Dhesia). 

III. Wednesday comes from North Gmc. Wodenaz-dagaz, "day of Odin" (cf. O.N. Odinsdagr, O.S. odensdag, 
O.E. Wod(e)nesdaeg , O.Fris. wonsdei, M.Du. Wudensdach; but, from uncertain origin, compare O.Fris. werendei, 
Du. wonseldach, South. Ger. guotentag, and even Eng. Wednesday and Du. waansdei, as well as Low Ger. and 
Du. dial, with initial g-), loan-translated originally from L.L. dies Mercurii, "day of Mercury", in turn from Gk. 
nuspa Epuov, "day of Hermes" , Lat. Mercurius (from merk-, Etruscan root for various economic aspects, as in 
merkatos, market, or merkaid, buy) and Gk. Epufjc,, (also from unknown origin, with some relating it to £ppa, a 
square pillar), both equivalent to Skr. Budha vasara (Beng. Budhbar), "day ofBudha", the name of the planet 
Mercury, a son of Chandra, the moon, in Hindu mythology, but the three are unrelated to the Nordic concept of 
Odin, the "sky-god", equivalent to Lat. Jupiter or Gk. Zeus. 

NOTE. Rilbekeil (2003:29) draws attention to the suffix variants *-ina- (in Odinn) vs. *-ana- (in Woden, 
Wotan). This variation, if considered at all, was dismissed as "suffix ablaut" by earlier scholars. There are, 
however, indications from outside Old Norse of a suffix *-ina-: English Wednesday (rather than *Wodnesday) 
via umlaut goes back to *wodina-. Rilbekeil concludes that the original Proto -Germanic form of the name was 
*Wodinaz, yielding Old Norse Odinn and unattested Anglo-Saxon *Weden, and that the attested West Germanic 
forms are early medieval "clerical" folk etymologies, formed under the impression of synchronic association 
with terms for "fury". The Pre -Proto -Germanic form of the name would then be *Watinos. Rilbekeil suggests 
that this is a loan from Proto-Celtic into pre -Proto -Germanic, referring to the god of the *watis, the Celtic priests 
of mantic prophecy , so that the original meaning of the name would be "he [the god/lord] of the Vates" (p. 33), 
which he tentatively identifies with Lugus. 

Lugus was a deity apparently worshipped widely in antiquity in the Celtic-speaking world. His name is rarely 
directly attested in inscriptions, but his importance can be inferred from placenames and ethnonyms, and his 
nature and attributes are deduced from the distinctive iconography of Gallo -Roman inscriptions to Mercury, 
who is widely believed to have been identified with Lugus, and from the quasi-mythological narratives involving 
his linguistic descendants, Irish Lugh and Welsh Lieu Llaw Gyffes. 

Julius Caesar in his De Bello Gallico identified six gods worshipped in Gaul, by the usual conventions of 
interpretatio Romana giving the names of their nearest Roman equivalents rather than their Gaulish names. He 
said that "Mercury" was the god most revered in Gaul, describing him as patron of trade and commerce, 
protector of travellers, and the inventor of all the arts. The Irish god Lug bore the epithet samildanach (skilled in 
all arts), which has led to the widespread identification of Caesar's Mercury as Lugus. Mercury's importance is 
supported by the more than 400 inscriptions into him in Roman Gaul and Britain. Such a blanket identification 
is optimistic - Jan de Vries demonstrates the unreliability of any one-to-one concordance in the interpretatio 
Romana - but the available parallels are worth considering. It has been suggested that the Germanic deity 
Wotan (English Woden) was influenced by Gaulish Mercury and his name is possibly reflected in Germanic 
Loki. There is no one-to-one correspondence between Germanic and Celtic gods, though. 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Proto-Celtic *Lug-u-s should probably be related to Proto-Celtic Hug- meaning "oath, pledging, assurance" on 
the one hand and "deceive" on the other (derived from PIE root leugh-, oath, swear, bemoan, lie; Juliette Wood 
interprets his name as deriving from Proto-Celtic Hug-, oath, which would support this identification of 
Mercury as a god of contracts; cf Cel. lugjo-m — > Olr lu(i)ge, Gmc. liug-a- (cf Eng. lie, Ger. liigen), Sla. Itgati, 
Ibzjq; Hitt. haluga, "message". Hence the most suitable name for a Wednesday in an Indo-European Pagan 
week should be from Lughus, "Oath/Contract/Message-god" (into Cel. Lugus, Gmc. Loki, equivalent to Lat. 
Mercurius, Gk. Hermes, origin of Gmc. Odin), hence Lughous (dinom), "Mercury's (day)". 

III.A. Indo-Aryan term Budha (and also Buddha) comes from PIE verb beudho, awake, notice, become aware, 
cf. O.Ind. bodhati, bodhate, Av. baoSaiti, Gk. tisuOoucu, Gmc. biuthan (cf. Goth, anabiudan, O.N. bjoda, O.E. 
beodan, O.H.G. biotan), O.Bulg. bljudq; participle bustos (<*budh-to-), "awakened, wise; recognized" cf. Skr. 
buddhah, Gk. -jiuotoc.; also, nasalized bundho, learn, find out, perceive, make aware, announce, cf. 
Gk.nvvddvouai, Lith. bundu, O.Ir. -bond-; and noun f. bustis (<*budh-ti-) understanding, mind, opinion, 
intention, as O.Ind. buddhi-, Av. -busti-, Gk. ttuotic; for beustor (<*beudh-ter-), expert, knower, cf. O.Ind. 
boddhar-, also in Gk. nevoxrjp-ioc ("questioning "); for es-stem n. beudhos, awareness, perceptivity, Av. 
baoSah- adj. beudhes "perceiving" ', as Gk. Horn, a-mvdijc "unexplored, unacquainted; ignorant"; budhros, 
watching, aware, Av. -buSra-, O.Bulg. bi>drb, Lith. budrils; beudhis, cognition, Av. baoiSi-, O.Ind. bodhi-; 
compare also Gk. peithein, pistis, Av. buidjeiti, Pers. bedar-sudan, O.Pruss. bude, Lith. budinti, Ltv. budit, O.C.S. 
beda, bljudo, Russ. 6ydem, Pol. budzic, O.Ir. buide, Welsh bodd, Kamviri bidi. 

III.B. The new, non-pagan model (cf. M.H.G. mittewoche, M.L.G. middeweke, Du.dial. Midswiek, Fris. metswik, 
Norw. dial, msekedag, Mod.H.G. dial. Mittag, Eng. dial. Mid-week, and also unrelated Ice. pridjudagur, "third- 
day"), influenced by Gothic, was probably adopted from Gk. or Lat. missionaries, avoiding the old pagan week, 
and is also found in Slavic - and Hungarian - sreda, lit. "middle" (cf. O.C.S. sreda, Rus. sreda, Pol. sroda), loan- 
translated from Lat. media hebdomas, itself a loan word from Gk. sp8o|u&Sa, from £p8oudc., seven, from PIE 
septma (cf. Gk. epOouaSiKOc., "belonging to the week", A\b.jave "week" common Alb. b-*v phonetic mutation), 
translated in L.Lat. as septimana, from Lat. septem; compare also words for "week" from PIE septm in Srb. 
cedMuu,a, Cro. sedmica, Bulg. cedMui^a, Bret, sizhun, Lith. savaite, Hindi hafta, Hung, hit (from an Iranian 
source, cf. Kurdish heft, "seven"). Then, Medhja (Septma), "mid-week" , as well as 'neutral' Tritiom (dinom) 
or Christian Qetwrta (Dhesia). 

Other Indo-European terms for common periods of days: 

III.B.i. From IE wiga, turning, succession, variation, hence "work, trade, week", comes Eng. week, Gmc. wiko- 
(cf. Goth, wiko, O.N., O.S. vika, O.E. wice/wican, O.Fris. wike, M.Du. weke, O.H.G. wecha, Ice. vika, even 
Finnish viikko), as Skr. visti, also in wigis, variation, change, hence trade, exchange, cf. Lat. uix, uicis, O.Ir. 
fiach, Ice. -vixl, O.S. wehsal, O.H.G. we'hsal, wehsil, all from PIE iveik/iveig, bend, wind; cf. Gmc. wik- (e.g. 
Eng. wicker), waikwaz (Eng. weak), etc. 

III.B. 2. Other common word for "week" in Slavic is O.C.S. ten dzien (cf. Pol. tydzien, Slovak tyzdeh, Slovene 
teden, Ukr. muoKdenh, Cz. tyden), translated as MIE tod dinom, "this day". 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

III.B.3. Ltv. nedela is a loan word from Rus. nedena. (nedelja), originally Sunday in Slavic languages, IE 
Nedhela, Russ. ue-denamh, "no-work(ing day)", composed of: 

For PIE ne, no, not, and EIE negative particle ne, compare Gmc. ne-, na-, (cf. Goth, ni, ON ne, O.E. ne, O.H.G. 
ne, Eng. no), Lat. ne, ne-, Osc. ne, Skr. na, Av. na, O.Pers. na, Pers. j, O.Pruss. ne, Lith. ne, Ltv. ne, Russ. He, Hem, 
Polish nie, O.Ir. ni, Welsh ni, na, Alb. nuk, Hitt. natta, Luw. ni-, Lye. m'-, Lyd. 722-; also common is zero-grade 
suffix n- [n], as Gmc. un-, Lat. in-, Umb. an-, Gk. a-, an-, Skr. a-, an-, Toch. an-/ en-, Arm. an-, frequently found 
in PIE compounds, as ncowijos, "man without cows" (cf. Skr. dgos, Gk. abouteo, O.Ir. ambuee), nmrtos, 
inmortal (cf. O.Ind. amr'ta-, Av. amasa-, Gk. aujipoToc), nudros, without water (cf. Skr. anudrds, Gk. dnydros), 
ngndtos, unknown (cf. Skr. djfidtas, dgnotos), ngn(n)tos, unborn, etc. A common derivative is MIE noin, no, 
none, originally "not one, not any" (from n(e)-oinos), giving Gmc. nean (cf. O.S., M.L.G. nen, O.N. neinn, M.Du., 
Du. neen, O.H.G., Ger. nein), possibly analogous to Lat. non, non-, although usually explained as nasal extension 
of o-grade negative particle ne. 

PIE root dhe-, set, put, place, gives Gmc. dediz (Eng. deed, Ger. Tat), don (Goth, gadeps, O.E. don, O.H.G. tuon, 
O.N. dalidun, O.S. duon, O.Fris. dua, M.E. de, Ger. tun), Lat. facio/feci, facilis, condere, abdomen, fas, Osc. 
faciiad, Umb. feitu, Gk. 9f]Kr|, 0£ua, 9exco, ilOnm, Skr. dddhati, Av. dadaiti, O.Pers. adada, Phryg. dak-, Toch. 
tas/tas, Thrac. didzos, Arm. ed, Lith. dedii, detis, Ltv. det, O.C.S. 6jiaro,zrbT, flfrra, ,zrk/iaTH, Russ. demb, denamb, 
Pol. dziac; dzialac, Gaul, dede, Welsh dall, Alb. ndonj; Hitt. den, Lye. ta-. 

IV. Thursdau is, after the Greek and Roman calendars, a day consacrated to djeus, Zeus and Jupiter 
respectively; cf. Gk. nuspa Aioc (Gk. Zeus has gen. Dios), Lat. ioui's dies, both the "sky-gods" - compare also 
Hindu Guru vasara, "day of the preceptor", for Vjasa, the supreme preceptor of mankind, and Beng. 
Brihoshpotibar, "day of Brihoshpoti" (equivalent to Jupiter), the guru of the Devas and the arch-nemesis of 
Shukracharya, the guru of the Danavas. In loan-translated Gmc. thonaras-dagaz (cf. O.N. Porsdagr, O.E. 
Purresdeeg, O.Fris. thunresdei, M.Du. donresdach, Du. donderdag, O.H.G. Donares tag), the day is dedicated to a 
Germanic god whose name is often related to PIE root (s)teno, resound, thunder, as in Lat. tonare, Skr. tdnjati, 
Pers. tundar, Pashto tana; but for Taron, the Thunderer, v.s. Therefore, Diwos (dinom), "Sky-God's (day)", 
Qturom (dinom), "fourth (day)" or Penqta (Dhesia), "fifth (Feast)". 

V. Friday is "Frigga's day", wife of Odin in Germanic mythology, goddess of heaven and married love, loan- 
translation of Lat. Ueneris dies, "day of (planet) Venus", in turn translated from Gk. nuspa AcppoSirnc, "day of 
Aphrodite", the goddesses of love, lust and beauty; also, Skr. Shukra vasara (Beng. Shukrobar), where Shukra is 
the name for Venus, one of the Navagrahas, a male planet for the Hindus and named after the Guru Shukracharya. 
AcppoSixr) comes from Phoenician c Astart, "Astarte", influenced by Gk. deppoe, foam, having parallels to Indo- 
European "dawn" god(desse)s, as Vedic Skr. Ushas, Lat. Aurora (reinterpreted as a-Decl. *Ausos-a), IE Ausos. 
Latin Venus comes from wenos, love, sexual desire, loveliness, beauty, charm, from PIE weno, desire, strive 
for, and wnskd, wish, cf. Gmc. wunskan (O.Ice. osk, O.E. wusc-, O.H.G. wunsc, etc.), O.Ind. vanchati; or 
wenesnom, Lat. uenenum, "venom" . Compare for this root Gmc. winnwan ("seek to gain", O.E. wynn, Eng. 
win), Gmc. wunen, ("become accustomed to, dwell", cf. O.E. wunian, Ger. wohnen, Eng. won), Gmc. wanian 
("accustome, train", cf. O.E. wenian, Eng. wean), Lat. uenia, uenari, Skr. vanas-, vanam, vanati, vanik, vanijah, 
Av. vanaiti, Toch. wani/wna, wins-/winsk, Arm. gun, Cel. wenj (cf. O.Ir. fine, O.Bret, coguenou, Welsh gwen, 

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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Bret gwenn); Hitt. wen-, went- (for more on this root v.i. Sla. voiri, "soldier"). For Frigg, compare Gmc. Frije- 
dagaz (cf. O.N. frijadagr, O.E. frig edeeg, O. Fris. frigendei, M.Du. vridach, Du. vrijdag, Ger. Freitag), from IE 
prija, friend, in Germanic woman, wife - also Freya, goddess of love and beauty in Norse mithology - Gmc. 
Frijo (cf. O.N. Freyja, O.E.frea, O.S.frua, M.Du. vrouwe, Ice. Freyjudagr, Ger. Frau, Eng. Freya), itself from 
PIE root prai-, like, love, which gave prijos, dear, beloved, friend, later noble, as Gmc. frijaz (cf. Goth, freis, O.E. 
freo, M.H.G. vri, Ger. frei, Du. vrij), and other derivatives related to free, love, friend, like pritus, peace as Gmc. 
frithuz (O.H.G. fridu, L.Lat. exfredare, Eng afraid), prijonts, "beloved", friend, as Gmc. frijands (cf. Goth. 
frijonds, O.N. freendi, O.E. freond, O.Fris. friund, M.H.G. friunt, Ger. Freund); also, compare Gk. npaoc, Skr. 
priyah, prinati, Av. fra, Ltv. prieks, O.C.S. prejati, prijatelji, Russ. npwmienb, Polish przyjazn, sprzyjac, O.Ir. 
riar, Welsh rhydd; therefore, Ausoses (dinom), "Dawn's (day)", Penqtom (dinom), "fifth (day)", Seksta 
(Dhesia), "sixth (Feast)". 

VI. Saturday is a partial loan-translation from Lat. Saturni dies, "day of Saturn", itself translated from Gk. 
nuepa Kpovou, "day of Cronus"; compare also Skr. Shani vasara (Beng. Shonibar), from Sani, one of the nine 
Navagraha or primary celestial beings, embodied in the planet Saturn. Saeturnus was an Italic god of agriculture, 
poss. a borrowing from Etruscan, although folk-etymology relates it to PIE sejo, sow, from which Gmc. sejan (cf. 
O.H.G. saen, O.S. saian, O.E. sawan, O.Ice. sa), Lith. seju (seti), O.C.S. sejq (sejati), p. part, satos, sowed, also 
reduplicated verb s(e)iso, cf. Lat. sero, Goth, saian (<saiso), sator, sower, hence folk-etymology reconstruction 
of Ita. Satornos, the Sower. Compare O.E. Seeterdeeg / Sseternesdeeg , Du. zaterdag, O.Fris. saterdi, M.L.G. 
satersdach; Ir. dia Sathuirn, Welsh dydd Sadwrn. However, an ancient Nordic custom is preserved in O.N. 
laugardagr, Dan. lordag, Swed. lordag, lit. "bath day" (cf. O.N. laug, "bath"). Ger. Samstag (from O.H.G. 
sambaztag) appears to be from Vulg. Lat. sambatum, from Gk. *sambaton, a colloquial nasalized variant of 
sabbaton "sabbath", also attested in Slavic (cf. O.C.S. sabota, Rus. subbota, simbata) and even Hung, szombat; 
also Romance (cf. Fr. samedi, It. sabato, Spa. sabado, Pt. sabado). The sabbath is observed by the Jews as a day 
of rest, and comes from Hebrew shabbath, prop, "day of rest", from shabath "he rested'. Hence, only two names 
appear to be correct for MIE, IE pagan Satorni (dinom), "Sower's (day)", and Christian Sabbatom. 

VII. Sunday , the last day of the week - first according to religious tradition -, is the "day of the sun", Lat. dies 
solis, loan -translated from Gk. nuspa HXiov, compare also Skr. Ravi vasara (Beng. Robibar); according to 
Hinduism, Ravi is Surya, the Sun. Therefore, the pagan version should be Sawlos (dinom), "Sun's (day)", gen. of 
Sawel, sun, v.i., and in Christian tradition, following Lat. dominicus dies, Gk. Kvptaxoc, (from Gk. Kupioc,, lord, 
with a different IE base), Kuriakos/Domunikos (dinom). 

Indo-European root keu-, swell, in verb kweio, cf. Skr. svayate, Lat. inciens "pregnant" (<*en-cuiens, as Eng. 
as Eng. enceinte), Gk. kueo, probably with the sense vault, hole, behind PIE o-grade kow(i)os, hollow, cave, also 
kowa (as V.Lat. cova), as Lat. cauus (but cf. Port, covo), Gk. kooi, Bal. cawa, Sla. sujb(jb), M.Ir. cua, Bret, keo, 
cave, kowesna, cavern, kowita, cavity, komkowos, concave, ekskowaio, excavate; kowilos, hollow, 
kowilia, belly, as Gk. KoiXfa, and kowilom, coelom, as in Eng. derivatives -cele, celiac, -coel; kowos, hollow 
place, cavity, as in kowodeia, poppy head, Gk. Kcb8eia, which gives kowodeina (-ind, "alkaloid"), codeine; 
zero-grade shortened kumelos, heap, mass, cumulus, as Lat. cumulus, kumelaio, cumulate, or adkumelaio, 
accumulate; zero-grade kuros, "swollen", strong, powerful, hence kurios, master, lord, as Gk. xvpioc, as in 

Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

kuriakos, "of the lord", as in MIE Kuriakom [domn], Lord's [dome] (Gk. ddma, domatos, from doms, 
"house", see dent-), as Late Greek kuriakon [ddma] (cf. Med. Gk. kurikon, into W. Gmc. kirika, as O.E. ciricem, 
Eng. church, Ger. Kirche), used for houses of Christian worship since c.300, especially in the East, though it was 
less common in this sense than ekkletia (from Gk. ekklesia, see kel-) or basilika (from loan adj. basilikd, royal, 
Gk. PaaiXucn, from basilios, king); from keu- (v.s.), kumn, a swelling, wave, with Greek derivatives as Eng. 
cyma, cyme, cymo-, kymo-. 

Indo-European kel-, shout, call, PIH *kelh 2 , gives verb kalenii, cf. Gk. Aeol. KaXnui, Umb. karitu, kafetu, 
carsitu (<*kaletdd), variant Gk. klemi, which gives ekkletia, assembly, church, as Gk. £KKAnai'a; and 
corresponding to (newer) thematic Gk. koXeco, Lat. *caleo (<kaleid) in "Dies te quinque, respectively septem, 
calo, Iuno Covella", and in kalendas, calends, from Lat. kalendae (first day of the month, when it was publicly 
announced on which days the nones and ides of that month would fall) giving kalendasiom, calendar; csuffixed 
klamaio, call, shout, cry out, claim, cf. Lat. clamare, O.Ind. krandati (<*klem-d-?), O.E. hlimman, hlymman, 
hlimme, hlemm (<*hlammi), O.H.G. (h)limmen, O.N. hlymja, O.H.G. hlamon; as in klamants, clamant, 
klamos, clamor, adklamaio, acclaim, deklamaid, declaim, eksklamaio, exclaim, proklamaid, proclaim, 
reklamaio, reclaim; komkaliom (from kom-, together, and zero-grade *klh->IE kal-io-), meeting, gathering, 
council ("a calling together"); kalaio, call out, gather, as Lat. calare, Ltv. kaluot, as in enterkalaio, intercalate, 
kalator, gatherer, nomnkalator, nomenclator; suffixed klaros (from zero-grade *klh), bright, clear, as in 
deklaraio, declare; zero-grade klastis, summons, division of citizens for military draft, hence army, fleet, from 
Lat. classis, also class, from PIE d-suffixed *klad-tis, cf. Gk. keAciSoc;. 

61. MIE Januarios is probably from IE janos, Lat. Janus, ancient Ita. deity, guardian god of portals, patron of 
beginnings and endings, lit. "gate, arched passageway" from PIE eimi, go (cf. Skt. janah). Other Roman months 
are Februarios (pi. of Lat. februum, purifications, unkn. origin), Martios, (from Ita. god Mars, Mamers in 
Oscan, borrowed from the Etruscan deity Maris as a war/agricultual god Mars and equated with Greek Ares by 
interpretatio romana, v.s. IE mar-), Aprilis (from Ita. godd. Venus, Etruscan Apru, possibly from Gk. 
aphrodite), Magios (from Lat. Maia, from PIE meg-, great), Junios (from Lat. Juno, possibly from PIE jeu-), 
Djowilios (from Lat. lulius Caesar, from djeus, god), Augostos (from Lat. Augustus Caesar, from aug), 
Septmmris, Oktomris, Nownmris, Dekmmris, all from IE numbers following the Roman calendar (which 
began in March) and adj. suffix -m(nst)ris, Lat. -bris, from PIE mens, month. 

a. For PIE eimi, go, walk, compare Goth, iddja, O.E. eode, Lat. ire, iter, Umbrian ier, Oscan eituns, Gk. eiui, 
icov, Skr. eti, imas, ayanam, Av. aeiti, O.Pers. aitiy, Toch. i, O.Pruss. eit, Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, O.C.S. iti, idg Rus. 
udmu, Polish isc, Gaulish eimu, O.Ir. ethaim, Kamviri ie; Luw. 1-. 

b. For PIE meg-, great, compare derivatives megos, cf. Skr. maha-, Gk. /nsyag, Phryg. meka-, Pers. meh, Gmc. 
extended Gmc. mekilaz (cf. Goth, mikils, O.E. micel, O.N. mikill, O.H.G. mihhil, M.E. muchel), comparative 
megios; compare also Skr. mahayati, mahat-, Av. mazant, Illyr. mag, Toch. mak/maka, Arm. mec, Gaul. 
Magiorix, O.Ir. mochtae, Welsh Maclgwn, Alb. madh, Kurd, mezin; Hitt. makkes. 

c. PIE root jeu-, "vital force, youthful vigor", and its suffixed zero-grade en-stem juwon, young, youngling , cf. 
Skr. yuvdn-, Lat. iuuen-is), give juwnkos, young, as Gmc. juwungaz/jungaz, (Goth, juggs, O.S., O. Fris. jung, 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

O.N. ungr, O.E. geong, M.Du. jonc, O.H.G. junc) Lat. juvencus, Umb. iveka, iuenga O.Ind. yuvasah, yuvaka-h 
and Cel. yowankos (cf. Gaul. Jovincillus, O.Ir. ac, Welsh ieuanc); juwents, juwntis, young, as Gmc. 
juwunthiz/jugunthiz (cf. Goth, junda, O.S. juguth, O.E. geogu, O.Fris. jogethe, M.Du. joghet, O.H.G. jugund), 
O.Ind. yuvant-, f. yuvati-h, into juwnta, youth, Goth, junda and juwntuts, Lat. juventus, O.Ir. oetiu, oitiu. For 
Lat. Juno, if the name of the goddess stands for "the young one", is from stem jun-, as in Lat. junix, junior , O.Ind. 
yuni, Av. yuno, hence in any case MIE Junon. 

d. PIE root aug-, increase, gives verb augeid, increase, augment, enlarge, spread, extend, cf. Lat. augere, 
Gmc. aukan (cf. Goth, aukan, O.H.G. ouhhon, O.S. okian, O.E. eacian, iecan); augtor, promoter, producer, 
father, progenitor, author, cf. Lat. auctor, Umb. uhtur; augtis, increased, high, cf. O.Ltv. aukts, Lat. auctus, Ltv. 
augt, Thrac. Au9(-, O.Pruss. audi-, aucktai-, augtis, an increasing; hence, from the bidding, auction, as Lat. 
audio; augmon, increase, growth, augment, as Lat. augmen(tum), Lith. augmuo, O.Ind. ojman-. For es-stem 
augos, "vigorousness, strength", cf. O.Ind. ojas- n., Av. aojah-, aogah-, O.Pruss. augus, also behind Lat. augur 
("divine favor, increase"-*" he who obtains favorable presage"-* "diviner"), as in enaugosaio, inaugurate; 
extended augostos, high, highness, cf. Lat. augustus (highness, "consecrated, holy; majestic, dignified"), Lith. 
dukstas, Ltv. auksts. Variant and o-grade wogseio, allow to grow, make grow, as Goth, wahsjan (cognate with 
Du. was, Ger. Wachs, Eng. wax), Gk. d(p)£^co, O.Ind. vaksayati, Av. vaxsaiti, and noun wogstus, waist, Gmc. 
wakhstus (cf. Goth, wahstus, O.N. vaxtr, Swed. vstm, O.H.G. wahst); also extended in -s causative-iterative in 
Gk. au^co, also behind augsiliom, aid, support, assistance, from Lat. auxilium 

e. Compare for MIE mens, moon, month, cf. Lat. mensis, Gk. unv, Skr. masah, Av. maonh, Pers. mah, Toch. 
man/mehe, Arm. amis, O. Pruss. menig, Lith. menuo, Ltv. meness, O.C.S. meseci, Russ. mesjac, Pol. miesiqc, 
O.Ir. mi, Welsh mis, Alb. muaj, Kurd, mang, Kamviri mos, Osset. msej. Vide supra, under me, measure. 

62. For season, year, time, PIE had different words 

A. From root jer-, as jerom, year, season, cf. O.Pers. (dusi)jaram, Gmc. jseram ("year, season" cf. Goth, jer, 
O.S., O.H.G. jar, O.N. ar, O.E. gear /ger, Dan. aar, O.Fris. ger, Dn.jaar, Ger. Jahr); jora, hour, season, from Gk. 
hcbpa ("hour, season, year" as in Mod. Eng. horoscope, hour); also, compare Lat. hornus, Av. jare, O.C.S. jaru, 
probably originally "that which goes a complete cycle", from older verbal root PIH h 2 ei, go, v.s. 

A.a. The best option for "season" in MIE would be to use jeros daitis, "year-time" , loan-translated from IE 
compounds like Ger. Jahreszeit, Fris. jiertiid, Du.jaargetijde, Swe., Da. arstid, Rom. anotimp, Lith. metu laikas, 
Russ. epeMsi zoda, Pol. pora roku, Cz. rocni obdobi, Slov. letni cas, Bret, koulz-amzer, etc., as a compound from 
gen. of jerom, followed by daitis, period of time, as Skr. diti-h, "the distributing", Gmc. tithiz "division of time" 
(cf. O.N. tid, O.S.,O.E. tid, Du. tijd, O.H.G. zit, Ger. Zeit), Arm. ti, gen. rioy "age, years, days, time" (<*di-t(i)-), 
suffixed zero-grade form of IE da-, divide, cut up; for extended dam-, tribe, family, into damos, Gk. Sfjuoc,, Dor. 
83uoc, m. "(people's division) people, area; the single region in Athens", O.Ir. dam, O.Welsh dauu; in addition 
Hitt. da-ma-a-is (damais?) "an other, foreigner, stranger", from "^foreign people" , Pedersen Hitt. 51 ff. 

A.b. Greek word for "season" is IE epsogha, Gk. ejioxi], epoch, from PIE roots epi, on, at, and sogh-, o-grade 
of segho, hold, as in Gk. £x w > Skr. sahate, Gaul. Sego-, ; other derivatives are seghds, victory (<"a holding or 
conquest in Battle"), as Gmc. sigiz- (cf. Goth, sigis, O.H.G. sigi, East Gmc. Sigi-merus, Segi-mundus etc., O.H.G. 
sigir-on; O.H.G. sigu m., O.E. sigor), Gaul. Segisu(*-6), Sego-, M.Ir. seg, Welsh hy, Illyr. Segesta; seghus, 

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Etymological Notes 

strong, into seghuros, strong, victorious, cf. Gmc. sigus (cf. O.H.G. Sigur-}, Lat. seuerus, O.Ind. sdhu-ri-, Gk. 
£)(up6c., OxupOc.; sghola, school, as Gk. a/oAri, sghemn, scheme, as Gk. oxfjua. 

A.c. Also, MIE zero-grade satios, sowing, season, multitude, crow (from seed, sperm, into generation, 
progeny) as L.Lat. sessionis (O.Fr. seison, Eng. season, Du. seizoen, Rom. sezon), from Lat. satio (<satjidn) O.Ir. 
sa(i)the (<sdtjo-), Welsh haidL, Bret, hed m., Alb. hedh; for full grade setis, seed, semen, cf. in Gmc. sethiz (cf. 
Goth. sePs, O.N. sd<5, O.S. sad, O.Fris. sed, M.Du. saet, O.H.G. sat, Ger. Saat), Welsh, Bret, had, Corn, has; from 
PIE se-, sow (v.s. Satornos), as in sejo, sow, cf. Gmc. sejan (Goth, saian, O.N. sd, O.E. sdwan, M.Du. sayen, 
O.H.G. sden), Skr. sdya-, Lith. se/u, seh', Ltv. set, seti, O.C.S. sejo, sejati, Russ. cenmb, Pol. sz'ac, Welsh /n7, O.Ir. si, 
and Hitt. sai. It gave also a common semen, seed, semen, sperm, cf. Lat. semen (Semones, "seed gods"), Umb. 
semenies, O.H.G., O.S. sdmo, O.Pruss. semen, O.C.S. semq, Rus. ceMn, Ger. Samen, even Finn, siemen. 

A.d. Other word is statis, stay, stand, position, into Lat. stationis (cf. Spa. estacion, Pt. estagdo, Cat. estacid), cf. 

O.Ind. sthiti- f., Av. sfdfz- 'stehen, Aufstellung", Gk. otouic, -scoc (from which statikos, static, Gk. otcitikoc, 
OTcniuoq), Lat. statim, statio, Osc. statif , Gmc. stathiz (cf. Goth. staPs, O.Ice. stadr, O.H.G. stat, O.E. stede, 
styde), O.C.S. postatb, stati, Inf. Lith. stoti, Ltv. sfdf, O.Pruss. sfaf; and status, position, statuo, put, place, as 
Gmc. stathuz, stathwan (cf. Goth. staPa, O.Ice. stq<3, stqdva<*staPwo(n), O.S. stath, O.H.G. stad, stado; M.L.G. 
stade), Lat. status, statuo, Umb. statita, Bret, sfeuf, Welsh ystawd, Bret, steudenn, Lith. status. Ultimately from 
PIE sta-, stand, with derivatives meaning "set down, make or be firm" and "place or thing that is standing", as in 
IE stodha, stallion, studhorse, steed, as Gmc. stodo (cf. O.N. stod, O.H.G. stuot, O.E. stod, M.H.G. stud, M.L.G. 
stod, Ger. Stute, and also O.C.S. stado, "herd", Lith. stodas, "a drove of horses"), Welsh an-sawdd "das 
Festmachen", O.Ir. sadud (*studh-i-tu-), and causative verb Gmc. stoPia, in Goth, -stodjan "begin", O.Ice. ste~6a, 
also in Lith. stadias, Lith. statine; compare for sta- Lat. sistere, sto, Umb. stahmei, Osc. staiet, Gk. ToxaoGai, 
iaxoc, otuAoc., Skt. tisthati, Av. histaiti, O.Pers. aistata, Pers. istddan, -stan (country, lit. "where one stands"), 
Phryg. eistani, Toch. stdm/stam, Arm. stanam, O.Pruss. postdt, stacle, Lith. stojus, Ltv. stat, O.C.S. cmonmu, 
cmom, stanu, staru (old, lit. "long-standing"), O.Russ. cmamu, cmany, Pol. stoje, stac, O.Ir. tdu, sessam, Welsh 
gwastad, Alb. shtuara; Hitt. ista, Luw. ista-, Lye. fa- 

A.e. Hindustani mausam (Hindi wmi, Urdu ^j*) comes from Persian ^y, in turn from Arabic ,»->., weather, 

season, time. 

B. Romance languages have words derived from PIE atnos, year (from "a period gone trough"), which gave 
Germanic and Italic words, cf. Goth. dat. pi. apnam, Lat. annus (modern Romance Fr.,Rom. an, It. anno, Pt. ano, 
Spa. ano, Cat. any), Osc.-Umb. akno-, from IE at-, go, as in Skr. atati, goes, walks, wanders, note the possible 
relation to PIE root en-, year, as Gk. £Voc, O.Ind. hdyand-. 

C. Modern Slavic languages have different words for "year, season". 

C.a Some dialects have IE o-grade ghodhos, originally fit, adequate, belonging together (v.i. for Eng. good), 
which developed into O.C.S. zod-b, time, "pleasing time", giving O.Rus. zod-b, Cro. godina, Bulg. aoduna (cf. Ukr. 
eodi, Pol. gody, Cz. hod, Bulg. eode, Srb. tor, Slov. god), also adopted in Ltv. gads (cf. 'proper' Latvian derivatives, 
gadigs, gadit), from PIE base ghedh-, unite, "be associated, suitable", also with the meaning of "good". 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

C.b. Another common Slavic word is Pol., Cz., Slovak rok, Ukr. pix (also, cf. Russ. c-pox), from O.C.S. p*Ka, arm, 
hand (cf. Russ. pyxa, Ukr., Bel. pyxa, Slov. roka, Pol. reka), also found in Lith. rankd (gen. raiikq), Ltv. riloka, 
"hand" (cf. Russ. rancko, gen. rankan, Lith. renku, rinkau, rinkti, paranka) with the year as a notion of a "cubit 
measurement of time"; the word is believed to be ultimately from a source akin to a nasal extended IE wrnka, 
from PIE wer-, turn, bend (maybe through O.Ind. vrag, "corner, angle", vrangr, "scythe"). 

C.c. Finally, compare Slovene leto, Russ.pl. nem, Pol. lata, Cz., Slovak, leto (cf. also Russ. JieTO, Pol. lato, 
"summer"), from PIE latom, warm season, Sla. leto, Gaul lat... (in Calendar of Coligny), Ir. laithe, "day". 

D. In Celtic, a common isolated root is found, MIE bhled-, cf. O.Ir. bladain, Ir. bliain, Sc. bliadhna, Welsh 
blwyddyn, Bret, bloaz, Corn, bledhen. 

E. For "year" in modern Iranian languages, compare Av. sand, O.Pers. yare, Persian d^ (sal), Kurdish sal, 
Pashto kal, Zazaki serre, all from PIE jer-, already seen. Also borrowed in Hindustani as sal (Urdu J^> , Hindi 
*tft), although some Indo-Aryan languages derive it from Skr. ^pf^ (varsham, as Marathi M, varsha, and 

Malayalam varsham), "year, summer, rain season", a word which some derive from the sound of the rain, from a 
Dra vidian source. 

F. Another PIE word with a similar meaning is wet-, year, of last year, age, (cf.), which gives derivativee 
wetos, year, age, old, as Lat. vetus, veteris or Gk. etoc., dial, wetos, Bal. wet-us-a, Sla. vefoxhfjb), ubterb, Alb. 
vjet; cf. Gmc. fir-d, "last year", (O.N. i fjord, O.H.G. i>e'rt), wetolos/m, yearling, as Lat. vitulus and Gk. exaXov; 
cf. Skr. vatsah, Osc. vezkei, O.Lith. vetusas, O.C.S. vetiicu, Russ. eeuubiu, Pol. wiotchy, O.Ir. fethim, Corn, guis, 
Alb. vjet; Hitt. witt. 

I For Summer : PIE masc. Samos, summer, gives sama, year, season; compare Gmc. sumaraz (cf. O.N.,O.S. 
sumar, O.E. sumor, O.F. sumur, M.Du. somer, O.H.G. sumar), Skr. sama, Av. hama, Toch. sme/smaye, Arm. 
amar, Kurdish havin; it is also a common Celtic word (<samo-), cf. O.Ir. samain, samuin, samfuin, Ir. Samhain, 
Sc. Samhradh, O.Welsh /iam, Welsh haf Bret, haiiv. 

La. For Lat. aestatis (cf. Fr. efe, It. estato, Cat. esfz'u, also secondary Spa. esfzo, Pt. esfz'o) a MIE Aista (< 
*aidht(o)-taL) is reconstructed, from common PIE root aidh-, burn, illuminate; cf. Lat. aedes, Gk. ai'0co, O.Ind. 
staka, inddhe (nasalized form), Av. aesma-, Lith. iesme, O.Cz. niesteje", Slov. isteje. 

Lb. Another common form is derived from Wesr, spring (vide infra), as Lat. veranum (tempus), "(time) of 
spring" (cf. Spa. verano, Pt. verao, Rom. vara), Lith., Ltv. vasara, Alb. uere. 

I.d. For the common Slavic word, PIE n. Latom, cf. Russ. nemo, Pol. lato, Cz. leto, Srb.-Cro. Ijeto. 

II. MIE has for Autumn , Fall, different Indo-European words referring to "harvest". PIE masc. Osen (Gen. 
Osnos), autumn, harvest, from older *h 3 esh 3 en, as in Balto-Slavic, giving O. Pruss. assanis, Rus. oceub, Ukr. 
ociHb, Pol. jesien, Srb.-Cro. jesen, Slovak jeseh, Lat. annona, Gk. OTicop, O.Ir. eorna (<*esornja), Arm. ashun, and 
also earn, in Gmc. aznojanan (cf. Goth, asans, O.N. onn, O.E. earnian, esne, O.H.G. aran, Ger. Ernte). 

II. a. Kerpistos, harvest, Gmc. *kharbistas (cf. Goth, fvairban, O.N. hverfa, O.S. hervist, O.E. hserfest, O.H.G. 
hwerban, Du. herfst, Ger. Herbst), from PIE kerp-, pluck, gather, harvest, cf. Lat. carpere, Gk. xapnoq, Skr. 
krpana-, Toch. karp/karp, Lith. kerpu, O.Ir. carr, M.Ir. cerbaim, Welsh par. 

Il.b. Autumnos (Lat. Autumnus, of Etruscan origin), is the common word in Romance languages and English. 

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Etymological Notes 

II. c. In Baltic 'autumn' is found as Ltv. rudens, Lith. ruduo, originally "red season", derived from PIE reudhos, 
red, ruddy. Compare Gmc. rauthaz (cf. Goth, raups, O.N. raudr, O.E. read, Dan. red, O.Fris. rad, M.Du. root, 
O.H.G. rot), Lat. ruber, (Lat.dial. rufus), Osc. rufriis, Umb. rufru, Gk. epuGpoc.; Skr. rudhira-, Av. raoidita-, Toch. 
rtdr/ratre, O.C.S. rudru, Rus. pdemb, pyMnnbiu, Pol. rumiany; Lith. raudas, Ltv. ruds, Gaul. Roudos, O.Ir. ruad, 
Welsh rhudd, Bret. ruz. 

III. For MIE Winter : There is a common PIE masc. Ghjems (gen. ghjmos), winter; compare O.N. goi, Lat. 
hiems, Gk. /ef/ia (Mod. Gk. ^eufcovac), Skr. heman, Av. zimo, Pers. lP ^>^j (zemestdn), dai, Toch. 
sdrme/simpriye, Arm. dzmer, Old Prussian semo, Lith. ziema, Ltv. ziema, OCS zima, Russ. 3UMa, Polish zima, 
Gaul. Giamillus, Ir. gaimred, Sc. Geamhradh, Welsh gaeaf, geimhreadh, Bret, goaiiv, Alb. dimer / dimen, Kurdish 
zivistan, zistan, Kamviri ze; Hittite gimma-. From the same root, compare ghjemrinaio, hibernate, from Lat. 
hiberndre, from which also (tempos) ghjemrinom, Lat. (tempus) hibernum, "time of winter" (cf. Fr. hiver, 
Ita.,Pt. inverno, Spa. invierno, Rom. iarnd), or ghjemria, chimera, from Gk. xiucupa. 

III. a. In Germanic, however, the word comes from Gmc. wentruz (cf. Goth, wintrus, O.N. uefr, O.E., O.Fris., Du. 
winter, O.S., O.H.G. wintar, Ger. winter, Dan., Swed. vinter), thus IE Wendrus, "watery season", from PIE root 
ived-/ivod-/ud-, wet, water. Compare for IE general wodr and zero-grade udr- (or nasalized wondr/undr), 
Gmc. watar, (cf. Goth, wato, O.N. ixzfn, O.E. weeter, O.H.G. wazzar, O.Fris. wetir, Du. water), Lat. unda, Umb. 
utur, Gk. u8cop, Skr. udan, Toch. war/war, Phryg. beau, Thrac. udrenas, Arm. get, O. Pruss. wundan, Lith. 
vanduo, Ltv. udens, O.C.S., O.Russ. eoda, Pol. woda, O.Ir. uisce, Welsh gwer, Alb. u/e, Kashmiri odur; also, Hitt. 
watar, and Ancient Macedonian beau. And for alternate form udros, water, "water-creature" , otter, cf. Gmc. 
ufraz (cf. O.N. ofr, O.E. ofer, O.H.G. ottar, Swed. utter, Dan. odder, Du. otter,), Lat. lutra, Gk. u8poc„ Skr. udra, 
Av. udra, Lith. udra, O.C.S. vydra, Russ. vydra, O.Ir. uydr, odoirne Ir. odar, Osset. wyrd; also, derivative 
uderos, wenderos, be/Zy, compare Ger. wanast, Lat. uterus, uenter, Skr. udara, Av. udaras, Lith. vedaras, Ltv. 
veders. As with IE "/z're" (pawr-egnis), Indo-European had two different roots for "water", one inanimate, 
referring to an inanimate substance, and the other, apos, water (animate), referring to water as a living force (cf. 
Sk. apah), which comes probably from an older IE II root *h 2 p-, giving PIE piskos, fish, older *h 2 p-isko-, cf. Gmc. 
fiskaz (cf. Goth, fisks, O.N. fiskr, O.E. /z'sc, O.H.G. /z'sc, Du. vis, Ger. Fisch), Lat. piscis, Russ. peskar', Polish 
piskorz, O.Ir. asc, Welsh pysgodyn. 

IV. For Modern Indo-European Spring : The common PIE word was Wesr; compare O.N. var, Swe. udr, Lat. 
ver, from which L.Lat. prima vera (cf. Spa.,Pt.,It. primavera, Rom. primdvara), Gk. eap, Skt. vasantah, Pers. v> 
(bdhar), Kur. bihar, Lith. vasara, Lith., Ltv. pavasaris, O.C.S. vesna, Russ. eecna, Pol. wiosna, Gael. Earrach, 
and even Turkish ilkbahar, bahar, a borrowing from Iranian. 

IV.a. The spring is usually considered the first season, hence the common resource of taking words for /ore' or 
'early' followed by 'year', as MIE Projerom; cf. Dan. forar, Du. voorjaar, Ger. Fruhjahr, Bui. nponem, Srb.-Cro. 
proljece, Slovene pomlad, Alb. pranvere, originally lit. "fore-year"; also, Ger. Friihling, from M.H.G. vrueje, or 
Cz.jaro, Slovak Jar, from jerom. Also, in French, the older primevere was substituted in the 16 th c. for printemps, 
O.Fr. prin tans, tamps prim, from Lat. tempus primum, lit. "first time, first season", which also influenced 
Mid.Eng. prime-temps; cf. also Faer. maitiid. For "fore" in compounds, there is IE pra, before, as Gmc. fura (cf. 
Goth, faiura, O.N. /iyrr, O.E. fore, O.Fris. fara, O.H.G. fora, Ger. vor-), Gk. Tiapog, Skr. pura, Av. paro, Hittite 

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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

para-, as well as IE pro, before, in front of, as Gmc. fra- (cf. Goth, fram, O.N. fra, O.E.fram, Scots fro, Ger. vor- 
), Ita. pro-, Gk. npo-, Ind. pra-, Slav, pra-, Celt, ro-; although Eng. "fore'''' itself comes from PIE per-, base of 
prepositions with meanings like forwa rd, through, and other extended senses. 

IV.b. Another common Germanic term is Dlnghodeinos, as Gmc. langa-tinaz, lit. "long-day", (cf. O.S. lentin, 
O.E. lencten, M.Du. lenten, O.H.G. lenzo, Eng. Lent, Du. lente, Ger. Lenz), from dlnghos, long, as Gmc. lanngaz 
(cf. Goth, laggs, O.N. langr, O.E., O.H.G. fang, M.Du. lane), Lat. longus, Gk. 5oArxoc„ Skr. dirgha, Av. darega, 
O.Pers. darga, Pers. deraz, O.Pruss. %i, Lith. z'Zgas, Ltv. z'Zgs, OCS dliigu, Russ. dolgij, Pol. dlugi, Gaul. 
Loggostaletes, O.Ir. Zon(7, Welsh daZa, Alb. gjate, Kashmiri dur, Hitt. dalugaes; and IE deinos, a root meaning 
"day", vide supra. The compound probably refers to the increasing daylight in Spring. 

63. Indo-European Djeus, sky-god, sky, and Deiwos, god, (the later formed by e-insertion of zero-grade diiv-), 
means originally shine, usually sky, heaven, hence sky god; cf. Gmc. Tiwaz (O.N. Tyr, Eng. Tiu, also in Tuesday), 
Lat. deus, lovis, as in Iuppiter (from older o-grade of Djeus pater, "o father love" cf. O.Ind. devah pitar, Gk. 
Zeus pater), Gk. Zevq, gen. Aioc., Skr. devah (as in DevanagarT), O.Pers. daeva-(as in Asmodeus), O.C.S. deivai, 
Lith. devas. From zero-grade djous is extended djowis, Lat. Iouis, "Jupiter", as adjective djowilios, "descended 
from Jupiter", Lat. Iulius (name of a Roman gens), into Djowilios, July. The form deiwos, as Gmc. tiwaz, Lat. 
deus, gives deiwismos, deism, deiwita, deity, deiwidhakos, deific, addeiivos, bye ("I commend you to God", 
cf. Fr., Eng., Ger. adieu, It. addio, Spa. adios, Pt. adeus, Cat. adeu, Nor. ad/0, Swe. acZ/o, Gk. avr/o, Slo. adijo, Lux. 
adiiz, Papiamento ayo, etc.), deiwinos, divine; deiwes, rich ("fortunate, blessed, divine"), as Lat. diues; diwios, 
heavenly, as in Diwiana, Diana, as Lat. Diana, moon goddess; also djeus with the meaning of day, cf. Lat. dies, 
O.Ir. die, W.Gmc. zio, Arm. tiw, as in edjeu, today, cf. O.Ind. adya, adyd, Lat. hodie, O.Ir. indiu, Welsh heddyw, 
Hitt. anisiwat, or medhidjdus, midday, noon, which gives medhidjoivonos, "of or at midday", also meridian, 
and adjective, medhidjoivonos, "of or relating to a meridian, meridional" from Lat. meridianus, 
qotidjowonos, quotidian modern derivatives include djewalis, daily, dial, djewasios, diary, djeta, daily 
routine, diet, national or local legislative assembly (alteration influenced by dje from diaita, way of living, diet, 
from Gk. 8iavra into Lat. diaeta), djousnos, diurnal, "of the day", daily, as in djousnalis, diurnal, daily, hence 
as noun "breviary , journal" (as Fr. journal), and also "salary" (as Prov. jornal), djousnom, day, djousnata, 
day, day's travel, journey , midday; doilos, clear, evident, apparent, manifest, obvious, as O.E. -tol, M.Ir. doel, 
Lith. dailus, and e-grade Horn. dieXoc, (*8eieXoc.), Alb. diel, as in psughodoilikos, psychedelic, an English loan 
word using Greek loan words. Also, with the sense of shining, clear, day, compare Goth, sinteins, Lat. nundinum, 
nundinae, O.Ind. dinam, Welsh diw, Bret, deiz, Arm. tiw, Prus. deinan, Lith., Latv. diena, O.C.S. dbHb, Pol. dzien, 
Ukr., Rus. denb, etc. 

The origin of Germanic word for "God" is probably Gmc. guthan (cf. Goth, gup, O.E. god, O.N. gud, Du. god, 
Ger. Gott), from zero-grade ghutom, God, "the Invoked", cf. Skr. huta-, invoked, called, an epithet of Indra, Av. 
zuta-, from PIE ghawo, call, invoke, compare u-stem ghutus, into O.Ir. guth m. "voice" in addition Gaul. 
gutuater a class of priests, probably from ghutupater "father (i.e. Master) of Invocations (a god)"; although 
some trace it to ghutom "poured, libated", from PIE root gheu-, pour, pour a libation, compare Alb. zot, "god", 
O.Ind. hotra, M.Pers. zot, Av. zaodra, all of which apparently from PIE gheutrom; p. part, ghutos, poured in 
fire, sacrified,; as Gmc. giutan (cf. Goth, giutan, ON gjta, O.E. guttas, O.H.G. giozan, Ger. giessen, Eng. gut), Lat. 

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Etymological Notes 

futis, Gk. x siv > Skr. juhoti, Av. zaotar, Pers. zor, Toch. ku, Phryg. Zeuman, Arm. dzulel. Originally neutral in Gmc, 
the gender of "God" shifted to masculine after the coming of Christianity. Following Watkins, "(..Jgiven the Greek 
facts, the Germanic form may have referred in the first instance to the spirit immanent in a burial mound", 
therefore O.E. god was probably closer in sense to Lat. numen, a Latin term for the power of either a deity or a 
spirit that informs places and objects. Abetter word to translate Deus might have been /Esir, Gmc. ansuz (cf. O.N. 
As, O.E. 6s), a name for the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse mythology, but it was never used to refer to 
the Christian God. It survives in English mainly in the personal names beginning in Os- (cf. Oswin, Oswald, 
Osborn, etc.). The Germanic noun is believed to be derived from PIE ansus, breath, god, related to Skr. asura 
and Av. ahura, with the same meaning; though in Sanskrit asura came to mean "demon", v.i. for more on 
meaning shift for substituted deities in IE languages. Ansus is in turn related to ana-, breathe, v.s. 

64.Probhastor comes from Lat. professor, agent noun from profitieri, from Lat. pro-, "forth", and p. part. 
bhastos (<*bhat-tos), "acknowledge, admit, confess", as Lat. fateri (pp. fassus), zero-grade from PIE roots 
bha-, speak, and pro-, already seen. 

65.MIE Kelomnelis, Colonel, comes from It. colonnella, "commander of a column of soldiers at the head of a 
regiment" , from compagna colonella, "little column company" from IE kelomna, Lat. columna, "projecting 
object, pillar, column", compare from o-grade kolnos, M.Ir. coll "head, guide, leader", Lith. kdlnas, Ltv. kafiis 
"mountain" , also in kolnbhdm, summit, end, colophon, from Gk. KoAocpcov; all from PIE kel-, be prominent, 
also hill, from which kelomn, top, summit, as Lat. columen, newer culmen. Other derivatives from the same root 
are zero-grade klnis, hill, as Gmc. khulniz (cf. O.N. hallr, O.E. hyll, M.Du. hill, L.Ger. hull), Lat. collis, Slav, cblwb 
(cf. Ser.-Cr. curt, Cz. clun, Russ. co+n), and klmos. islet in a bay, meadow, as Gmc. khulmaz (cf. O.N. holmr, O.E. 
holm), Gallo-Roman calma, probably Pre-Celt.; extended form Lat. excellere (<ekskeldd) raise up, elevate, also 
"be eminent, excel". 

66. Indo-European reg- meant originally probably straight line, hence "move or direct in a straight line", rule, 
guide, lead. Compare common derivatives like verb rego direct, rule, lead straight, put right, as Lat. regere, Gk. 
opeyeiv, Av. razeyeiti; regtos, right, straight, upright, righteous, wise, true, as Gmc. rekhtaz (cf. Goth, raihts, 
O.N. rettr, O.E. riht, O.H.G., O.Swed. reht, Ger. recht, Eng. right, straight), Lat. rectus, Gk. opeKTOc,, O.Pers. 
rahst-, arsta-, Pers. rahst, Lith. teisus, O.Ir. recht, Welsh rhaith, Breton reiz; regmen, cf. O.Ind. rasman-, Gk. 
opzyua, Lat. regimen; regs, ruler, leader, king, as Lat. rex, Skr. raja, O.Ir. ri, Goth, reik; adj. regios, royal, 
O.Ind. rajya-, Lat. regius, from Celtic (cf. Gaul, -rix, O.Ir. ri, gen. rig, Gael, righ) into Gmc. rxkjaz, "rich, 
wealthy", (cf. Goth, reiks, O.N. rikr, O.E. rice, O.H.G. rihhi, O.Fris. rike, Du. rijk, Ger. Reich, Eng. rich), noun 
regiom, kingdom, domain, cf. O.Ind. rajya-, rajya-, M.Ir. rige, Goth, reiki; modern terms include regalis, 
royal, kingly, regal; regola, straight piece of wood, rod, hence "rule" , and as verb "regulate" , from Lat. regula 
and L.Lat. regulare; o-grade roga, ask (<"stretch out the hand"), from Lat. rogare; and lengthened rogio, from 
Gmc. rokjan - rakjan (cf. O.N. rsekja, O.E. reccan, O.H.G. giruochan, Ger. geruhen, Eng. reck). Derivatives 
include regtor, ruler, rector, director, cf. Lat. rector, Skr. f. rastri, n. rastrd-, Av. rastar-, etc. 

67 . North : from PIE root ner- below, under, also on the left, hence, "with an eastward orientation", north, as 
north is to the left when one faces the rising sun, giving Nrtos as Gmc. nurthaz (O.N. nordr, O.E. nord), 
borrowed into most European languages; cf. also Skt. narakah, Gk. enerthen, Osc.-Umb. nertrak. 

377 



A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

Originally PIE had (s)kew(e)ros, cold wind, north wind, north, cf. W.Gmc. skuraz (cf. Goth, skura, O.N. skur, 
O.S., O.H.G., O.E. scur, Ger. Schauer, Eng. shower), Lat. caurus, Arm. c'urt/c'urd, Lith. siaurus, siaurys, siaure, 
O.C.S. severu, Russ. sever. 

I. Other IE derivatives for "left" are: 

Li. Indo-European laiwos, left, as Gmc. laewaz (cf. ON leen, O.E. leew. O.H.G. lewes), Lat. laevus, Gk. laios, 
Illyr. Leuo, Lith. islaivoti, O.C.S. levii, Russ. Zeuyj, Polish lewy. English "left" is maybe also derived from the same 
root, through an extended laiivt-, although probably from a source meaning "weak"; cf. O.E. lyft, E.Fris. luf Du. 
dial, loof M.Du., Low Ger. luchter, luft. 

Common Germanic vocabulary include Ger. link, Du. linker, from O.H.G. slinc, M.Du. slink, related to O.E. 
slincan "crawl", Swe. linka "limp", slinka "dangle". 

1.2. PIE soujos, left, was the source for Skr. savya, Av. haoya, Toch. -/saiwai, OCS suji, Russ. suj, Welsh aswy. 

1.3. A reconstructed IE sen- is in the origin of Romance senesteros, left, on the left side, as Lat. sinister 
(opposite of dexter), meaning prop, "the slower or weaker hand" [Tucker], but Buck suggests it's a euphemism, 
connected with the root of Skt. saniyan "more useful, more advantageous". 

Spa. izquierda, Gl.-Pt. esquerda, Cat. esquerra are late borrowings from Basque ezkerra. 

II. Indo-European derivatives for " right ": 

11. 1. The opposite of ner- in PIE was probably deks-, right, hence Deksina/Deksios south (facing east), giving 
Goth, taihswa, O.H.G. zeso, Lat. dexter, Oscan destrst, Umb. destrame, Gk. Se^iog, Skr. daksina, Av. dasina, 
Kashmiri dachun, Toch. tak/, Lith. desine, OCS desnaya; desnu, Russ. decHuua, Gaul. Dexsiva, O.Ir. dech, Welsh 
deheu, Alb. djathte. Common derivatives from Latin are dekstros, right, on the right side, hence skilful, dexter, 
as, as in deksterita, dexterity, or ambhidekstros, ambidextrous. 

11. 2. The usual derivative for right (in both senses, direction and "straight, just") in modern Romance and 
Germanic languages is still made from oldest regtos (cf. Eng. right, Ger., Du. recht, Da., Nor. rett, Swe. ratt, Spa. 
recto, Pt. reto), ultimately from PIE reg-, although a usual Romance derivative comes from prefixed Lat. directus 
(cf. Fr. droit, Spa. derecho, It. diritto, Pt. direito, Rom. drept, Cat. dret), and a usual Germanic one is suffixed as 
Gmc. rektikhaz (cf. Ger. richtig, Da. rigtig, Nor., Swe. riktig); also found in both, Lat. and borrowed in Gmc. is adj. 
komregtos, correct (as Ger., Da. korrekt, Fr.,Du. correct, Spa. correcto, Pt. corretto). 

11. 3. Another usual word in Slavic languages comes from PIE verbal root bheu- (PIH bheuh 2 -), be, exist, grow, 
(see more on bheu-), as zero-grade reduced suffixal form -bhiv-, as in probhwos, "growing well or 
straightforward" , hence right, upright, correct, as Slavic provos (cf. O.Russ., O.C.S. npae?,, Pol. prawy, Cz.,Slk. 
pravy, Sr.-Cr.,Slo. prav), Lat. probus, O.Ind. prabhus. 

68. South : related to base of Gmc. sunnon, from suntn, sun, (swen-/sun- are alternate nasalized roots for PIE 
sawel) with the sense of "the region of the sun", Ger. Siid, Siiden are from a Du. pronunciation. O.Fr. sur, sud (Fr. 
sud), Sp. sur, sud- are loan words from Gmc, perhaps from O.N. sudr. Compare Gmc. sawel/ sunnon (Goth, sauil, 
sunno, O.N. sol, sunna, O.Eng. sigel, sunne, O.H.G. sunna) Lat. sdl, Gk. rjhog, Skr. suras, Av. hvard, Pers. - 
farnah-, Kamviri su, Toch. swahce/swanco, Alb. (h)yll, O. Pruss. saule, Lith. saule, O.C.S. slunice, O.Russ. 
CK/iHbije, Pol. slonce, Welsh haul, O.Ir. suil. 



Indo-European Language Association <http://dnghu.org/> 



Etymological Notes 

69. The East is the direction in which the Sun breaks, from PIE aus-, dawn; cf. Gmc. austo / austraz (O.N. austr, 
O.E. east, O.H.G. ostra, Du. oost, Ger. Osten), Lat. aurora, auster, Gk. avpiov (aurion), ncog (eos), Skr. usas, Av. 
usastara, Lith. ausra, Ltv. ausma, Russ. yTpo, O.Ir. usah,fair, Welsh givawr. For Modern Indo-European we will 
use generally Austos as Gmc. East, and Austros as Gmc. Eastern (austraz) and for Lat. auster; as, 
Austroregiom, Austria (cf. Gmc. austro+rikjan, Ger. Oesterreich), Australia (from Lat. Terra Australis, MIE 
Austra(lis) Tersa, Southern Land), etc. 

70. West: Pie root wes- is root for words meaning evening, west, as west(e)ros, west, Gmc. westraz (cf. O.N. 
vestr, Du. u;esf, Ger. West), wespros, evening, Gk. eonepoq ( h esperos), Lat. vesper, weskeros O.C.S. veceru, 
Lith. vakaras, Welsh ucher, O.Ir. fescor, perhaps an enlarged form of PIE base we-, to go down (cf. Skt. avah), 
and thus lit. "direction in which the sun sets". 



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71. Lat. platea: courtyard, open space, broad street, comes from Gk. plateia (hodos), broad (way), fem. of 
pltus, broad, Gk. ttXcltvc, from PIE stem plat-, spread out, broad, flat. Cf. Gmc. flataz; Lat. planta; Skt. prathati, 
Gk. pelanos, Hitt. palhi; Lith. platus, plonas; O.Ir. lethan. Related to plak-, to be flat; cf. Gmc. flakaz (Eng. flake), 
Lat. placare, Gk. plax. Both extended forms of PIE base pla- (from pel-), flat, spread; cf. Gmc. felthuz (Eng. 
field), Lat. planus, Gk. plassein, Sla. polje, etc. 

IE plat is an extension of PIE root pel-, flat , and spread. Compare peltus, flat land, field, as Gmc. felthuz (cf . 
O.Fris. feld, O.E. feld, M.H.G. velt, Ger. Feld, Eng. field, even Finnish pelto, "field', from Proto-Germanic), 
plarus, floor, ground, as Gmc. fldruz (cf. O.N., O.E.flor, M.H.G. vluor, M.Du. vloer, Ger. Flur, Eng. floor) or 
Welsh llawr, pianos, flat, level, even, plain, clear, from Lat. planus; plma, palm, as Lat. palma; planeta, 
"wandering" , planet, as Gk. JiXavnxng, from plana, wander (<"spread out"), from Gk. JiXavaoBai; also zero- 
grade pladhio, mold, "spread out", as Gk. JiXaooeiv (plassein), hence plastikos (<*pladhtiko-), pladhma, - 
pladhia, plastos(<*pZadftfo-), etc. In Slavic there are o-grade polls, open, and pola, broad flat land, field. 

The old territory of the tribe of Polans (Polanie), MIE Polanos, had a name which became that of the Polish 
state in the 10 th century. MIE Poliska, Pol. Polska (Eng. Poland, "land of the Poles"), expressed both meanings, 
and comes from IE adjectival suffix -isko-, as in poliskos, polish, Poliskos, Pole, f. Poliska dnghus or n. 
Poliskom, polish language. The name of the tribe comes from a PIE source akin to Polish pole, "field, open 
field"), from IE pola. 

72. PIE wer, speak, is the source of zero-grade wrdhom, word, as Gmc. wurdan (cf. Goth, waurd, O.N. ord, 
O.S., O.E., O.Fris. word, Du. woord, O.H.G. wort), full-grade werdhom, verb, from Lat. verbum (originally 
"word"), as in adwerdhiom, adverb, and prowerdhiom, proverb, praiwerdhiom, preverb; werio, say, 
speak, as Gk. eipsiv, from which werioneia, irony, as Gk. sipcoveia; wretor, public speaker, rhetor, as Gk. 
pnxwp, from which wretorika, rhetoric, as Gk. pnxopiKri, or wremn, word, rheme, as Gk. pnua; compare also, 



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A GRAMMAR OF MODERN INDO-EUROPEAN 

with the sense of speak, command, agree, call, summon, lie, etc., Umb. uerfalem, Skr. vrata-, Av. urvata, Old 
Prussian wirds, Lith. vardas, Ltv. vards, OCS vraci, Russ. epamb, O.lr.fordat, Hitt. ueriga. 

73. Indo-European ekwos, ekwa, and krsos, have also another synonym in Celtic and Germanic - maybe a 
borrowing from Gaulish -, markia, mare, as Gaul, markan, O.Ir. marc, Welsh march, Bret, marh, and Gmc. 
markhjon, cf. O.N. marr, O.E. mearh, also fem. O.S. meriha, O.N. merr, O.E. mere/myre, O.Fris. merrie, O.H.G. 
marah, Eng. mare, Ger. Mahre. 

74. PIE root bak, used for "staff, is the source for bakolom, rod, walking stick, as Lat. baculum, and 
diminutive bakillom, staff, bacillum, and possibly nbakillos, imbecile, weak, feeble. Also, for baktrom, rod, 
from Gk. PaKTpov, and its diminutive bakteriom, bacterium, little rod, for Gk. Pcucrnpiov. French loan words 
debacle (MIE debakola) and baguette (from It. bacchetta, from bacchio, in turn from Lat. baculum) are also 
modern derivatives. Compare also Lith. baksteleti, Ltv. bakstit, O.Ir. bacc, Welsh bach. 

75. For Indo-European bhel, light, bright, also gleam, compare Gmc. blaik- (cf. Goth, bala, O.N. bal, bldr, 
bleikr, O.E. blascern, blsecan, blsewen, O.H.G. blecken, bleich, blao), Lat. flag rare; flavus, Oscan Flagiui; Flaviies, 
Gk. (pXeysiv; (paXoc, Skr. bharga; bhalam, Phryg. falos, Toch. palk/palk, Illyr. balta, Thrac. balios, Arm. bal, 
O.Pruss. ballo, Lith. blagnytis, baltas, Ltv. foaZfs, Russ. fceZy/, Polish bialy, Gaul. Belenos, Ir. beltene, bldr, Welsh 
foaZ, blawr, Alb. foaZZe. Thus e.g. Modern Indo-European Bhaltikos, Baltic, Bhelarus, Belarus, "White 
Ruthenia", and possibly Bbelgia Bhelgika, from the Celtic tribe of the Bhelgas, Belgae for the Romans. 

76. IE teuta means originally people, tribe; as Gmc. theudo (cf. Goth, piuda, O.N. pjod, O.E. peod, O.H.G. 
diutisc, M.Du. duitsch, Eng. Dutch, Ger. Deutsch, Ice. Pyska , L.Lat. theodice, It. tedesco), Osc. touto, Umb. totam, 
Illyr. teuta, O.Prus. tauto, Lith. tauta, Ltv. tauta, Gaul, teuto, O.Ir. tcztft; Hitt. fuzzz. Lye. fufa. Today the Germanic 
adjective equivalent to MIE Teutiskos is mainly used to describe Germans (also in a wider sense of German- 
speaking people) and Germany (cf. Dan., Nor, Swe. tysk, Du. Duits, Ice. Pyskur, Lat. theodisco, It. tedesco, Rum. 
tudestg, even Chinese <iw, Japanese doitsu, Korean dogeo, or Vietnamese Diic), hence Teutiskom, German 
language, Teutiskolendhom, Germany, from O.H.G. Diutisklant, Ger. Deutschland. 

Finnish and Estonian derivatives are from loan word saksa, MIE Sakson, from L.Lat. Saxo, Saxones, in turn 
from West Germanic tribal name Saxon, traditionally regarded as from soksom, Germanic sakhsam, "knife", (cf. 
O.E. Seaxe, O.H.G. Sahsun, Ger. Sachse), therefore 'Saxon' could have meant lit. "warrior with knifes", 
"swordsmen", related to soka, cutting tool, saw, as Gmc. sagd (cf. O.E. seax, secg, O.N. sog, Norw. sag, Dan. sav, 
M.Du. saghe, Du. zaag, O.H.G. saga, Ger. Sage), from PIE root sek, cut. Athematic seka, as Lat. secare, gives 
common derivatives like sektion, section, sekmentom, segment, ensektom, insect, sektor, sector, disseka, 
dissect, etc. Other derivatives include skend, peel of, flay, and skends, skin, as Gmc. skinths (cf. O.N. skinn, 
O.H.G. scinten, Ger. schinden, Flem. schinde); saksom, stone (maybe from "broken-off piece"), from Lat. saxum; 
sekita, sickle, scythe, as Gmc. segitho (cf. O.S. segasna, O.E. sigdi, M.L.G. segede, M.Du. sichte, O.H.G. segensa, 
Ger. Sense). Compare also Lat. sacena, Slavic sekg, sekti (cf. O.C.S. ctKx, cfeniTH, O.Rus. cixy, ctuu, Pol. siec, 
siece, Srb.-Cro. sijecem, sijehi), O.Lith. \sekti, issekt, O.Ir. doescim, Ir. esgid, Bret, scant, Alb. shat. 

77. Adjective entergntis comes